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The Punic Wars

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The Punic Wars World History Essential Question: Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy & the Mediterranean World? The Roman Army All citizens were required to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Punic Wars


1
The Punic Wars
  • World History

2
Essential Question Why were the Romans able to
conquer Italy the Mediterranean World?
3
The Roman Army
  • All citizens were required to serve
  • Army was powerful
  • Organization fighting skill
  • Legion- military unit of 5,000 infantry (foot
    soldiers) supported by cavalry (horseback)

4
Rome Spreads its Power
  • Romans defeat Etruscans in north and Greek
    city-states in south
  • Treatment of Conquered
  • Forge alliances
  • Offer citizenship
  • By 265 B.C., Rome controls Italian peninsula

5
Romes Commercial Network
  • Rome establishes a large trading network
  • Access to Mediterranean Sea provides many trade
    routes
  • Carthage, powerful city-state in North Africa,
    soon rivals Rome

6
Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)
  • Three Wars between Rome and Carthage
  • 1st Punic War- Caused by trade rivalry. Rome
    gains control of Sicily, Corsica Sardinia

7
FIRST PUNIC WAR
  • Primarily a naval war
  • Tactics involved maneuvering your ship in such a
    way so that you could ram and sink enemy
  • Carthage was very good at this because of long
    experience as naval power
  • Rome had small navy and little experience in
    naval warfare
  • Defeated time and time again by larger and more
    experienced Carthaginian navy

8
ROME WINS THE FIRST ONE
  • Rome finally turned the tables on Carthage by
    changing rules of naval warfare
  • Equipped ships with huge hooks and stationed
    soldiers on ships
  • Would hook enemy ship, pull it nearby, and board
    it with soldiers

http//www.heritage-history.com/books/horne/rome/z
page326.gif
Converted naval warfare into mini-land battles,
something Rome was very good at. They won First
Punic War as a result.
9
  • 2nd Punic War- Carthaginian General Hannibals
    surprise attack through Spain France
  • 60,000 soldiers and 60 elephants
  • Romans experience severe losses, but eventually
    ward off attacks invade North Africa

10
Hannibal's troops crossing the Rhone River on
their way to attack northern Italy.
11
Video clip
  • BBC- Hannibal's Elephants

12
ROME WINS SECOND PUNIC WAR
  • Unable to defeat Hannibal in Italy, a Roman army
    sailed across the Mediterranean, landed in North
    Africa, and headed for Carthage
  • Hannibal was forced to leave Italy to protect
    Carthage
  • Defeated at the Battle of Zama, fought outside
    the walls of Carthage

Hannibal
13
After 2nd war, Carthage was finished
  • Hannibal committed suicide
  • Conquered people sold into slavery
  • Economy shattered
  • Lost almost all territory to Rome

14
Cato
Carthage must be destroyed!
Rome had already beaten Carthage twice why
wasnt Cato satisfied?
http//www.the-romans.co.uk/gallery2/full/15.cato.
jpg
15
Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)
  • 3rd Punic War- Rome seizes Carthage

The destruction of Carthage during the Punic
Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection

16
ROME WINS A THIRD TIME
  • Due to Catos persistent efforts, Rome declares
    war against defenseless Carthage
  • Wins easily
  • Entire population of city sold into slavery
  • Everything of value carried back to Rome
  • Everything else burned and dumped into the sea
  • Site sown with salt so that nothing would ever
    grow there again
  • Carthage completely disappeared

17
Imperialism
  • Imperialism establishing control over foreign
    lands and peoples
  • Gradually, Rome also conquered and made alliances
    with parts of Alexanders old empire Macedonia,
    Greece, Asia Minor, and Egypt, as well as Spain

18
Effects of Expansion
  • Huge increase in wealth conquests brought in
    money from loot, taxes, and trade.
  • Newly wealthy families bought latifundia (large
    estates) and forced captured people to work as
    slaves.
  • Small farmers could not compete with goods from
    the latifundia ? many went into debt and had to
    sell their land.
  • Unemployed mobs went to Rome? riots.
  • Corruption increased. Less focus on hard work.

19
Journal- on back of notes
  • Normally Rome treated conquered people with
    justice. Why did Rome treat Carthage so brutally?
  • Do you think this treatment was justified?
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