Law and Catchment Management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Law and Catchment Management PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 4b6f7b-Y2U4N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Law and Catchment Management

Description:

Law and Catchment Management What is it? The Presentation Theory of Catchment Management Integrated Water resources Management Water Management: The International ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:357
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 138
Provided by: Joakim7
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Law and Catchment Management


1
Law and Catchment Management
  • What is it?

2
The Presentation
  • Theory of Catchment Management
  • Integrated Water resources Management
  • Water Management The International Arena
  • The trigger of the reforms in Zimbabwe
  • Activities leading to reforms in Zimbabwe
  • Formation of Catchment Councils

3
Theory of Catchment Management
  • Human activities
  • Causes of Erosion
  • Catchment management
  • Catchment Planning
  • Water Management

4
The environment
  • Atmosphere
  • Hydrosphere
  • Lithosphere

5
Lithosphere
  • Land
  • vegetation
  • Fauna
  • Human
  • water

6
Human activities
  • Humans are at the center of the activities
  • Keeps animals
  • overgraze
  • trump grass and vegetation
  • cultivate the land
  • Puts various forms of infrastructure
  • roads, industries, mines, waste dumps, waste
    treatment , etc
  • which discharge toxic waste
  • cuts down trees
  • burns grass
  • All this result in bare land water degradation

7
Causes of Erosion
  • Erosion is a result of a imbalance in the
    following forces
  • Energy forces
  • rainfall intensity
  • runoff volume
  • slope steepness
  • slope length
  • resistive forces
  • soil erodibility
  • organic matter content
  • infiltration capacity

8
Causes of Erosion
  • protective forces
  • vegetation cover
  • population pressure
  • conservation practice
  • conservation education
  • when resistive and protective forces are low
    compared to energy forces erosion occurs

9
What weakens protective resistive forces
  • Protective forces
  • population pressure
  • cultivation
  • trumping by animals
  • conservation practices
  • cultivation down the slope
  • lack of stable slopes
  • lack of vegetation cover
  • Resistive force
  • cutting down trees
  • overgrazing
  • burning of vegetation

10
Consequences of Erosion
  • Land degradation
  • creation of gullies
  • depletion of the soil
  • loss of soil nutrients
  • loss in agricultural yields
  • water degradation
  • siltation of dams
  • siltation of rivers
  • chemical water pollution

11
Catchment management
  • Catchment Management attempts to introduce good
    management land its resources practices in
    order to avoid land water degradation
  • Areas of focus are
  • Catchment Planning
  • Land Management
  • Forestry management
  • Animal management
  • water management

12
Catchment Management
  • Main Beneficiaries of catchment management
  • Soil conservation
  • water resources conservation
  • the following are areas covered
  • land management
  • cultivation along the slope
  • contour ridging
  • stabilization of slopes
  • deforestation
  • gradients and stabilization of roads
  • streambank cultivation

13
Catchment Management
  • forestry management
  • protection against fires
  • afforestation
  • avoiding indiscriminate cutting of trees
  • avoiding overstocking
  • animal management
  • no overstocking
  • no overgrazing
  • grazing land (paddocks)
  • water management

14
Catchment Planning
  • Land use planning
  • land development management planning
  • Forestry deve. management planning
  • Animal dev. management planning
  • water dev. management planning

15
Effect of poor Catchment management on water
  • Less groundwater recharge
  • decline of fish habitats (pools)
  • less water is available
  • in dams
  • as ground water
  • as baseflow
  • the incidence of flooding is increased
  • moisture recycling is reduced
  • Chemical and biological pollution increases

16
Water Management
  • Water Management (WM) is a subset of Catchment
    Management (CM) and is the subject of our
    discussion
  • The benefits of CM accrue to water conservation
    and WM
  • WM involves dealing with some of the following
  • Socio-economic issues
  • Institutional Set up
  • legal processes
  • technical issues

