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Unit Four Book Six

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Unit Four Book Six The Meaning of Work Meaning of Work The concept meaning of work can also be defined as one s orientation or inclination toward work, what ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit Four Book Six


1
Unit Four Book Six
  • The Meaning of Work

2
Meaning of Work
It's what you spend your days, or nights, doing.
It helps define who you are. Week after week,
year after year, you get up and go to work. Sure
you get paid. But it's probably not your only
motivation. What, at the end of your shift or
your workday, gives you a sense of
accomplishment, inspiration or joy?
3
  • The concept meaning of work can also be defined
    as ones orientation or inclination toward work,
    what the subject is seeking in the work, and the
    intents that guide his actions

4
What is work?
  • We moralize work and make it a problem,
    forgetting that the hands love to work and in the
    hands is the mind. That work ethic idea does
    more to impede working it makes it a duty
    instead of a pleasure. () I merely want to speak
    of working as a pleasure, as an instinctual
    gratification not just the right to work, or
    work as an economic necessity or a social duty or
    a moral penance laid onto Adam after leaving the
    Paradise. The hands themselves want to do things,
    and the mind loves to apply itself.

5
  • Work irreducible. We dont work for food
    gathering or tribal power and conquest or to buy
    a new car and so on and so forth. Working is its
    own end and brings its own joy but one has to
    have a fantasy so that work can go on, and the
    fantasies we now have about it economic and
    sociological keep it from going on, so we have
    a huge problem of productivity and quality in our
    Western work. We have got work where we dont
    want it. We dont want to work. Its like not
    wanting to eat or to make love. Its an
    instinctual laming. And this is psychologys
    fault it doesnt attend to the work instinct.

6
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7
  • Meaning is a subjective thing what counts as
    meaningful work to one person won't to another.
    This means that companies, for all their
    insistence on employee engagement programmes,
    can't create meaning and should not try.
  • Instead they should concentrate on not destroying
    it which many of them manage to do effortlessly
    enough through treating their employees badly.

8
Depersonalization
  • It consists in adopting so-called objective and
    impersonal attitudes toward people and to treat
    them like
  • any other kind of resources, rejecting more or
    less consciously their psychological,
    sociological, cultural, and spiritual complexity.
  • For example,

9
  • customers are regarded as economic agents whose
    sole function is to purchase the goods or
    services offered by the organization. Similarly,
    employees are considered as resources that should
    devote their time and talents to the financial
    success of the organization. This type of vision
    leads directly to the denial of the actors
    humanity.

10
  • stop looking for meaning at once. If they go out
    looking, they are most unlikely to find anything.
    It is the same thing with happiness the more you
    search, the less you find.

11
Text Analysis
Part One Para 1 The author talks about her general impressions of the auto plants she toured
Part Two Paras 2-30 The author relates her hands-on experience as an assembly line worker
Part Three The author describes the lessons she drew from the exprience
12
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13
assault
  • A violent physical or verbal attack
  • Assail to attack violently
  • Assault can be used as a noun, as in
  • Sexual assault
  • Make an assualt on
  • Assail can mean be troubled, upset as in
  • was assailed by doubts

14
enclose
  • Shut in on all sides put (sth) in an envelope,
    etc (used in the pattern be enclosed in)
  • The surrounding land was enclosed by an
    eight-foot wire fence.
  • Enclosed in the letter was a cheque for 10.

15
Discordant cacophony
  • Jarring, discordant sound dissonance heard a
    cacophony of horns during the traffic jam.
    (hooting)
  • These jarring sounds include
  • Ring, clank, whine, groan, clang, whoosh,
    crackle, beep, hiss, bang, rumble, clatter and
    clank

16
Metal rang on metal
  • To (cause to) give out a clear resonant sound,
    like that of a bell

Toll to sound (a large bell) slowly at regular
intervals.
17
Stamping press
  • is a manufacturing device that is designed and
    built to operate progressive stamping dies and
    other types of dies.

18
clank
  • (cause to) make a dull metallic sound
  • Here we are now, Beth said, as the train
    clanked into a tiny station.
  • The heavy iron door clanked shut behind me.

19
Power tools
  • A power tool is a tool powered by an electric
    motor, a compressed air motor, or a gasoline
    engine.

