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Twentieth-Century Developments

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Twentieth-Century Developments Extremes in violence and progress 1st half of century World Wars I & II Dictatorships Global Depression 2nd half of century – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Twentieth-Century Developments


1
Twentieth-Century Developments
  • Extremes in violence and progress
  • 1st half of century
  • World Wars I II
  • Dictatorships
  • Global Depression
  • 2nd half of century
  • Breakup of colonial empires
  • Cold War between USA and Soviet Union (USSR)
  • Armed conflicts
  • Rapid economic growth
  • Equal rights movements

2
Twentieth-Century Developments
  • Technology and science
  • First flight / Walk on the moon
  • Communications
  • Albert Einstein theory of relativity
  • Sigmund Freud understanding the unconscious
  • Structure of DNA
  • Arts
  • Shock as a goal
  • Modern dance
  • Picassos and Kandinskys artwork
  • Emphasis on pluralism and diversity
  • Contradictions coexist / alternations between
    contradictions

3
Twentieth-Century Developments
  • Summary of arts developments
  • USA powerful force in culture, entertainment,
    politics, economics
  • Nonwestern cultures/thought affect the arts
  • New technologies affect artists
  • Human sexuality explored
  • Minority representation
  • Reactions to wars and massacres
  • Postmodern approach less serious / blur lines
    between elite and pop culture

4
Musical Styles 1900-1945
  • More fundamental changes in language of music
    than 1650-1900
  • New approaches
  • Pitch and rhythm organization
  • New vocabulary of sound
  • Originally met with hostility
  • Now commonly heard in jazz, rock, TV, Movies
  • No single system governs pitch organization for
    all music
  • Relies less on pre-established relationships and
    expectations

5
1900-1945 An Age of Musical Diversity
  • Great diversity of musical styles
  • Different musical languages vs. dialects
  • Reflects diversity of life
  • Agency freedom to choose
  • Global communication and travel
  • Wider range of music available
  • Unconventional rhythms, sounds, melodic patterns
  • Influence of non-European music
  • American jazz Improvisation, syncopations,
    unique tone colors
  • Inspiration from wider historical range,
    including forms

6
Characteristics of Twentieth-Century Music
  • Tone Color
  • More important Variety Continuity Mood
  • Noiselike / percussive sounds
  • Uncommon playing techniques
  • Glissando
  • Col legno
  • Flutter-tongue
  • More percussion instruments
  • Harmony
  • Consonance and dissonance
  • Emancipation of dissonance
  • New chord structures
  • Polychords
  • Quartal chords

7
Characteristics of Twentieth-Century Music
  • Alternatives to the Traditional Tonal System
  • Less gravity to tonic key maj/min
  • Tonal center around a chord or tone
  • Use of church modes
  • Polytonality / bitonality
  • Atonality
  • Twelve-tone system
  • Rhythm
  • Emphasis on irregularity and unpredictability
  • New structures free and varied
  • Irregular phrases / meters
  • Rapid changes
  • Polyrhythm
  • Ostinato

8
Characteristics of Twentieth-Century Music
  • Melody
  • No longer tied to chords, harmony or tonality
  • Lack of tonal center
  • Wide leaps
  • Series of irregular phrases

9
Music and Musicians in Society
  • Living Room becomes the new concert hall
  • Technology radio, recordings, TV
  • Larger audience
  • Larger repertoire
  • Radio broadcasts
  • 1920s reach large audience
  • 1930s radio networks form orchestras
  • NBC Symphony Orchestra
  • Regular broadcasts of Saturday matinee
    performances of the Metropolitan Opera
  • Television broadcasts
  • 1951 Amahl and the Night Visitors
  • First opera created for television
  • New York Philharmonic / Bernstein
  • Public television
  • Live from Lincoln Center / Live from the Met

10
Music and Musicians in Society
  • Repertoire dominated by music of earlier periods
    during the first half of 20th century
  • Contemporary works neglected / difficult
  • Formation of new music groups
  • International Society for Contemporary Music
  • 1950s More contemporary music performed
  • In concert by major orchestras and opera
    companies
  • Recordings
  • Musicians more accustomed proficient