17
Socio-economic issues
  • Some of the socio-economic issues dealt with are
    as follows
  • Water is important for life
  • Equal access
  • Stakeholder participation
  • equitable allocation
  • water for basic needs
  • affordability
  • subsidies

18
Socio-economic issues
  • water as an economic issue
  • water for productive purposes
  • cost recovery
  • water use efficiency
  • Competing demands ( Allocation)
  • demand management
  • Sustainability of water resources
  • polluter pays
  • the user pays

19
Institutions Set up
  • Hierarchical (Regional) set up
  • national
  • 1st tier (basin)
  • 2nd tier (catchment)
  • 3rd tier (sub-catchment)
  • 4th tier (water user)

20
Institutions Set up (cont.)
  • Responsibilities
  • policy
  • judiciary
  • regulatory
  • implementation
  • monitoring water use
  • the main issues here are
  • water should be managed at the lowest appropriate
    level
  • Management should be streamlined as given above

21
legal processes
  • Institutions
  • what is institutional set up?
  • what are the functions ?
  • and what are the powers?
  • what procedure do they follow?
  • Allocation
  • who is eligible to apply?
  • Who allocates water?
  • what is the procedure?
  • under what conditions?

22
legal processes (cont.)
  • Shortages
  • who has priority over who?
  • what are the procedures of informing users of the
    situation?
  • how to deal with shortage?
  • legal obligation of users?
  • Dispute resolution
  • who deals with disputes?
  • what is the procedure?
  • where does one appeal if not satisfied by a
    decision

23
Technical issues
  • Surface Groundwater
  • hydrological monitoring
  • quantity
  • scarcity (drought)
  • abundance (flooding)
  • quality
  • utilization
  • allocation systems
  • assessment methods
  • water balance

monitor
Assess
Allocate
Water balance
24
Technical cont.
  • Water Development
  • flood control
  • supply and demand
  • Water supply
  • irrigation
  • energy
  • demand management
  • conjunctive use
  • environmental impact assessments

25
Water Management
  • The International Arena

26
International events
  • Global consultation on safe water san.(New
    Delhi 2000)
  • Intertn. Conference on water environment
    (Dublin 1992)
  • UN Conference on Envir. And Dev. (Rio 1992)
  • Rio 5
  • 2nd World Water Forum ministerial conf. (Hague
    2000)
  • Water for 21St Century vision to action
    (Southern Africa 2000)

27
International events
  • Millenium Development goals 2000
  • International conference on freshwater (Bonn
    2001)
  • Ministerial Conference on water(AMCOW Abuja
    2002)
  • Water and sustainable development (Accra 2002)
  • World Summit on Sustainable Development (Joburg
    2002)
  • 3rd World Water Forum (Kyoto 2003)

28
Global cons. On safe water san.(New Delhi 2000)
  • Provide Access to water in sufficient quantities
    and sanitation for all
  • Principles
  • protection of environment from solid and liquid
    waste
  • institutional reforms to promote integrated
    approach
  • community management of services
  • sound financial practices

29
Intertn. Conference on water environment
(Dublin 1992)
  • Dublin Principles
  • fresh water is vulnerable and essential for life
    and the environment
  • water development and management to be
    participator (users planners, policy makers)
  • woman a central to provision, management and
    safeguarding water
  • recognize that water has an economic value in all
    competing uses and is an economic good

30
UN Conference on Envir. And Dev.(Rio 1992)
  • Dublin principle also echoed at the Earth Summit
    in Rio (also emphasized social good)
  • Principle were a basis for programme of action in
    7 areas
  • integrated water resources development and
    management
  • water resources assessment

31
The 7 areas continue
  • protection of water resources(including water
    quality)
  • drinking water supply and sanitation
  • water and sustainable urban development
  • water for sustainable food production and rural
    development
  • the impact of climate change on water resources

32
Rio 5
  • Revision of the Earth Summit emphasizing on
  • strengthening of regional and international
    cooperation in technology transfer and and
    financing of IWRM programmes
  • sustainable development of international water
    courses taking into account interests of
    watercourse states

