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Animal Physiology Unit


Animal Physiology Unit Organ Systems _____is composed of many different sytems with cells being the smallest unit of life. When cells are similar in shape and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Physiology Unit

Animal Physiology Unit
Organ Systems
  • _____________is composed of many different sytems
    with cells being the smallest unit of life.
  • When cells are similar in shape and size, they
    work together and form tissues.
  • four main types of tissues
  • 1. _________- protection lines body cavity,
    organs, etc
  • 2. _________- provides support and holds things
  • 3. ________ - bundles of cells which contract to
    create movement
  • 4. ________ - provides communication between all
  • Your body also have various types of organs which
    carry out different but specific tasks.
  • These organs have to work together in order to
    achieve the desired result in something called an
    organ system.

Organ System Major Organs Main Funtion
Digestive Esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver and pancreas Breakdown of food (phys and chem.)
Circulatory Heart, blood, vessels Transport of nutrient, gases and wastes defence against infection
Respiratory Lungs, trachea, blood vessels Gas exchange
Reproductive Testes, vas deferens, ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, glands Sexual reproduction
Excretory Kidneys, bladder, ureter, urethra Removal of wastes
Locomotion Bones, muscles Movement of body and body parts
Endocrine Pancrease, pituitary gland, adrenal glands Coordination and chemical regulation of body activies
Nervous Brain, spinal cord, eyes, ears, nose, tongue, peripheral nerves Response to environment control of body activities
Central Nervous and Endocrine System
  • _____________
  • body is constantly changing and so are levels of
    nutrients, water, etc
  • homeostasis helps to maintain the bodies stable
  • for ex.
  • Blood 7.35 pH
  • Body temp 37 celcius
  • Heart rate 72 bpm (beats per minute)
  • there is a ______ which determines when a change
    is drastic and dangerous versus normal and safe
  • for example, if your body temp drops below 36.2 C
    then, you will shiver in an attempt to warm up
  • if your body temp rises about 37.2 C then, you
    will sweat in an attempt to cool off
  • diagnosising a patient with a sickness has to do
    with comparing their symptoms to those of the
    normal range

Component Normal Range Unit Diagnosis
Body temperature (outside) 36.2- 37.2 Degrees celcium Fever (high body temp) Hypothermia (low body temp)
Blood pH 7.35- 7.45 pH Unit Acidosis ( low pH) Alkylosis (high pH)
Resting heart rate pulse 50-100 Beats/ min Tachycardia (fast hrt rate) Bradycardia (slow hrt rate
Resting breathing rate 16-20 Breaths/ min Hyperventilation (fast breathing rate) Hypoventilation (slow breathing rate)
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Digestive System
  • Ingestion
  • taking food in, eating
  • Digestion
  • Process of reducing food to small molecules so
    that it can be absorbed by the body
  • Molecules must be small enough to fit inside the
  • Digestion takes place in the _________________
    which is the tube starting at the mouth and
    ending at the anus
  • There are two types of digestion
  • 1. ______________________
  • Physical breakdow of food into smaller particles
  • Inolves chewing (__________) and muscular
    churning (___________)
  • 2. ______________________
  • - Involves chemical breakdown of large molecules
    into smaller molecules with the use of

Absorption movement of nutrients into the blood
and cells Egestion elimination of waste or
unusable nutrient
The Mouth (a.k.a.- the beginning)
  • Teeth
  • _______________
  • front teeth (chisel shape)
  • used for biting or cuting food into smaller
  • _______________
  • pointed shape
  • tear food
  • _______________
  • grinding and chewing food
  • _______________
  • grinding and chewing

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The Mouth cont
  • Saliva
  • Makes food easier to swallow
  • 3 pairs of glans (parotid, submandibular,
  • Contains enzyme called ________ which breaks down
    big sugars into smaller sugars
  • Tongue
  • Muscular organ
  • Keeps food where it can be chewed
  • Forces food to the back of the mouth for
  • Responsible for taste