11
Music and Musicians in Society
  • Many modern compositions commissioned
  • Tied with developments in dance
  • Film scores
  • Philanthropic foundations
  • Few composers lived on commissions alone
  • Earned living by teaching, conducting, performing
  • composers in residence
  • Latin American composers
  • Hieter Villa-Lobos, Silvestre Revueltas, Carlos
    Chávez, Alberto Ginastera, Astor Piazzolla
  • Women composers
  • Amy Beach, Ruth Crawford-Seeger, Miriam Gideon,
    Vivian Fine, Ellen Taaffe Zwilich

12
Music and Musicians in Society
  • African American composers and performers
  • William Grant Still, Howard Swanson, Ulysses Kay,
    Olly Wilson, Tania Léon, George Walker
  • Admitted to music schools / banned from opera
    companies and orchestras
  • 1945 Todd Duncan, baritone, performs at the NYC
    Opera Company
  • 1955 Marian Anderson, contralto, performs at
    the Metropolitan Opera

13
Music and Musicians in Society
  • Political, economic, social upheavals
  • Russian Revolution (1917)
  • Rachmaninoff and others leave Russia
  • Musicians lives and careers strictly controlled
  • 1930s Communist Party demands that Soviet
    composers
  • Reject modernism
  • Write music that praise the regime
  • Hitler in Germany (1933)
  • Avant-garde, socialist, and Jewish musicians lose
    jobs
  • Onset of WWII largest migration of artists in
    history
  • Stravinsky, Bartók, Schoenberg, Hindemith leave
    Europe for USA

14
Music and Musicians in Society
  • USA influence on music
  • Jazz and American popular music sweep the world
  • Post-1920 Large group of composers / wide
    spectrum of contemporary styles
  • Most first-rank symphony orchestras
  • American colleges and universities
  • Train and employ leading composers, performers,
    scholars
  • Expand course offerings
  • Sponsor 20th century music specialty groups
  • Electronic music studios

15
Impressionism and Symbolism
  • French Impressionist Painting
  • 1874 Exhibition by French painters
  • Monet, Renoir, Pissaro and others
  • Critic comments negatively on Monets Impression
    Sunrise
  • Critic mocks show as exhibition of
    impressionists
  • Term impressionist sticks
  • Loses negative implication
  • Impressionist paintings
  • Appreciated today
  • In 1870s seen as formless collections of tiny
    colored patches (viewed too closely)
  • Painters concerned with light, color, atmosphere
    (impermanence, change, fluidity)
  • Outdoor scenes from contemporary life
  • Obsessed with water

16
Impressionism and Symbolism
  • French Symbolist Poetry
  • Emphasized fluidity, suggestion, and the purely
    musical, or sonorous, effects of words
  • Mallarmé, Verlaine, Rimbaud symbolist poets
  • Debussy (composer) was a friend of many symbolist
    poets
  • The Afternoon of a Faun by Mallarmé inspires
    Debussys most famous orchestral work

17
Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
  • Impressionist composer / links Romantic era with
    20th Century
  • Age 10-22 studies at Paris Conservatory
  • Regarded as talented rebel by teachers
  • 1884 wins Prix de Rome
  • 3 years of study in Rome subsidized
  • Leaves after 2 years / lacking musical
    inspiration away from Paris
  • Musical influences
  • Russian music / visits to Russia
  • Worked with Nadezhda von Meck
  • Asian music Paris International Exposition
    (1889)
  • Wagners music / both attracted and repelled

18
Claude Debussy
  • Earns small income teaching piano
  • Attended literary gatherings regularly
  • Little known to musical public
  • 1902 Pelléas and Mélisande (opera)
  • Critics sharply divided
  • Soon catches on / most important living French
    composer
  • Financial and emotional crises
  • Constantly borrowing money
  • Love affairs
  • Concert tours to pay for luxuries
  • Not a gifted conductor / hated appearing in
    public
  • 1918 - Dies in Paris

19
Debussys Music
  • Descriptive titles
  • Fleeting moods / misty atmosphere
  • Inspired by literary and pictorial ideas
  • Impressionism in music
  • Sounds free and spontaneous
  • Stress on tone color and fluidity
  • Treatment of harmony
  • Chords used more for their tone color and
    sonority than in a progression
  • Lack of traditional resolutions
  • Parallel chords / planing
  • Adds 5-note chords to harmonic vocabulary