33
Rio 5 (continue)
  • need for international community to support
    developing countries in IWRM
  • strengthen Gvt and international institutions to
    collect and manage information the importance of
    cost recovery
  • need for water conservation

34
2nd World Water Forum ministerial conf. (Hague
2000)
  • World Water vision was presented with the
    following objectives
  • empower people to decide on how to use water
  • to get more crops and jobs per drop
  • to manage the use so as to conserve freshwater
    and terrestrial ecosystems

35
Five critical action to achieve the objectives
  • Involve all stakeholders in integrated management
  • move to full cost recovery (pricing)
  • increase public finding for research
  • cooperate on managing international basins
  • massive increase in investment in water

36
Water for 21St Century vision to action
(Southern Africa 2000)
  • Equitable social and economic development
  • equitable access to water of acceptable quality
    and quantity
  • proper sanitation and safe disposal of waste
  • food security for all households
  • energy security for all households
  • sustainable environment
  • security from natural disasters
  • integrated water resources development and
    management

37
International conference on freshwater (Bonn 2001)
  • Themes of the Ministerial declaration
  • governance- primary responsibility rests with GVT
  • funding gap-making more efficient use of existing
    source raising finding from all source (public,
    private, community international)
  • role of international community-official
    development assistance to reach 0.7 of GDP
  • capacity building and technology transfer-
  • gender-strengthen role of women and participation

38
Millenium Development goals 2000
  • Millenium development goals include
  • reduce by half the proportion of people without
    access to safe drinking water by 2015
  • reduce by half the number of people living on
    less than a dollar a day by 2015
  • improve lives of at least 100 million people
    living in slums by 2020

39
Ministerial Conference on water(AMCOW Abuja 2002)
  • AMCOW to support measures which
  • encourage stronger and better performing
    institutions in the sector
  • strengthen monitoring and assessment of available
    water resources
  • ensure sustainable water and sanitation
    infrastructure and services delivery
  • promote policies for appropriate allocation of
    water for domestic use, food security and
    competing demands

40
Water and sustainable development (Accra 2002)
  • Water can be used to eradicate poverty, reduce
    water related diseases achieve sustainable
    development, through
  • improved access to portable water and sanitation
  • water use for food security and income generation
  • IWRM in national and shared basins
  • water related disaster prevention, mitigation and
    management
  • empowerment and capacity building to improve
    equity and gender sensitivity
  • Pro-poor water governance policies and
    protection of environment

41
World Summit on Sustainable Development (Joburg
2002)
  • Affirmed the millenium development goals and
    agreed to half the proportion of people without
    basic sanitation by 2015, through
  • development and implementation of efficient
    household sanitation systems
  • improved sanitation in public institutions e.g.
    schools
  • promotion of safe hygiene practices
  • promotion of outreach on children as agents of
    change

42
continue
  • Promotion of affordable socially and culturally
    acceptable technologies and practices
  • development of innovative financing and
    partnerships mechanism
  • integration of sanitation into water resources
    management strategies

43
continue
  • Plan of implementation
  • develop IWRM and water use plans by 2005
  • a) develop and implement
  • i) national/regional strategies, plans
    programmes with regards to
  • ii) integrated river basins, water shed and
    aquifers
  • iii) put measures to reduce loses increase
    recycling of water
  • - balance with requirements for restoring or
    conserving environment in fragile environment

44
continue
  • b) employ the full range of policy instruments
    including
  • regulation, monitoring, voluntary measures
  • market and information tools
  • land use management and cost recovery tools
    (without cost recovery being a barrier to safe
    water by poor people)
  • adoption of river basin approach
  • c) improve efficient use of water resources
  • - promote allocation among competing uses giving
    priority to basic human need