20
whine
  • To produce a sustained noise of relatively high
    pitch jet engines whining.
  • habitually complaining "a whiny child"

21
pulley
  • wheel with a grooved rim in which a belt, chain,
    or piece of rope runs in order to lift weights by
    a downward pull

22
groan
  • 1. To voice a deep, inarticulate sound, as of
    pain, grief, or displeasure.
  • 2. To make a sound expressive of stress or
    strain floorboards groaning.

23
hoist
  • An apparatus for lifting heavy or cumbersome
    objects.
  • raise or haul up with or as if with mechanical
    help "hoist the bicycle onto the roof of the
    car"

24
clang
  • loud resonant repeating noise
  • "he could hear the clang of distant bells"

25
weld
  • Join (pieces of metal) by hammering or pressure
    or fusing by using an oxy-acetylene flame or an
    electric arc (followed by to, together)
  • He doesnt know how to weld stainless steel to
    ordinary steel.
  • They will also be used on factory floors to weld
    things together.

26
weld
  • N. the act of welding the part joined by
    welding.
  • The manager told us that the weld has been done
    from inside the car.
  • A team of eight divers repaired the cracked weld
    on the oil platform in almost 600 feet of water.

27
whoosh
  • A sibilant sound
  • the whoosh of the high-speed elevator.

28
spark
  • A small bit of burning material thrown out by a
    fire or by striking together of two hard objects
  • Sparks were flying out of the bonfire and blowing
    everywhere.
  • That small incident was the spark that set off
    the street riots.

29
spark
  • Throw out tiny glowing bits
  • I stared into the flames of the fire as it
    sparked into life.
  • This proposal will almost certainly

30
crackle
  • Make small cracking sounds
  • The twigs crackled as we trod on them.
  • The radio crackled just then and I missed what
    was said.

31
beep
  • A sound or a signal, as from a horn or an
    electronic device.

32
hiss
  • Make the sound /s/, or the noise heard when water
    falls on a very hot surface show disapproval by
    making the /s/ sound
  • The tires of his bike hissed over the wet
    pavement as he slowed down.
  • If you put a very hot pan into cold water, it
    will hiss and produce a lot of steam.
  • The villain was hissed and booed whenever he came
    on stage.

33
bolt
  • A fastener consisting of a threaded pin or rod
    with a head at one end, designed to be inserted
    through holes in assembled parts and secured by a
    mated nut that is tightened by applying torque

34
bolt
35
bolt
  • To start suddenly and run away The horse bolted
    at the sound of the shot. The frightened child
    bolted from the room.

36
bang
  • sudden loud noise, as of an explosion.

37
trolley
  • a wheeled cart or stand used for moving heavy
    items, such as shopping in a supermarket or
    luggage at a railway station

38
rumble
  • Make, move with, a deep, heavy continuous sound
  • Please excuse my stomach rumbling I havent
    eaten all day.
  • A line of tractors rumbled onto the motorway
    through a cordon of police.

39
rumble
  • n. deep, heavy, continuous sound
  • We could hear the rumble of distant thunder.
  • The representatives gave us a solid rumble of
    approval.

40
aisle
  • 1. A part of a church divided laterally from the
    nave by a row of pillars or columns.
  • 2. A passageway between rows of seats, as in an
    auditorium or an airplane.
  • 3. A passageway for inside traffic, as in a
    department store, warehouse, or supermarket.

41
clatter
  • 1. To make a rattling sound.
  • 2. To move with a rattling sound clattering
    along on roller skates.
  • 3. To talk rapidly and noisily chatter

42
clank
  • A metallic sound, sharp and hard but not
    resonant the clank of chains.

43
Conveyor belt
44
rotate
  • (cause) to move around a central point (cause
    to) take turns
  • Rotating vegetable crops helps to reduce the risk
    of disease.
  • It was agreed that the Presidency would rotate
    among members of the major groups.

45
Dashboard mold
  • A panel under the windshield of a vehicle,
    containing indicator dials, compartments, and
    sometimes control instruments.

46
inject
  • Drive or force a drug, etc (into sth) with a
    syringe introduce (new thoughts, etc) (used in
    the pattern be injected with or inject sth into
    sth else)
  • His son was injected with strong drugs by the
    kidnappers.
  • The technique consists of injecting healthy cells
    into the weakened muscles.
  • A competition was set up to inject some friendly
    rivalry into the proceedings.