20
Debussys Music
  • Tonality
  • Pentatonic / whole-tone scales
  • Rhythmic flexibility
  • Debussys Output
  • One opera
  • Art Songs
  • Piano Works
  • Works for Orchestra and Chamber Ensembles

21
Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun (1894)
  • free illustration of Mallarmés poem
  • Dreams and fantasies of a faun
  • long solo on his flute
  • Tries to recall whether he carried off two
    beautiful nymphs or not
  • Falls asleep, exhausted by the effort
  • successive scenes through which pass the dreams
    and desires of the faun in the heat of the
    afternoon
  • Woodwind solos, muted horn calls, harp glissandos

22
Neoclassicism (1920-1950)
  • Emotional restraint, balance, clarity
  • Use of earlier techniques to organize 20th
    century harmonies and rhythms
  • Slogan Back to Bach
  • Preferred absolute music for chamber groups over
    program music and gigantic orchestras
  • Post WWI economy affects this
  • Fugues, concerti grossi, baroque suites
  • Most use maj/min scales
  • Some use 12-tone system
  • Sounds modern /
  • Neoclassicism in other arts

23
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)
  • Legendary figure / friends with T.S. Eliot and
    Picasso / Honored by JFK
  • Born near St. Petersburg, Russia
  • Studied with Rimsky-Korsakov
  • 1909 heard by Diaghilev, director of Russian
    ballet
  • Asked for orchestration of Chopin pieces
  • 1910 commissions The Firebird
  • 1911 Petrushka
  • 1913 The Rite of Spring
  • Riot erupts
  • Later recognized as masterpiece
  • Influences composers around the world

24
Igor Stravinsky
  • WWI flees to Switzerland
  • After armistice moves to France
  • WWII comes to USA
  • 1920s-30s constantly tours Europe and USA
  • Compositions less inspired by Russian folk music
  • 1950s adopts 12-tone system
  • Got well-paying commissions
  • Loved order and discipline
  • Kept banking hours

25
Stravinskys Music
  • Three early ballets
  • Large orchestra / Russian folklore and folk tunes
  • WWI wrote for chamber groups
  • Unconventional instrument combinations
  • Incorporates ragtime rhythms / popular dances
  • 1920-1951 his neoclassic period
  • Inspired by 18th-century music
  • 1950s shift to 12-tone music
  • Inspired by Anton Webern
  • Stravinsky sound
  • Strong beat / dry, clear tone colors
  • Changing irregular meters / abrupt rhythmic
    shifts
  • Ostinatos
  • Drew on wide range of styles / used existing
    music at times

26
Le Sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring)
  • 1910 fleeting vision
  • Primitivism the deliberate evocation of
    primitive power through insistent rhythms and
    percussive sounds
  • 2 parts subdivided into sections / without pause
    / each has slow introduction and final frenzied
    climactic dance
  • Part I
  • Introduction
  • Omens of Spring Dances of the Youths and
    Maidens
  • Ritual of Abduction

27
Expressionism 1905-1925
  • artistic movement that stressed intense,
    subjective emotion
  • centers in Germany and Austria
  • explore inner feelings rather than depicting
    outward appearance
  • deliberate distortions used to assault and shock
    the audience
  • reaction against French impressionism
  • Expressionist art
  • reject conventional prettiness
  • social protest
  • poor and oppressed
  • opposition to WWI

28
Expressionism in Music
  • grows out of emotional turbulence from late
    Romantic composers
  • ex. Wagner and Mahler
  • Characteristics
  • harsh dissonance
  • fragmentation
  • extreme registers
  • unusual instrumental effects
  • many avoid tonality and traditional chord
    progressions

29
Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)
  • born in Vienna, Austria
  • almost entirely self-taught musician
  • studies scores
  • plays in amateur chamber groups
  • attends concerts
  • age 21 loses job as bank clerk
  • earns poor living
  • conducts choir of industrial workers
  • orchestrates popular operettas

30
Arnold Schoenberg
  • Early works met with hostility
  • 1904 teaches music theory and composition
  • loyal students Alban Berg, Anton Webern
  • 1908 abandons traditional tonality
  • 1908-1915 incredible productivity (I have a
    mission)
  • 1915-1923 publishes nothing searching for way
    to organize his musical discoveries
  • 1921 announcement of discovery
  • 1923-25 begins using twelve-tone system
  • appointed to position at Prussian Academy of Arts
    in Berlin