45
continue
  • d) develop programmes to mitigate extremes events
  • e)support the diffusion of technology and
    capacity building
  • f) facilitate establishment of public private and
    other forms of partnerships
  • give priority to needs of poor
  • provide transparent national regulatory framework
  • improve accountability of public and private
    institutions

46
3rd World Water Forum (Kyoto 2003)
  • Declaration noted that
  • Water is a driving force for sust. Deve. and
    eradication of poverty hunger
  • prioritizing water issues is an urgent global
    requirement
  • primary responsibility lies with each country
  • international community plus international and
    regional organizations should support this

47
Cont.
  • in managing water, good governance should be
    ensured focusing of household and neighbourhood
    community base approaches by
  • addressing equity in sharing benefits
  • with due regard to poor and gender perspective in
    water policies
  • participation of all stakeholders, transparency
    and accountability should be promoted in all
    actions

48
Cont.
  • With regard to capacity building,commitment
    should include
  • to fortify capacity of people and institutions
    with assistance from intern. Community
  • ability to measure and monitor performance
  • to share innovative approaches, best practices,
    information knowledge and experience relevant to
    local conditions

49
Cont.
  • Ministers declared that
  • addressing the financial needs is a task for all
  • they should create an environment to facilitate
    investment
  • they call for prioritization of water issues and
    reflect the in national development plans
  • explore financing arrangements including
    including private sector participation
  • they will identify and develop new mechanisms of
    public-private partnerships

50
Summary of the International agenda
  • Principles
  • New Delhi- some for all instead of all for
    some
  • Dublin- economic good, gender, participation IWM
  • Rio- added social good, affirmed IWRM
  • Rio 5- called for cooperation on international
    rivers, technology transfer, cost recovery
  • WW Vision- cost recovery, increase in investment,
    role of private sector, targeted subsidies

51
continue
  • SA Vision-right to basic services, promote
    polluter pay but soft on cost recovery
  • Bonn declaration- important role of governance,
    capacity building, Gvt to promote IWRM
  • NEPAD- increased private sector involvement
  • MD goals-reduce poverty and improve conditions in
    urban sums, reduce people without water supply by
    half
  • WSSD-added reduce people without sanitation by
    half by 2015

52
SADC
  • Regional Strategic Action Plan (RSAP) projects
  • legislation, policy and strategic planning
  • capacity building and training
  • awareness,consultation participation
  • information
  • collection, analysis, management, dissemination.
  • Transboundary river management, Planning,
    coordination
  • infrastructure investment
  • stand alone special priority areas

53
Law and Catchment Management
  • Integrated Water Resources Management

54
Water resources Management
  • A set of
  • technical practices
  • Institutional framework
  • legal framework
  • managerial skills
  • operational activities

55
Water resources Management (cont.)
  • Required for
  • Planning
  • development
  • operation and
  • Management of
  • management of water resources

56
Integrated Water Resources Management
  • This implies integration of
  • different physical aspects of water
  • different interests of water users
  • different interests of economic sectors
  • spatial variability
  • institutional legal framework
  • national objectives

57
Def. Integrated water resources Management (GWP
2000)
  • A process to promote
  • coordinated Development
  • and management of
  • land,
  • water
  • related resources
  • in order to maximize
  • economic
  • Social welfare without compromising
  • sustainability of the ecosystems

58
Case study Water Reforms In Zimbabwe
  • The trigger of the reforms

59
The trigger of the reforms
  • The drought of 1991/92
  • Increased conflict
  • Delays in conflict resolution
  • Delays in processing water rights
  • degradation of water due to pollution
  • recognition of groundwater as a public resource
  • The need to protect people in urban area vs
    agricultural activities

60

The drought of 1991/92
  • Problem
  • fish and animal death
  • water shortages in most urban centers
  • conflict between farmers and urban
  • conflict among farmers

61
The drought of 1991/92
  • Measures
  • Water rationing
  • water shortage area declared
  • Groundwater shortage areas declared
  • Water redistribution
  • emergency schemes started
  • deepening of borehole in rural areas

