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The Impact of Computer Technology

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Privacy and Personal Information The Impact of Computer Technology Computers are not needed for the invasion of privacy. Computers simply make new threats possible ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Impact of Computer Technology


1
The Impact of Computer Technology
Privacy and Personal Information
  • Computers are not needed for the invasion of
    privacy.
  • Computers simply make new threats possible and
    old threats more potent.
  • Privacy can mean
  • Freedom from intrusion.
  • Control of information about oneself.
  • Freedom from surveillance.

2
The Impact of Computer Technology
  • Invisible Information Gathering
  • Examples
  • Satellite surveillance.
  • Caller ID.
  • 800- or 900-number calls.
  • Web-tracking data cookies.
  • Peer-to-peer monitoring.
  • Others

Q Recall an example of invisible information
gathering about you.
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Talking caller-id - 32.95
10
0-800-1-558000
  • Suara Konsumen - ????
  • Sabun
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  • Susu
  • Ticket
  • Human Body ???
  • .

11
Cookies ?
12
cookie theft
  • cookie sniffing
  • cross-site scripting
  • cookie poisoning

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The Impact of Computer Technology
  • Profiling
  • Using data in computer files to predict likely
    behaviors of people. Some examples
  • Businesses engage in profiling to determine
    consumer propensity (kecenderungan) toward a
    product or service.
  • Government agencies use profiling to create
    descriptions of possible terrorists.

Q How might profiling be used with your personal
information?
15
The Impact of Computer Technology
  • Monitoring and Tracking
  • Examples
  • GPS (global positioning system).
  • Cell-phones.
  • Blackboxes in automobiles.
  • Other wireless appliances.

16
More Examples
  • Traffic Monitor Camera can be used to check
    vehicles, persons
  • Face recognition for unwelcome people

17
Consumer Information
  • Consumer Databases
  • Gathering Information
  • Warranty cards.
  • Purchasing records.
  • Membership lists.
  • Web activity.
  • Change-of-address forms.
  • Much more

Q Recall ways in which you have contributed to
consumer databases.
18
Consumer Information
  • Consumer Databases (contd)
  • Limiting Collection, Use, Sharing, and Sale of
    Personal Data
  • Consumers can take measures to restrict the use
    of their personal information.
  • Some information sharing is prohibited by law.
  • Some information sharing is prohibited by
    published, privacy policies.

19
Consumer Information
  • Marketing Using Consumer Information
  • Trading/buying customer lists.
  • Telemarketing.
  • Data Mining.
  • Mass-marketing.
  • Web ads.
  • Spam (unsolicited e-mail).

20
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More Privacy Risks
  • Social Security Numbers (SSNs)
  • Appear in
  • Employer records.
  • Government databases.
  • School records.
  • Credit reports.
  • Consumer applications.
  • Many other databases.

Q What are the risks of using SSNs as
identifiers?
23
More Privacy Risks
  • National ID Card System
  • If implemented, the card could contain your
  • Name.
  • Address.
  • Telephone number(s).
  • Photo.
  • SSN.

Q What other personal information should a
national ID card contain?
24
More Privacy Risks
  • National ID Card System
  • If implemented, the system could allow access to
    your
  • Medical information.
  • Tax records.
  • Citizenship.
  • Credit history.
  • Much more

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More Privacy Risks
  • Personal Health and Medical Information
  • Data can include
  • History of substance abuse.
  • Treatment for sexually transmitted disease.
  • Extent of psychiatric help received.
  • Any suicide attempt(s).
  • Diagnosis of diseases (diabetes, angina, cancer,
    etc.).
  • Use of prescribed medicines.
  • Much more

28
More Privacy Risks
  • Public Records
  • Available in paper form and/or online
  • Bankruptcy.
  • Arrest.
  • Marriage-license application.
  • Divorce proceedings.
  • Property ownership.
  • Salary (if employed by state or federal
    government).
  • Wills and Trusts.
  • Much more

Q How should access to public records be
controlled?
29
Protecting Privacy Education, Technology, and
Markets
  • Education
  • Must include awareness of
  • How the technology works.
  • How the technology is being used.
  • The risks brought on by the technology.
  • How to limit unwanted use of personal
    information.
  • Applicable state and federal laws and regulations.

Q How do you limit unwanted use of your personal
information?
30
Protecting Privacy Education, Technology, and
Markets
  • Technology
  • Enhance privacy using
  • Cookie disablers.
  • Opt-in/opt-out options.
  • Anonymous Web services.
  • P3P (Platform for Privacy Preferences).
  • Good passwords.
  • Audit trails.

Q What privacy-enhancing technology do you use
regularly?
31
Protecting Privacy Education, Technology, and
Markets
  • Market Response
  • Markets can protect your privacy by
  • Using trusted third parties.
  • Adhering to established privacy policies.
  • Purchasing consumer information directly from the
    consumer.
  • Developing and selling privacy-enhancing
    technologies and services.

Q Have you read the privacy policies at Web
sites you frequent?
32
Protecting Privacy Law and Regulation
  • Philosophical Views
  • Samuel Warren Louis Brandeis
  • Individuals have the right to prohibit
    publication of personal facts and photos.
  • Judith Jarvis Thompson
  • No distinct right to privacy.
  • Privacy rights result from rights to our
    property, body, and contracts.
  • Transactions
  • Transactions have two parties, often with
    conflicting preferences about privacy.

33
Protecting Privacy Law and Regulation
  • Contrasting Views
  • Free-market View
  • The parties of a transaction are viewed as equal.
  • Truth in information gathering.
  • Strong reliance on contracts.
  • Freedom of speech and commerce.
  • Consumer-Protection View
  • The parties of a transaction are viewed
    differently.
  • More stringent consent requirements required by
    law.
  • Strong limitations on secondary uses of
    information required by law.
  • Legal restrictions on consumer profiling.

Q How should the privacy of consumer
transactions be regulated?
34
Protecting Privacy Law and Regulation
  • Contracts and Regulations
  • Basic Legal Framework
  • Enforce agreements and contracts.
  • Publish privacy policies.
  • Set defaults for situations not in contract.
  • Requiring Specific Consent policies
  • Adhere to informed consumer consent.
  • Use opt-in policies.
  • Legal Regulations
  • Determine effectiveness, direct and hidden costs,
    and any loss of services or inconvenience.

Q Recall a situation where you exchanged
personal information for some benefit.
35
Protecting Privacy Law and Regulation
  • Contracts and Regulations (contd)
  • Ownership of personal data. Can an individual
    own
  • Facts (e.g. marriage license in public records)?
  • Personal information (e.g. your date of birth)?
  • Freedom of speech
  • Prohibiting communication of information may
    violate the ??? Amendment.

Q When does protecting privacy conflict with
freedom of speech?
36
Protecting Privacy Law and Regulation
  • EU (European Union) Privacy Regulation
  • Key points
  • Limited collection of personal data.
  • Data must be up-to-date and destroyed when no
    longer needed.
  • Consent for sharing data is required.
  • Sensitive data (e.g. religion) can only be
    provided with consent.
  • Notify consumers about the collection and
    intended purpose of data.
  • Restricted access and sharing of criminal
    convictions.

Q Can the EUs privacy regulations work in the
US? Indonesia ?
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