Physiological measures of animal welfare (2): ???????????(?) Neuroendocrine ??????? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Physiological measures of animal welfare (2): ???????????(?) Neuroendocrine ???????

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Title: Physiological measures of animal welfare (2): ???????????(?) Neuroendocrine ???????


1
Physiological measures of animal welfare
(2) ???????????(?) Neuroendocrine ???????
  • Module 4
  • ??4

2
This module will enable you to ????????
  • Understand the relationship between welfare and
    physiology?????????????
  • Examine how the neuroendocrine system is
    associated with welfare?????????????????
  • Understand how neuroendocrine responses can be
    used to assess welfare???????????????????
  • Identify some pros/cons of using neuroendocrine
    measures to assess welfare?????????????

3
Change in welfare ?????? ? Change in physical
psychological states ????????? ? Physiological
responses ??????
Review ????3???
4
Review ????3???
Change in welfare ???????? ? Activation of
CNS ???????????
?
?
Autonomic nervous responses ????????
Neuroendocrine responses ?????????
5
Neuroendocrine system ?????????
  • A welfare change affects three sub-divisions of
    the neuroendocrine system ????????????????????
  • Hypothalamus ???
  • Pituitary gland ????
  • Adrenal gland ???

6
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPA)
???-????-???(HPA?)
  • Major mediator of endocrine responses??????????
  • HPA increases mobilisation of energy stores for
    physical response HPA?????????,???????
  • HPA mediates responses to HPA???????
  • Stress ?? - Sexual activity ???
  • Courtship ?? - Food arrival / foraging ????

7
HPA cascade HPA?????
Hypothalamus ???
??????????
CRH corticotrophin-releasing hormone
Anterior pituitary gland ??????
????????
ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone
Adrenal cortex ?????
????
Glucocorticoids
Liver ??
Stimulus ?? HAP vessels ??????? Circulation ??
Module 4
8
HPA characteristics HPA????
  • Response not as immediate as sympathetic
    adreno-medullary system ???????????
  • Measure of acute welfare changes ????????????
  • For example, plasma glucocorticoids elevated
    between 2-10 minutes after stimulation
    ????????2-10??,???????????
  • Can remain elevated for hours depending on
    severity of stimulus ???????,?????????????

9
Glucocorticoid measurement ????????
Method ?? Invasive ??? Restrictive ??? Disturbing ???
Plasma ?? ? ? or ? ? or ?
Saliva ?? ? ? ?
Urine ?? ? ? ?
Faeces ?? ? ? ?
10
Glucocorticoid measurement ????????
  • Analytical methods ????
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ??????????
  • High performance liquid chromatography ????????
  • Competitive protein binding assay ?????????
  • Radioimmunoassay ???????

11
Glucocorticoids ????
  • Corticosterone rodents, birds ?????
  • Cortisol humans, pigs,
    and monkeys ??????
  • Useful direct measure
  • ?????????

12
Glucocorticoid example 1 ???????1
  • Cortisol ? in lambs in response to
  • Tail-docking ???????
  • ??????????
  • Castration????????
  • ?????????
  • (Mellor Murray, 1989)

13
Glucocorticoid example 2 ????????
  • Urinary cortisol increases in
    domestic dogs if they are put in
    kennels ???????????,????????cortisol??
    ??(Hennessey et al 1997)
  • If the dog has not been in
    kennels before, the increase is
    greater than if the dog has
    experienced kennels before
    ???????????????????,?????? (Hiby 2005)

14
Chronic welfare assessment ????????
  • Indirect assessment of HPA ??HPA???
  • Glucocorticoid receptors in the brain ??????????
  • Number of receptors decreased in rats that were
    exposed to prolonged handling and disturbance
    ????????????????,??????????? (Wadham, 1997)
  • ACTH challenge test ?????????
  • ACTH is administered, and resulting
    glucocorticoid levels measured ??ACTH??????????

15
ACTH challenge test ?????????
  • Example Dairy cows ???????
  • Long periods of over-
    crowding gt higher
    cortisol response than
    if less
    crowded ????????cortisol??? (Friend et al.,
    1977)

16
Limitations to HPA measures HPA???????
  • Individual differences ????
  • Early experience ??????
  • (Levine et al., 1967)
  • Sex ??
  • (Livezey et al., 1985)
  • Metabolism ????

17
Limitations to HPA measures HPA???????(?)
  • Species ??
  • New World Monkeys ???? (Klostermann et al., 1986)
  • Time when sampled ????
  • Circadian rhythm ????

18
Limitations to HPA measures HPA???????(?)
  • Disturbance due to measurement ?????
  • Human presence, handling, restraint and sampling
    method ????????????????,?????????

19
Other autonomic measures of animal
welfare ???????????
  • Body temperature ??
  • Opioid levels ???????
  • Organ pathology ??????

20
Body temperature ???????
  • Acute welfare measure ???????
  • Changes in other physiological systems (e.g.
    adrenal activity) gt changes in core body
    temperature ??????????(????????)??????????
  • Rat body temperature ? by storms and unfamiliar
    people ???????????????(Georgiev, 1978)
  • ? body temperature in defeated tree shrews
    ?????????????????(von Holst, 1986)

21
Temperature measurement ????
Method ?? Site ???? Core Temp ???? Invasive ??? Restrictive ??? Disturbing ???
Direct, e.g. thermometer ???--??? Mouth,? ear ? rectal ? ? ? ? ?
Telemetry ?????? Internal?? ? ? /- /-
Thermo-imaging ?????? Skin ?? ? ? ? ?
22
Opioids ??????
  • Three types 3???
  • Endorphins ???
  • Enkephalins ???
  • Dynorphins ???
  • Functions ??
  • Stress-induced analgesia ????????
  • Control hormone release???????