62
Major areas heavily affected
  • Harare
  • Bulawayo
  • Mutare
  • Chegutu
  • Mupfure Catchment

63
Harare
  • Concentrations of pollution in Chivero were
    greatly increased
  • fish died in the lake
  • The hyacinth weed went wild in the lake
  • It was realized that pollution of river degraded
    the resource

64
Bulawayo
  • There was a serious water shortage
  • Are was declared a groundwater control area
  • severe water rationing introduced
  • boreholes were drilled in the City
  • water supply was erratic
  • Nyamadhlovu project was started

65
Mutare
  • There was a serious water shortage
  • Area was declared a groundwater control area
  • severe water rationing introduced
  • boreholes were drilled in the City
  • water supply was erratic
  • Odzi project was started (but not finished up to
    now)

66
Chegutu
  • There was a serious water shortage
  • Area was declared a groundwater control area
  • severe water rationing introduced
  • boreholes were drilled in the City
  • water supply was erratic
  • Manyame-Chegutu canal project was started (but
    not finished)

67
Mupfure catchment
  • Conflict between Chegutu and farmers peaked
  • Mupfure catchment was declared a water shortage
    area
  • committee was set up to produce a status report
  • it was realized that the process was lengthy

68
Increased conflict
  • Conflict among users increased tremendously
  • the administrative court was flooded with court
    cases
  • reports of illegal water abstraction increased

69
Delays in conflict resolution
  • Conflict resolution mechanisms took a long time
    to be dealt with
  • many cases were concluded after the period of
    drought
  • the water shortage declaration in Mupfure was
    only realized after the drought period
  • plans to alleviate drought should form an
    integral part of the long term plan of a city by
    involving the local authorities

70
Delays in processing water rights
  • The years flowing the drought saw a marked
    increase in water right applications
  • The administrative court failed to clear the back
    log in applications
  • and many smaller ones

71
Lessons learnt
  • Groundwater was a valuable resources for
    combating drought
  • the existing conflict resolution institution
    could not cope with water cases
  • the declaration of water shortage areas was
    cumbersome
  • primary uses in urban areas were not protected
    against other uses
  • It was realized that pollution of river degraded
    the water resource
  • many illegal structures were being erected e.g.
    Masembura dam, Arcadia dam (in Mazoe)

72
Water Reforms In Zimbabwe
  • Activities leading to the reforms

73
Activities leading to the Water Reforms
  • The Halcrow Report 1993/4
  • White Paper to Cabinet 1994
  • the WRMs 1996-2001
  • the GTZ initiatives- Mazoe pilot project 1996
  • the Dutch initiatives -Mupfure pilot project 1998
  • The Water Act 1998
  • The ZINWA Act 1998
  • Groundwater Guidelines regulations 2000
  • Water Pollution Control Guidelines regulation
    2000
  • Water allocation Guidelines and regulations 2000
  • Catchment and Sub-catchment Councils regulations
    2000

74
The Halcrow Report 1993
  • Guidelines for the Development of a Water
    Resources Management Strategy

75
The need for a WRMS
  • Reinforced by the occurrence of the drought of
    91/92
  • Attribute of of the WRMS
  • Sound basis for
  • Equitable sustanable allocation of water
  • Cpmprehensive Water resources planning and
    management
  • Pricing and subsidy structure
  • Guidelines for dev. And action plans
  • Investiment scheduling
  • Clear assignment of responsibilities
  • Improved horizontal and vertical communication
  • Well defined objectives for capacity building

76
Form of strategy
  • Strategy was to define methods for water
    resources management in a sustainable manner
    consistent with national policies
  • Strategy was to be developed by the gvt agencies
    with stakeholder participation
  • Sttrategy was to provide framework for drawing up
    compatible and inegrated action plans