47
nozzle
  • a projecting spout from which fluid is discharged

48
Infuriatingly
  • To a maddening degree
  • Infuriate To make furious enrage.

49
gesture
  • The movement of the hand or head to indicate or
    illustrate an idea, feeling, etc sth done to
    convey an intention
  • In western countries, the thumb raised up is a
    gesture of approval or agreement.
  • We should invite them to our house, as a gesture
    of friendship.

50
gesture
  • Make or use a gesture express with a gesture
  • When he asked where the children were, she
    gestured vaguely in the direction of the beach.
  • The head of our department gestured me over to
    the seat next to her.

51
cute
  • Attractive pretty and charming sharp-witted
    quick-thinking.
  • Bambi is a typical Walt Disney film with cute
    wide-eyed cartoon animals.
  • He thinks it is cute to tell those sexist
    stories.

52
squirt
  • To issue forth in a thin forceful stream or jet
    spurt.

53
protrude
  • (cause to) stick out or project
  • The broken bone protruded through the mans skin.
  • Nails protruded from the board and had to be
    removed for safety.

54
In place
  • In the usual or proper position
  • Wed better use clamps to hold the wood in place
  • Everything is in place the books on their
    shelves, the pictures on the walls and the
    cushions on the sofa.

55
Ad infinitum
  • if something happens or continues ad infinitum,
    it happens again and again in the same way, or it
    continues forever
  • The TV station just shows repeats of old comedy
    programmes ad infinitum. Her list of complaints
    went on and on ad infinitum.

56
panel
  • Board or other surface for controls and
    instruments group of experts or judges
  • He couldnt understand the aeroplanes control
    panels.
  • The panel is made up of MPs from the three main
    political parties.
  • The competition will be judged by a panel of
    experts.

57
Steering wheel
58
Wiper wand
59
wand
  • wave a magic wand to solve a difficult problem
    with no effort Unfortunately, you can't just wave
    a magic wand and get rid of poverty.

60
Gauge
  • a. A standard or scale of measurement.
  • b. A standard dimension, quantity, or capacity.

61
  • To measure precisely.
  • 2. To determine the capacity, volume, or contents
    of.
  • 3. To evaluate or judge gauge a person's ability.

62
Burst out
  • Suddenly begin to exclaim
  • Everyone thought about the joke for a couple of
    seconds, then burst out laughing.
  • I hate you! I hate you! she burst out loud.

63
An array of
  • An orderly, often imposing arrangement an array
    of royal jewels.
  • 2. An impressively large number, as of persons or
    objects an array of heavily armed troops an
    array of spare parts.

64
Bins of screws
  • A container or enclosed space for storage

65
workstand
66
vibrate
  • shake, quiver, or throb move back and forth
    rapidly, usually in an uncontrolled manner

67
underfoot
  • Under ones feet on the ground
  • The grass was damp and soft underfoot.
  • Its muddy underfoot after the drizzle.

68
duck
  • Move quickly down (to avoid being seen or hit)
  • The boy ducked behind the wall when he saw his
    teacher.
  • Josie saw the rock coming and ducked, but it
    struck her on the ear.

69
Ducked ones head
70
Craned ones neck
71
Power wrench
72
inexorable
  • Relentless continuing unstoppably
  • The countrys manufacturing industry seems to be
    in an inexorable decline.
  • During 1939 the approach of war seemed
    inexorable.

73
malevolence
  • wishing evil to others the quality of
    threatening evil
  • Malice malfunction,

74
Logic-defying
  • 1. a. To oppose or resist with boldness and
    assurance defied the blockade by sailing
    straight through it.
  • b. To refuse to submit to or cooperate with
    defied the court order by leaving the country.
  • 2. To be unaffected by resist or withstand "So
    the plague defied all medicines" Daniel Defoe.

75
procedure
  • Order of doing things a set of actions necessary
    for doing sth properly
  • It is very important to follow the safety
    procedures laid down in the handbook.
  • The Personnel Officer will tell you what the
    procedure is for applying for a transfer.
  • Sorry about the body-search. It is just a
    standard procedure.