23
Opioid measurement ???????
Method ?? Invasive ??? Restrictive ??? Disturbing ???
Blood ?? ? ? ?
Brain receptors ???? ? ? ?
24
Opioid examples ?????????
  • Increase in plasma ß-endorphin in lambs during
    castration, tail docking and mulesing
    ??????????????,??ß-???????(Shutt et al.,1987)
  • Tethered sows had higher opioid receptor density
    than group-housed sows ?????????????????????(Zanel
    la et al., 1996)

25
Organ Pathology ????
  • Chronic welfare changes gt wide variety of
    pathologies ?????????????????
  • Most are measured post-mortem e.g.,
    ?????????????,??
  • Adrenal hypertrophy ?????
  • Kidney lesions ????
  • Myocardial lesions ????
  • In vivo ????
  • Stomach ulcers ???

26
Pathology examples ??????
  • Social instability in female groups of rats
    adrenal hypertrophy ???????????????????????(Haller
    et al., 1999)
  • Subordinate mice show kidney lesions in the
    presence of dominant animals ?????????,??????????
    (Henry Stephens-Larson, 1985)
  • Myocardial lesions associated with longer periods
    of restraint in pigs ?????????????? (Wutzen et
    al., 1987)

27
Conclusion ?????
  • Neuroendocrine system gt acute and chronic
    measures of welfare ??????????????????????
  • Direct and indirect ANS measures?????????????????
  • Limitations of measures??????????????,???????
  • Other physiological responses can also be used to
    assess welfare e.g. temperature, organ pathology,
    and opioid levels ??????????????????,?????????????
    ?????????

28
Further reading ????
  • FRIEND, T.H., POLAN, C.E., GWAZDAUSKAS, F.C.
    HEALD, C.W., 1977 Adrenal glucocorticoid
    response to exogenous adrenocorticotrophin
    mediated by density and social disruption in
    dairy cows. J. Diary Sci. 60, 1958-1963
  • GEORGIEV J. 1978 Influence of environmental
    conditions and handling on temperature rhythm of
    the rat. Biotelemetry Patient Monit. 5, 229-234
  • HALLER J, FUCHS E, HALASZ J MAKARA GB. 1999
    Defeat is a major stressor in males while social
    instability is stressful mainly in females
    Towards the development of a social stress model
    in female rats. Brain Research Bulletin 50 (1)
    33-39
  • HENNESSEY MB, DAVIS HN, WILLIAMS MT, MELLOTT C
    DOUGLAS CW 1997 Plasma cortisol levels of dogs at
    a county animal shelter. Physiol Behav 62
    485-490

29
Further reading ????
  • HENRYJP STEPHENS-LARSON P. 1985 Specific
    aspects of stress on disease processes. In
    MOBERG, G. P. (Ed.) Animal Stress. American
    Physiological Association, Maryland, USA
  • HIBY EF 2005 The Welfare of Kennelled Domestic
    Dogs. PhD Thesis, University of Bristol
  • KALIN NH, CARNES M, BARKSDALE CM, SHELTON SE,
    STEWART RD RISCH SC. 1985 Effects of acute
    behavioural stress on plasma and cerebrospinal
    fluid, ACTH and ?-endorphin in rhesus monkeys.
    Neuroendocrinology 40, 97-101
  • KLOSTERMANN LL, MURAI JT SIITERI PK. 1986
    Cortisol levels, binding and properties of
    corticosteroid-binding globulin in the serum of
    primates. Endocrinology 118, 424-434
  • LANG RE, HEIL JWE, GANTEN D, HERMANN K UNGER T.
    1983 Oxytocin, unlike vasopressin, is a stress
    hormone in the rat. Neuroendocrinology 37, 314-316

30
Further reading ????
  • LANE J 2006 Can non-invasive glucocorticoid
    measures be used as reliable indicators of stress
    in animals? Animal Welfare 15 331-342
  • LEVINE S, HALTMEYER GC, KARAS GG DENENBERG VH.
    1969 Physiological and behavioural effects of
    infantile stimulation. Physiology and Behavior 2,
    55-59
  • LIVEZEY GT, MILLER JM VOGEL WH. 1985 Plasma
    norepinephrine, epinephrine and corticosterone
    stress responses to restraint in individual male
    and female rats and their correlations. Neurosci.
    Lett. 62, 51-56
  • MELLOR DJ MURRAY L. 1989 Effects of tail
    docking and castration on behaviour and plasma
    cortisol concentrations in young lambs. Res. Vet.
    Sci. 46, 387-391

31
Further reading ????
  • SHUTT, D.A., FELL, L.R., CONNELL, R., BELL, A.K.,
    WALLACE, C.A. SMITH, A.I., 1987 Stress-induced
    changes in plasma concentrations of
    immunosuppressive ß-endorphin and cortisol in
    response to routine surgical procedures in lambs.
    Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 40, 97-103.
  • VON HOLST D. 1986 Vegetative and somatic
    components of tree shrews behaviour. J. Auton.
    Nerv. Syst. Suppl., 657-670
  • WADHAM JJB. 1997 Recognition and reduction of
    adverse effects in research on rodents. PhD
    Thesis, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, The
    University of Birmingham
  • WUTZEN J, LEWICKI Z, ROZYCKA Z, CEREMUZYNSKI L
    BARCIKOWSKI R. 1987 Effects of immobilisation
    stress on histological, histochemical and
    electron-microscopic changes in porcine
    myocardium. Mat. Med. Pol. 19, 78-84.
  • ZANELLA AJ, BROOM DM, HUNTER JC, MENDL MT. 1996
    Brain opioid receptors in relation to
    stereotypies, inactivity, and housing in sows.
    Physiol Behav 59 769-775
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