77
Essential components of the strategy
  • Planning and management requirements
  • Quantification of the water resource
  • Understanding relation between people, water and
    land
  • Quantification of current and forecast demand
  • Basis for equitable allocation nationally and
    internationally
  • Sound methodmethods for investiment priorities

78
Essential components
  • Guidelines for
  • Resource management
  • Demand managemend and efficient use of water
  • Maintenance of appropriate water quality
    standards
  • Planned response to water scarcity

79
Essential components
  • Establishment of an enabling environment
  • Definition of institutional forms and
    responsiblities
  • The identification of necessary capacity building
  • Identification of requirements for legislation
  • The establishment of steering groups, committee
    and subcommittees
  • Strengthening of the planning branch
  • Hydrology
  • planning

80
Key activities
  • Coordination and management of dev. and implem.
    Of WRMS
  • Exploration of key issues, policy options and
    establish policy
  • Devise and implement natonal guidelines,resource
    assessment methods and framework for water
    resource allocation and management
  • Strengthen technical and management capacity of
    participating organisation
  • Implement institutional and legal activities
    required to enable the above

81
White Paper to Cabinet 1994
  • Adoption of IWRM principles
  • Holistic approach (integration)
  • management at catchment level
  • Environmental sustainability
  • Cost recovery
  • Demand management
  • Stakeholder participation
  • Gender consideration

82
WRMS 1996 - 2001
  • In 1995 the water resources management project
    document was developed with the support of 4
    donors
  • The project document proposed
  • The institutional setup for development and
    management of the strategy
  • Institutional strengthening
  • The capacity building elements of the project
  • The external technical support that was required
  • And the costing of the project
  • In 1996 the WRMS project was adopted and the
    staffing and equipment were gradually brought
    into the project

83
The institutional setup
  • The Ministry of Lands and Water Resources was the
    lead government agency
  • A steering committee comprising of major
    stakeholders that deal with water was overseeing
    the development of the strategy
  • A technical secretariat did the day to day
    activities of the WRMS formulation, comprised of
  • Coordinator
  • WRM strategist
  • Economist
  • Enviromentalist
  • Publicity officer
  • Project secretary
  • Driver/ messenger

84
Strengthening of technical capacity
  • This was targeted at the water resources
    planning aspects i.e.
  • The hydrology
  • Water resources assesment
  • Surface water
  • Groundwater
  • Water quality
  • Geographic information syatems
  • The water planning
  • Land use planning
  • Water resources planning
  • Economic planning

85
Strengthening of technical capacity
  • The following professional were recuited
  • External based in the Groundwater branch
  • Hydrologist
  • Systems analyst
  • External based in the groundwater branch
  • Hydrogeologist
  • Internal based in the planning branch
  • Catchment planner
  • Development economist
  • Internal based in agritex
  • Landuse planner

86
The capacity building
  • This was in the form of
  • Training
  • A broad range of proffessionals were to be
    trained in MSc degrees
  • Others were to be trained under short course
  • Others were to have visiting tours
  • Provision of equipment
  • Computers
  • Software
  • Vehicles
  • Hydro lab equipment

87
The repeal of the Water Act the Regional Water
Authority Act in 1998
  • In 1998 the new water Act and the ZINWA Act were
    passed by parliament and accented by the
    president
  • In 2000 the Water Act and ZINWA Act were
    operationalised thus the reforms entered the
    implementation phase

88
Aims
  • improve equity in access to water
  • improve the management of the resource
  • strengthen environmental protection
  • to improve the administration of the Act

89
Principles governing
  • ownership of both surface and ground water is
    vested in the state, hence authority is needed
    except for primary use
  • involvement of stakeholders in decision-making
    and management of the resource
  • water should be managed on catchment boundaries
    not provincial o0r district boundaries
  • development of the resource should be
    environmentally friendly

90
Principles governing
  • Principles governing
  • pricing of the resource should based on the user
    pays and polluter pays principle
  • water should be recognized both as an economic
    good and a social good
  • Water as an economic good would achieve
  • water use efficiency
  • equity of use
  • encourage conservation
  • encourage protection

