Correctional Continuum - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Correctional Continuum PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4dd041-ZWEyY


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Correctional Continuum


Correctional Continuum U.S. Correctional History Review Corrections in Feudal Society? Serfs vs. Freemen First principalities in 12th Century From private to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:35
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 15
Provided by: JeffM68
Learn more at:


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Correctional Continuum

Correctional Continuum
  • U.S. Correctional History

  • Corrections in Feudal Society?
  • Serfs vs. Freemen
  • First principalities in 12th Century
  • From private to territorial lords
  • By 1500, govt corrections overcomes traditions
    of private restitution and/or revenge
  • Punishments very public, and brutal/bizarre
  • In part, an effort to demonstrate that the
    government has a monopoly on the legitimate use
    of violence

Review II
  • Interesting stuff from reading that I forgot to
    mention last class
  • Inquisitorial vs. Accusatory system
  • Eventually (1750s to 1850s), corrections changes
    into the form we recognize today
  • No more molten lead down the front of the shirt
  • Why?? Spierenburgs explanation?
  • Transformation of sensibilities
  • State no longer needs to prove itself

Colonial America (1600-1750)
  • Nature of Society
  • Calvinist doctrine
  • Crime not a problem (fact of life)
  • Control through family training/community
  • Nature of Punishment
  • Borrow heavily from England, So...central
    features are same
  • Corporal
  • Public
  • Sparse use of prisons

Enlightenment and Change (1770s-1820)
  • Population boom and shift from agrarian to
    industrial economy
  • Enlightenment
  • Produces alarm/dismay but also optimism
  • First burst of enthusiasm (deterrence)
  • Reform the legal code
  • Substitute prisons for corporal punishment
  • First wave of prison building (1790-1800)
  • A repulsion from the gallows rather than any
    faith in the penitentiary spurred the late-18th
    Century construction

From deterrence to penance (1820-1850)
  • By 1820, the luster of the classical school (and
    associated reforms) fades
  • No crime reduction, trouble with prisons
  • Still, very optimistic (impulse to reform)
  • The Invention of the Penitentiary
  • A PROPER penitentiary will reform offenders
  • PN vs. Auburn debate
  • Reflects new understanding of cause of crime

The Great Debate
  • PN
  • Reform through penance, solitude, silence, labor
    (inmates kept in cell, separate yard)
  • Auburn
  • Reform through discipline/obedience, labor
    (inmates congregate to work, but lockstep, etc)
  • Contract labor system
  • Why did Auburn Win?

Southern/Western Penology
  • Often neglected topic in corrections texts
  • Prisons develop differently
  • In South, race and the Black codes
  • Little to build prisons (civil war decimation)
  • Penal Farms

The New Penology (1870-1900)
  • By 1860, enthusiasm for penitentiaries wanes
  • Corruption, corporal punishment, crowding...
  • Wardens give up on ideal and seek to maintain
  • 1870 National Prison Congress
  • Leads to Declaration of Principles
  • Reaffirm reform over punishment
  • Indeterminate sentences
  • Parole
  • Separate institutions for females and juveniles
  • The lockstep, rules of silence, isolation, etc
    humiliating and unproductive
  • Elmira as test case for new Reformatory

Progressive Era 1900-1960
  • Progressives middle/upper class reformers
  • Great optimism belief in government
  • Sought to eradicate all sorts of social ills
  • Crime?
  • General reform (poverty reduction, fix slums)
  • Embrace new penology
  • Indeterminate sentences parole
  • Juvenile Justice System
  • Probation

The Medical Model and Rehabilitative Ideal
  • By 1940s, social sciences gain prestige
  • Psychiatry, psychology, sociology
  • Rehabilitative Ideal (1940s-1960s)
  • Causes of crime are unique (social,
  • The goal of corrections is to identify and
    eliminate/correct these causes (rehabilitation)
  • Treatment must be individualized
  • Corrections workers and judges must be trusted
    with a great deal of discretion

1960s Corrections becomes professionalized
  • Rehab as unquestioned goal (in rhetoric at least)
    of Corrections system
  • American Corrections Association (from American
    Prison Association)
  • Correctional Facilities
  • Standards for correctional officers
  • All kinds of new Rx programs
  • College education, group counseling, therapeutic
    milieu, behavior modification

Progressives? Radicals, Change... (1960s-1980)
  • Social Context of 1960s
  • Contrast with progressive optimism/faith
  • Many progressives turn more radical
  • Labeling theory ascends ? avoid doing harm
  • Martinson Report ? nothing works
  • Clear et al. Community Corrections era
  • Conservatives have different take on 60s
  • Crime symbol of all the DISORDER
  • Solution go back to classical school

Uneasy Alliance
  • Conservatives and liberals agree on
  • The need to limit sentencing discretion
  • Conservatives liberal judges
  • Liberals corrupt, racist judges/parole boards
  • Solution return to determinate sentencing,
    sentencing guidelines, etc
  • Only difference is on length of sentences
  • Liberals do less harm, be fair (justice model)
  • Conservatives punishment WORKS!