76
showstopper
  • something that is strikingly attractive or has
    great popular appeal
  • "she has a show-stopper of a smile" "the
    brilliant orange flowers against the green
    foliage were a showstopper"

77
Down pat
  • understood perfectly

78
manifest
  • List
  • Manifests must be submitted by the 24th of every
    month.
  • Will you please make out the manifest for the
    tubing to my company?

79
  • Adjective
  • Clear and obvious
  • It was manifest to all of us that he would fail.
  • There may be unrecognized cases of manifest
    injustice of which we are unaware.

80
  • V. show clearly (often used in the pattern
    manifest itself in)
  • There is nothing hidden which shall not be
    manifested.
  • With the arrival of a new baby, jealousy in the
    older child often manifests itself in emotional
    detachment from the family.

81
sedan
82
wagon
83
jam
  • To drive or wedge forcibly into a tight position
    jammed the cork in the bottle.

84
sheath
  • cover

85
module
  • Unit of components used in assembly independent
    and self-contained unit of a spacecraft
  • Each module is made separately, and the completed
    modules are then joined together.
  • A rescue plan could be achieved by sending an
    unmanned module to the space station.

86
Prefix snap
  • Made or done suddenly, with little or no
    preparation a snap decision.

87
Back and forth
  • To and fro
  • Many people were going back and forth along the
    corridor of the hospital.
  • Bitter and cruel remarks flew back and forth
    between them.

88
The other way around
  • Reversed or inverted the opposite of what is
    expected
  • Usually regular work pays better per hour than
    part-time, but sometimes it can be the other way
    around.
  • How would Sallys husband have felt if it had
    been the other way aroundif shed treated him so
    badly.

89
circular
  • Round or curved in shape moving round
  • The full moon has a circular shape.
  • We took a fairly circular route around the
    continent, ending where we had started.

90
  • Printed letter, announcement, etc of which many
    copies are made and distributed
  • I always put circulars and other junk mail
    straight in the bin.
  • Several circulars advertising new shops in the
    town were delivered with the local newspaper.

91
yank
  • To pull with a quick, strong movement jerk
    yanked the emergency cord.

92
By hand
  • Without the use of machinery
  • All the furniture in this shop is made by hand.
  • We had to make the corrections by hand as the
    computer wouldnt do them for us.

93
flap
  • 1. A flat, usually thin piece attached at only
    one side.
  • 2. A projecting or hanging piece usually intended
    to double over and protect or cover the flap of
    an envelope.

94
stray
  • Wander from the task at hand lose ones way
    (often followed by from)
  • Dont let any of the smaller children stray away
    from the park.
  • When you are explaining your reasons, be careful
    not to stray from the main point.

95
  • Lost seen or happening occasionally
  • His drawers are full of stray socks.
  • It was reported that an 8-year-old boy was killed
    by a stray bullet.

96
  • n. Domestic animal that has lost its way
  • The dog was a stray which had been adopted.
  • A lot of stray dogs are pets that have been given
    as Christmas presents and then abandoned.

97
Bear on/upon
  • Move quickly towards (sb or sth) in a
    threatening way press down on exert pressure on
  • He saw her figure bearing down on him from the
    other end of the corridor.
  • Dont bear down so hard on your pencil.
  • If he bears down on others, it is because he is
    borne down on.

98
lunge
  • Make a sudden forward movement
  • She lunged towards the door when it opened a
    crack.
  • He lunged at the burglar and wrestled with him
    for the weapon.

99
Cultural Notes
  • Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977)

An English film actor and director who did most
of his work in the U.S. Most people consider him
the greatest comic actor of the silent cinema. He
appeared in many of his films as the best-known
character he created, a little tramp with a small
round hat, a small moustache and trousers and
shoes that are too big for him, causing him to
walk in a funny way.
100
Charlie Chaplin
  • He made many short comic films, such as The kid
    (1921), and several longer films, such as City
    Lights (1931) and Modern Times (1936), which
    combined comedy with social and political
    comments. He as made a Knight in 1975.

101
Modern Times
  • A comedy film which Charlie Chaplin wrote and
    directed as well as acting that main part.
  • It was the last time
  • he used his Little Tramp
  • Character.
  • The film is an attack on the use
  • of machines in modern factories
  • and the bad treatment of factory
  • Workers.

102
  • Working on the assembly line, Charlie is driven
    crazy by the pace of the machine and the tough
    manner of his foreman. In his fantasy, Charlie
    gets a tick that makes him move like a machine.
    Stuck on a conveyer belt, he runs through the
    machine and becomes part of it.