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The Mouth- Swallowing
  • Tongue forces food to back of the mouth called
    the ___________
  • _________ closes the upper part of the pharynx
  • Epiglottis is a trap-door like structure that
    prevent food from entering the windpipe
  • Esophagus
  • Tube that carries food from the mouth to the
  • Muscular tube
  • The hollow interior space of the esophagus is
    called the ___________
  • it is lined by a layer of cells called mucosa
  • these secrete mucus

Step 1 Food is pushed to the back of the mouth
by the tongue. Step 2 Tongue raises and pushes
food further back. Soft palate lifts to close
nasal cavity. Epiglottis starts to close,
glottis closed. Step 3 Soft palate closed,
epiglottis closed and food slides down
esophagus. Step 4 Soft palate opens, epiglottis
and glottis open.
  • Rythmic muscular action that moves food through
    the entire alimentary canal

  • Opening to the stomach is controlled by a
    ____________ muscle
  • j shaped
  • ________________ is its major function
  • 3 kinds of cells line the stomach and secrete
  • __________
  • __________
  • Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and water
  • Enzymes, water and HCl combine to form ________.

Stomach cont
  • Gastric Juice
  • Has a pH of 1 (strong acid)
  • Helps to break up connective tissue, cell
    membranes as in food, and also kills many
    harmful bacteria
  • Enzymes produced by the stomach are mostly
  • The principal stomach protease is called
  • Pepsin breaks down protein

Why are stomach cells not destroyed by the
gastric juice?
  • __________ acts as a protective barrier
  • gastric juice wears at the mucus, thus the
    stomach must continually renew its protective
  • Occassionally stomach cells are attached by
    gastric juices and produce ________
  • Stress can cause a decrease in production of mucus

Lower Alimentary Canal
  • There are 2 organs that food DOES NOT enter but
    play an important role in digestion
  • 1. ___________
  • 2 functions
  • Produce regulatory hormones for blood homeostasis
  • Produe pancreatic juice (BASIC)
  • Neutralizes stomach contents
  • Contains digestive enzymes
  • 1. ____________- breakdown protien
  • 2. ____________- breakdown food
  • 3. ____________- breakdown carbohydrates

  • Lower Alimentary Canal cont
  • 2. Liver
  • - converts extra glucose into glycogen and
    stores it until it is needed
  • - produces bile an emulsifier that breaks fat
    and oil into tiny droplets
  • - bile travels through the ducts to the
    ______________, where it is stored
  • - bile is released through the common bile duct
    to the small intestine

Small Intestine
  • Main job is digestion and absorption
  • lining of the small intestine has small
    finger-like projections called _________
  • increase the surface area so nutrients can pass
    through the lining cells and enter the
    circulatory system rapidly
  • Each villus contains many blood and lymph vessels
  • Collect nutrient and transports them to locations
    where theyre needed

Small Intestine cont
  • Villi are made up of smaller ________ which
    further improve the absorption
  • Some substances ingested are composed of small
    molecules that dissolve readily
  • ie. ________and ___________- not digested.
    Simply pass through the stomach wall and are
    absorbed directly into the blood stream

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Small intestine cont
  • Composed of three parts
  • 1. Duodenum
  • 2. Jejunum
  • 3. Ileum

Small Intestine cont
  • Duodenum
  • - first ______ of small intestine
  • - bile and pancreatic juice enter here
  • - digestive enzymes produced here
  • - polypeptides ? amino acids
  • - disaccharides ? monosaccharides

Small Intestine cont
  • 2) Jejunum
  • - next several meters
  • - many small molecules are absorbed
    through the villi into blood vessels
  • - most of the chemical digestion is completed

Small Intestine cont
  • 3) Ileum
  • - last half of small intestine
  • - place of absorption
  • - amino acids and glucose enter the blood stream
    and go to the liver

Large Intestine
  • Twice as wide as small intestine
  • Major function is to absorb water and ions
  • Where the small and large intestine join there is
    a small structure called the ________
  • Humans ? no function
  • Rabbits ? digest cellulose
  • Appendicitis? bacteria enter appendix, grow and
    secrete toxic waste

  • Rectum
  • - last 20-30 cm of colon
  • - stores feces
  • Anus
  • - way out for feces!!