91
Changes to the water Act of 1976
  • Changes to the Act
  • cease granting water rights in perpetuity but
    water permits for 20 years
  • cease the use of priority date system
  • eliminate theory of private water (underground)
  • end the differentiation of flood flow, normal
    flow and storm flow
  • Minister to declare water shortage not president
  • Secretary of water to delegate some
    administration to ZINWA and catchment councils

92
Changes to the water Act of 1976
  • Changes to the Act
  • Replace registrar with the catchment manager
  • Replace advisory councils with catchment Councils
  • replace river-boards with sub-catchment councils
  • expand the source of assessor to include farmers
  • prohibition orders not to suspend operation
  • make the environment a legitimate water user
  • Introduction of the polluter pays principle

93
Division of responsibilities
  • Administrative Court for appeal cases
  • Department of Water Development for policy issues
    and regulation
  • Zimbabwe National Water Authority for operational
    activities
  • Catchment Councils for water allocation and
    dispute resolution
  • Sub-Catchment Councils-day to day resources
    accounting

94
The ZINWA Act
  • The ZINWA Act amalgameted the functions of the
    regional water Authority and some of the
    Department of water
  • The Board of ZINWA has nine members
  • 4 from catchment councils
  • 5 from the bussimess community
  • 1 a gvt water engineer
  • and the Chief Executiver

95
Functions of ZINWA
  • Planning of the water resources
  • Development of the water resources
  • Dams
  • Boreholes
  • Water suplies
  • Management of the water resources
  • In dams
  • Water suplies
  • Provide secretariat to cachment councils
  • Monitoring the wter resources in terms of
  • Quality
  • quantity

96
Financing of the Authority
  • From monies collected from their operations
  • Sale of clean Water
  • Sale of raw water
  • From engineering services
  • Water fund
  • Pollution levies
  • Water levies
  • Water permit charges
  • Fund appropriated by government
  • Other sources eg donation

97
Functions of catchment Managers
  • Provide secretariate to catchment councils
  • Receipt of applications and registering them
  • Keeping a register of applictions and permits and
    their status
  • Application, Provisional, Granted, Expired,
    renewal
  • Keeping records of permit performance as submited
    by permit holders
  • Technical advisor to catchment councils on
    application and dispute resolution
  • Allocation of unopposed permits when the councils
    are not sitting

98
Repeal of all regulations 2000
  • River boards regulation repealed
  • sub-catchment council regulation
  • catchment council regulations introduced
  • water allocation regulations introduced
  • water pollution control regulation

99
water allocation regulations
  • Introduces the proportinal system of water
    allocation
  • Introduces the proedures for applying for a
    permit
  • Subcatchment council
  • Catchment council
  • Introduces the application forms for
  • A permit
  • Revision of a permit
  • Cancellation of a permit
  • etc

100
water allocation regulations
  • Introduces the reports to accompany an
    application
  • Engineers report
  • Agricultural report
  • Mining engineers report
  • Environment report
  • etc
  • Introduces the relevant fees that have to be paid
    on application
  • Introduces the standard form of
  • Provisional water permit
  • Final water permit

101
water pollution control regulation
  • Mrs vhevha could you give us a brief on the
    regulations

102
the WRMs Document 2001challenges
  • Equitable access to water for all Zimbabweans
  • supply approach vs demand management
  • financing the water sector
  • pricing of water stakeholder involvement
  • environment management
  • land/water use planning
  • gender water resources management
  • shared transboundary waters

103
Equitable access to water for all Zimbabweans
strategies
  • legal and institutional
  • granting permit for fixed period
  • removal of priority system
  • principals to be observe in considering
    allocation
  • establishment of catchment councils
  • water allocation
  • planning stage
  • no priority in allocation in uncommitted area