103
  • What this fantasy triggers off your mind? On its
    first appearance, it could be the factory floor,
    with its automatism, standardization and
    specialization, its rationalism, its technology
    and its routine. On second thoughts, it could
    also be the robotization, the dehumanization, the
    depersonalization of the worker.

104
Put to rights/right
  • Correct (sb or sth) make a situation etc return
    to normal again
  • Could the psychiatrist put all their troubles
    again?
  • A days rest would put me right.
  • The only way we can really put things right is by
    borrowing even more money.

105
Have/get the hang of sth
  • Learn how to operate or do sth see the meaning
    of sth said or written
  • Ive finally got the hang of the programming.
  • Using the computer isnt difficult once you get
    the hang of it.

106
Sleep multiple meaning
  • 1. a. To move smoothly, easily, and quietly
    slipped into bed.
  • b. To move stealthily steal.
  • 2. To pass gradually, easily, or imperceptibly
    "It is necessary to write, if the days are not to
    slip emptily by" Vita Sackville-West.
  • 3. a. To slide involuntarily and lose one's
    balance or foothold. See Synonyms at slide.
  • b. To slide out of place shift position The
    gear slipped.
  • 4. To escape, as from a grasp, fastening, or
    restraint slipped away from his pursuers.
  • 5. To decline from a former or standard level
    fall off.
  • 6. To fall behind a scheduled production rate.

107
reel
  • Become dizzy or confused move unsteadily
    stagger
  • Dozens of opportunities suddenly opened up, and
    my mind was reeling.
  • She began to reel and then she fainted.

108
fumble
  • Search (for sth) by feeling about awkwardly with
    the hands handle sth clumsily
  • She fumbled about in the dark for the light
    switch.
  • He fumbled the catch and the ball dropped on the
    ground

109
tighten
  • Make or become tighter
  • He bent down and tightened his shoelaces.
  • The bolt is coming loose it needs tightening up.

110
anew
  • Again in a new or different way
  • She made a few mistakes and had to write it anew.
  • After the scandal they thought the best way to
    start anew was to move to another town.

111
foul
  • (cause to) become filthy do sth contrary to the
    rules (in sports)
  • We suspected that the cattle had fouled the
    river.
  • He was cautioned for fouling an opponent.

112
  • Having a bad smell or taste causing disgust
    filthy
  • There was a foul smell coming up from the river.
  • Cars are to blame for the foul smog that covers
    the city.

113
Foul up
  • Spoil mess up
  • People allowing their animals to foul up the
    footpaths will be prosecuted.
  • This time he really fouled up the interview.

114
squint
  • Look at sideways or with half-shut eyes or
    through a narrow opening
  • The sudden bright light made him squint
  • She shaded her eyes and squinted at the sky.

115
See double
  • See two things when there is one
  • She was seeing double from drinking so much wine.
  • For 35 minutes I was walking around in a daze, I
    was dizzy, seeing double.

116
Call it quits
  • Decide to abandon an activity or venture
  • Now Ive decided to call it quits and get a
    divorce.
  • Take a million bucks and call it quits.

117
  • ring down the curtain To end a performance,
    event, or action.
  • ring up the curtain
  • To begin a performance, event, or action.

118
memento
  • A reminder of the past a keepsake.

119
serene
  • Calm and peaceful tranquil
  • What amazes me is his serene indifference to all
    the trouble around him.
  • The woods were reflected in the serene lake.

120
soothe
  • Make quiet or calm comfort make (pains, etc)
    less sharp or severe
  • When the baby cried his mother soothed him by
    stroking his hot little head.
  • Maybe a drink would help soothe your nerves.

121
giddy
  • Having or causing the feeling that everything is
    turning round and that ones going to fall
  • She suddenly became giddy and had to find
    somewhere to sit down.
  • Just before I fainted I had a giddy sensation and
    felt unable to stand.

122
Play hooky
  • to fail to attend school or some other event. Why
    aren't you in school? Are you playing hooky? I
    don't have time for the sales meeting today, so I
    think I'll just play hooky.

123
complexity
  • State of being complex complex thing
  • He hadnt appreciated the complexity of the
    situation.
  • The complexities of modern life were too much for
    him.
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