31
Arnold Schoenberg
  • Nazis seize power in Germany
  • 1933 dismissed from Academy (Jewish)
  • moves to USA
  • joins music faculty at UCLA
  • Feels neglected in USA
  • music rarely performed
  • financially unsuccessful
  • After death
  • twelve-tone system used increasingly throughout
    the world
  • remains an important influence today

32
Schoenbergs Music
  • new music destined to become tradition
  • evolves from the past
  • early works show features of late Romantic style
  • large orchestras
  • dissonances
  • angular melodies
  • modulate through remote keys
  • 1903-1907
  • farther from Romanticism
  • whole-tone scales
  • quartal chords

33
Schoenbergs Music
  • atonality the absence of key
  • evolves from use of chromatic harmonies and
    scales
  • all 12 tones used without regard to traditional
    relationships
  • emancipated dissonances
  • jagged melodies
  • novel instrumental effects
  • extreme contrasts in dynamics / register
  • irregular phrases
  • Sprechstimme halfway between speaking and
    singing
  • early works lack musical system of organization
  • longer works only possible with longer text

34
Schoenbergs Music
  • Twelve-tone system
  • method of composing with twelve tones
  • tone row, set, or series
  • the ordering or unifying idea
  • serial technique
  • no pitch occurs more than once in a tone row
  • number of possibilities 479,001,600
  • original form, retrograde, inversion, retrograde
    inversion
  • 12-tone matrix calculator
  • example of 12-tone music

35
Pierrot lunaire, Op. 21 (1912)
  • cycle of 21 songs for female voice and 5-member
    instrumental ensemble that play 8 instruments
  • based on weird poems by Belgian poet Giraud,
    translated in to German by Hartleben
  • Pierrot tragic clown puppet derived from
    commedia dellarte
  • represents isolated modern artist
  • 3 groups of 7 songs
  • songs 1-7 Pierrot, a poet, drunk in moonlight,
    deranged
  • songs 8-14 nightmare filled with death,
    martyrdoms
  • songs 15-21 refuge from nightmare through
    clowning, sentimentality, and nostalgia
  • No.1 Mondestrunken
  • voice, piano, flute, violin, cello

36
A Survivor from Warsaw, Op.46
  • cantata for narrator, male chorus, and orchestra
  • about a single episode in the Holocaust
  • based partly on a direct report by a survivor
    from a Warsaw ghetto
  • over 400,000 Jews from this ghetto died in
    extermination camps or of starvation
  • many others died during 1943 revolt against the
    Nazis
  • English, German, and Hebrew 3 languages in
    Schoenbergs life
  • 12-tone composition written in 1947

37
Anton Webern (1883-1945)
  • born in Vienna
  • studied piano, cello, music theory
  • earned doctorate of music from University of
    Vienna
  • studied privately with Schoenberg
  • modest income from conducting
  • rare performances of own music met with ridicule
  • shy / devoted to family / Christian / loved to
    commune with nature
  • mistakenly shot and killed by American soldier
    near end of WWII

38
Weberns Music
  • most works last only 2-3 minutes
  • mature output can be played in less than 3½ hours
  • Works -
  • half for solo voice or chorus
  • rest for chamber orchestra and small chamber
    groups
  • atonal and 12-tone
  • melodic lines atomized into 2-note or 3-note
    fragments
  • often used strict polyphonic imitation
  • works became a source of inspiration for
    composers after his death

39
Five pieces for Orchestra, Op.10
  • atonal / not 12-tone
  • expressions of musical lyricism
  • among the shortest pieces ever written for
    orchestra
  • 4th piece 6 1/3 measures long / less than 30
    seconds
  • unconventional instruments used
  • Third Piece Very slow and extremely calm

40
Béla Bartók (1881-1945)
  • born in Hungary
  • piano important instrument in his career
  • mother taught him first lessons
  • attended Budapest Academy of Music
  • 1907-1934 teaches piano at the academy
  • gives recitals throughout Europe
  • influenced by Hungarian nationalist movement
  • spends free time recording peasant folk songs in
    small villages
  • becomes authority on peasant music

