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Heart Anatomy

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Heart Anatomy Approximately the size of your fist Weighs approx. 0.5lbs or 300mg Location Superior surface of diaphragm Left of the midline Anterior to the vertebral ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Heart Anatomy


1
Heart Anatomy
  • Approximately the size of your fist
  • Weighs approx. 0.5lbs or 300mg
  • Location
  • Superior surface of diaphragm
  • Left of the midline
  • Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to
    the sternum

2
Heart Anatomy
Figure 18.1
3
Coverings of the Heart Anatomy
  • Pericardium a double-walled sac around the
    heart composed of
  • A superficial fibrous pericardium
  • A deep two-layer serous pericardium
  • The parietal layer lines the internal surface of
    the fibrous pericardium
  • The visceral layer or epicardium lines the
    surface of the heart
  • They are separated by the fluid-filled
    pericardial cavity

4
Coverings of the Heart Physiology
  • The pericardium
  • Protects and anchors the heart
  • Prevents overfilling of the heart with blood
  • Allows for the heart to work in a relatively
    friction-free environment

5
Pericardial Layers of the Heart
Figure 18.2
6
Heart Wall
  • Epicardium visceral layer of the serous
    pericardium
  • Myocardium cardiac muscle layer forming the
    bulk of the heart
  • Fibrous skeleton of the heart crisscrossing,
    interlacing layer of connective tissue
  • Endocardium endothelial layer of the inner
    myocardial surface

7
Cardiac Muscle Bundles
Figure 18.3
8
Aorta
Superior vena cava
Left pulmonary artery
Right pulmonary artery
Left atrium
Pulmonary trunk
Left pulmonary veins
Right atrium
Right pulmonary veins
Mitral (bicuspid) valve
Fossa ovalis
Aortic valve
Pectinate muscles
Pulmonary valve
Left ventricle
Tricuspid valve
Papillary muscle
Right ventricle
Chordae tendineae
Interventricular septum
Myocardium
Trabeculae carneae
Visceral pericardium
Inferior vena cava
Endocardium
(e)
Figure 18.4e
9
Atria of the Heart
  • Atria are the receiving chambers of the heart
  • Each atrium has a protruding auricle
  • Pectinate muscles mark atrial walls
  • Blood enters right atria from superior and
    inferior venae cavae and coronary sinus
  • Blood enters left atria from pulmonary veins

10
Ventricles of the Heart
  • Ventricles are the discharging chambers of the
    heart
  • Papillary muscles and trabeculae carneae muscles
    mark ventricular walls
  • Right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary
    trunk
  • Left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta

11
Right and Left Ventricles
Figure 18.6
12
Pathway of Blood Through the Heart and Lungs
  • Right atrium ? tricuspid valve ? right ventricle?
    pulmonary semilunar valve ? pulmonary arteries ?
    lungs? pulmonary veins ? left atrium? bicuspid
    valve ? left ventricle? aortic semilunar valve ?
    aorta
  • ? systemic circulation

13
Figure 18.5
14
Coronary Circulation
  • Coronary circulation is the functional blood
    supply to the heart muscle itself
  • Collateral routes ensure blood delivery to heart
    even if major vessels are occluded

15
Coronary Circulation Arterial Supply
Figure 18.7a
16
Coronary Circulation Venous Supply
Figure 18.7b
17
Heart Valves
  • Heart valves ensure unidirectional blood flow
    through the heart
  • Atrioventricular (AV) valves lie between the
    atria and the ventricles
  • AV valves prevent backflow into the atria when
    ventricles contract
  • Chordae tendineae anchor AV valves to papillary
    muscles

18
Heart Valves
  • Aortic semilunar valve lies between the left
    ventricle and the aorta
  • Pulmonary semilunar valve lies between the right
    ventricle and pulmonary trunk
  • Semilunar valves prevent backflow of blood into
    the ventricles

19
Heart Valves
Figure 18.8a, b
20
Heart Valves
Figure 18.8c, d
21
Atrioventricular Valve Function
Figure 18.9
22
Semilunar Valve Function
Figure 18.10
23
Microscopic Anatomy of Heart Muscle
  • Cardiac muscle is striated, short, fat, branched,
    and interconnected
  • The connective tissue endomysium acts as both
    tendon and insertion
  • Intercalated discs anchor cardiac cells together
    and allow free passage of ions
  • Heart muscle behaves as a functional syncytium

InterActive Physiology Anatomy Review The
Heart, pages 37
24
Microscopic Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle
Figure 18.11
25
External Heart Major Vessels of the Heart
(Anterior View)
  • Vessels returning blood to the heart include
  • Superior and inferior venae cavae
  • Right and left pulmonary veins
  • Vessels conveying blood away from the heart
  • Pulmonary trunk, which splits into right and left
    pulmonary arteries
  • Ascending aorta (three branches)
    brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and
    subclavian arteries

26
External Heart Vessels that Supply/Drain the
Heart (Anterior View)
  • Arteries right and left coronary (in
    atrioventricular groove), marginal, circumflex,
    and anterior interventricular arteries
  • Veins small cardiac, anterior cardiac, and
    great cardiac veins

27
Left common carotid artery
Brachiocephalic trunk
Left subclavian artery
Superior vena cava
Aortic arch
Right pulmonary artery
Ligamentum arteriosum
Left pulmonary artery
Ascending aorta
Left pulmonary veins
Pulmonary trunk
Left atrium
Right pulmonary veins
Auricle
Right atrium
Circumflex artery
Right coronary artery (in coronary sulcus)
Left coronary artery (in coronary sulcus)
Anterior cardiac vein
Left ventricle
Right ventricle
Great cardiac vein
Marginal artery
Small cardiac vein
Anterior interventricular artery (in
anterior interventricular sulcus)
Inferior vena cava
(b)
Apex
Figure 18.4b
28
External Heart Major Vessels of the Heart
(Posterior View)
  • Vessels returning blood to the heart include
  • Right and left pulmonary veins
  • Superior and inferior venae cavae
  • Vessels conveying blood away from the heart
    include
  • Aorta
  • Right and left pulmonary arteries

29
External Heart Vessels that Supply/Drain the
Heart (Posterior View)
  • Arteries right coronary artery (in
    atrioventricular groove) and the posterior
    interventricular artery (in interventricular
    groove)
  • Veins great cardiac vein, posterior vein to
    left ventricle, coronary sinus, and middle
    cardiac vein

30
Figure 18.4d
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