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Griggs Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception

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General Psychology (PY110) Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception * * Visual Illusions In the M ller-Lyer illusion, two vertical line segments are equal in length, but ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Griggs Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception


1
General Psychology (PY110)
Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception
2
Windows on the World
  • Our sensory neurons (receptors) are constantly
    bombarded with stimuli
  • We understand the world through our senses, our
    windows on the world
  • Our reality, in fact, is dependent upon two
    processes
  • Sensation Gathering information
  • Perception Interpreting information (a process)

3
Stimulus Sensation Perception
4
Examples of Misperception
5
Examples of Misperception
6
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7
Examples of Misperception
8
Bottom-up Processing and Top-down Processing
  • Bottom-up processing is the processing of
    sensory information as it enters the sensory
    structures and travels to the brain
  • Top-down processing is the brains use of
    existing knowledge, beliefs, and expectations to
    interpret the sensory stimulation
  • Perception is subjective because of top-down
    processing
  • Perceptual set occurs when we interpret an
    ambiguous stimulus in accordance with our past
    experiences
  • A contextual effect occurs when we use the
    present context of sensory input to determine its
    meaning

9
Perceptual Organization and Top-down Processing
10
A Context Effect on Perception
11
Illusion Vs Hallucination
Perception
Stimulus
Interpretation
Response
Perception
Illusion
Stimulus
Misinterpretation
Response
Illusion
Misinterpretation can be caused by
Hallucination
No Stimulus
Misinterpretation
Response
Hallucination
12
Perceptual Organization
  • Gestalt means organized whole
  • Gestalt psychologists believe that the organized
    whole is greater than the sum of its individual
    pieces of sensory information
  • The figure-and-ground principle states that the
    brain organizes sensory input into a figure (the
    center of attention) and a ground (the background)

13
An Example of Figure-Ground Ambiguity
14
An Example of Figure-Ground Ambiguity
Both purses do the same job Right?
So they should cost about the same Right?
15
Gestalt Principles of Organization
  • Similarity-objects similar are considered a unit
  • Proximity-because of spacing objects considered a
    unit
  • Closure- the tendency to fill in the gap to
    produce a familiar object

16
Similarity
Does this furniture go together?
17
Proximity
What do you see?
Did you interpret the closeness of these two
people as evidence of a relationship?
18
Closure
What is this?
What about this?
Do you see the white triangle?
19
An Example of an Organizational Perceptual
Ambiguity
20
An Example of an Organizational Perceptual
Ambiguity
21
An Example of an Organizational Perceptual
Ambiguity
22
Examples of Misperception
23
Examples of Misperception
24
Perceptual Constancy
  • Refers to the perceptual stability of
  • Size Football player
  • Shape - Nickel
  • Brightness - Coal
  • Color - Coca-Cola
  • For familiar objects seen at
  • Varying distances
  • Different angles
  • Different lighting conditions

25
Perceptual Constancy - Color
Can this really taste the same as this?
26
Perceptual Constancy - Size
Even though they look like ants from our seats
We know how big they really are
27
Perceptual Constancy - Shape
We know that both of these balls are actually the
same shape because our experience tells us how a
football is shaped
28
Examples of Misperception
29
Examples of Misperception
30
Examples of Misperception
31
Examples of Misperception
32
Examples of Misperception
33
Visual Illusions
  • In the Ponzo illusion, two horizontal lines are
    equal in length, but one appears longer than the
    other
  • The convergence of the two lines (i.e., linear
    perspective) outside the horizontal lines
    normally indicates increasing distance

34
Visual Illusions
  • In the Müller-Lyer illusion, two vertical line
    segments are equal in length, but the one with
    arrow feather endings appears to be longer
  • The line with arrow feather endings has the
    appearance of a corner that is receding away from
    you (the corners where two walls meet in a room),
    while the line with arrowhead endings has the
    appearance of a corner that is jutting out toward
    you (the corners where two sides of a building
    meet)
  • Thus, it is our past experience with corners that
    leads the brain to believe that the line with
    arrow feather endings is farther away

35
Examples of a Visual Illusion
36
Summary of Perception
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