41
Béla Bartók
  • importance recognized abroad during 1920s and
    1930s
  • neglected in Hungary until premiere of ballet
    (The Wooden Prince - 1917)
  • 1940 anti-Nazi / emigrates to USA
  • has little money / poor health / feels neglected
  • 1943 receives commission for Concerto for
    Orchestra while in the hospital
  • receives other commissions
  • dies next year / becomes one of the most popular
    20th century composers

42
Bartóks Music
  • Hungarian influence is the strongest
  • fused folk elements, classical forms, 20th
    century sounds
  • arranged many folk tunes
  • most works use original themes that have a folk
    flavor
  • Works
  • many for solo piano
  • 6 string quartets and other chamber music
  • 3 piano concertos
  • 2 violin concertos
  • several pieces for orchestra

43
Bartóks Music
  • reinterpreted traditional forms
  • rondo, fugue, sonata, etc.
  • always used tonal center
  • used harsh dissonances, polychords, tone clusters
  • rhythm powerful beat, unexpected changes,
    changing meters
  • Concerto for Orchestra
  • offered 1000 in hospital by Koussevitsky,
    conductor of Boston Symphony Orchestra
  • 2nd movement Game of Pairs
  • Allegretto scherzando / ABA
  • different pairs of woodwind and brass instruments

44
William Grant Still (1895-1978)
  • 1917-1935 Harlem Renaissance
  • Afro-American Symphony first composition by a
    black composer performed by a major American
    symphony orchestra
  • born in Woodville, Mississippi / grew up in
    Little Rock, Arkansas
  • studied violin
  • age 16 Wilberforce University premed student
  • devoted himself to musical activities
  • abandoned medicine for music
  • did not graduate / popular music arranger and
    performer

45
William Grant Still
  • worked for W.C. Handy in Memphis
  • arranged Handys St. Louis Blues for military
    band (1916)
  • 1917 Oberlin College Conservatory
  • left to serve in navy in WWI
  • briefly returned to Oberlin
  • moved to New York
  • popular musician / composer of concert works
  • wrote band arrangements / played in all-black
    shows
  • studied with two opposing composers
  • George Whitefield Chadwick
  • Edgard Varèse
  • writes in a uniquely African-American flavor
  • critically acclaimed in New York

46
William Grant Still
  • 1931 premiere of Afro-American Symphony by
    Rochester Philharmonic
  • performed by 38 orchestras in US and Europe over
    next 2 decades
  • 1934 awarded Guggenheim Fellowship
  • moves to Los Angeles
  • writes film scores, concert works, operas
  • 1936 conducts Los Angeles Philharmonic
  • first African American to conduct major symphony
    orchestra
  • Troubled Island first opera by black composer
    performed
  • 1981 (3 years after death) A Bayou Legend
    (1941) televised nationally

47
Afro-American Symphony (1931)
  • shortly after onset of Great Depression
  • devises own blues theme / blues could be
    elevated to the highest musical level.
  • unified by thematic transformation of blues theme
    throughout movements
  • uses tenor banjo
  • themes recall spirituals, jazz tunes
  • movements prefaced by lines from poem by Paul
    Laurence Dunbar
  • 3rd movement Humor Animato

48
Aaron Copland (1900-1990)
  • born in Brooklyn to Russian-Jewish immigrants
  • age 15 decided to be a composer on his own
  • was drawn to modern music, despite first
    teachers objections
  • 1921 studied with Nadia Boulanger in France
  • Phases in Coplands Music
  • American in character (i.e. jazz) only lasted
    a few years
  • 1930s serious, dissonant, sophisticated works
  • late 1930s American folklore, accessible to
    larger audience
  • also jazz, revival hymns, cowboy songs

49
Coplands Music
  • simple, yet highly professional
  • clear textures
  • slow-moving harmonies
  • strongly tonal
  • 20th century techniques
  • polychords
  • polyrhythms
  • changing meters
  • percussive orchestration
  • serial technique

50
Appalachian Spring
  • ballet score for Martha Graham
  • took about a year to complete
  • doubtful that it would be a timely piece
  • wrote a suite for orchestra a year later
  • won important awards / Copland recognized by a
    large public
  • pioneer celebration in spring around a
    newly-built farmhouse in the Pennsylvania hills
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