104
strategies
  • permits in management stage
  • sufficient water
  • insufficient water
  • priority by use
  • reallocation
  • ... Water generated
  • ....water in storage
  • fractional allocation
  • drought stage
  • declaration of shortage area
  • reallocation allocation

105
supply approach Vs demand management strategies
  • market base
  • water pricing
  • effluent charges
  • technology based
  • reduction of unaccounted for water
  • recycling
  • recycling plant
  • pricing high such that recycling is an option
  • water demand management in Agriculture
  • water saving technology
  • irrigation potential based on water loss

106
financing the water sector strategies
  • government financing
  • commercialization of utilities
  • use of the money market
  • external funding
  • private sector participation
  • service contracts
  • management contracts
  • lease contracts
  • concessions
  • joint ownership

107
pricing of water stakeholder involvement
strategies
  • average cost pricing
  • blend pricing
  • catchment pricing
  • site specific
  • targeted subsidies
  • levies and fees

108
environment management strategies
  • instreamflow requirement
  • environmental impact assessment
  • integrated catchment management
  • water quality monitoring
  • command and control
  • market based approaches
  • environmental protection
  • polluter pays
  • best management practices
  • prevention approaches
  • control of diffusion sources
  • stakeholder approaches

109
Land water use planning strategies
  • Lack of integration the cause of
  • land degradation
  • water degradation
  • Integrated catchment management has been sited as
    the reason for the above

110
implementation
  • Catchment and subcatchment councils formed end of
    1999
  • Water act operational 2000
  • ZINWA formed 2000
  • ZINWA staffing 2001
  • Irrigation department formed 2002

111
Water Reforms In Zimbabwe
  • Formation of Catchment Councils

112
CONTENTS
  • BRIEF HISTORY OF STAKEHOLDER INSTITUTUTIONS
  • EVOLUTION OF THE INSTITUTIONS
  • OLD INSTITUTIONAL SETUP
  • CURRENT INSTITUTIONAL SETUP
  • DESIRED INSTITIONAL SETUP
  • THE ROLE OF CCs
  • BRIEF HISTORY
  • MEMBERSHIP
  • POWERS
  • FUNCTIONS
  • CONCLUSION

113
BRIEF HISTORY OF STAKEHOLDER INSTITUTUTIONS
  • Institutional reforms dates back to the 70s
  • The Water Act of 1976 introduced Water
    Development Advisory Council (WDACs) based on
    Catchments
  • Water Act revision of 1984 introduce Riverboards
  • 1994 a National Steering Committee introduced to
    develop a WRMS

114
BRIEF HISTORY (cont.)
  • Water Act Revision of 1998 Introduced
  • Catchment and Subcatchment Councils
  • abolished WDAC and River-boards
  • 2000 Catchment institutions operationalized
  • 2000 WRMS NSC was Disbanded (debate NSC)
  • 2002 Association of Catchment Councils Launched
  • Sept 2002 ZACPRO NSC Launched

115
EVOLUTION OF WATER INSTITUTIONS
  • Local informal stakeholder groups (where there
    are few users and plenty of water)
  • Localised formal groups that do not interact
    (where there are localised problems but plenty of
    water)
  • Localised groups, formalised with defined
    structure of interaction and co-ordination (where
    water problems are shared by many upstream and
    downstream)

116
Old institutional Set up
  • Institution have no relation to each other

1994 WRMS NSC
NATIONAL ( WRMS)
1976 WDAC
CATCHMENT (Rivers System Plans)
1984 Riverboards
ICA (conservation Areas)
Combined irrigation schemes
Scheme specific
117
Current Institutional Set up
  • Inter-linked and relate to each other

CC Forum
ZACPRO NSC
National Level
Catchment Councils (CC)
Catchment Level
Sub-Catchment Councils
Sub-Catchment
Combined Schemes
Scheme specific
118
Desired institutional Set up
  • Technical Functions

Basin Inst. (eg ZAMCOM)
Basin resource allocation
National Steering Com.
National resource Distribution
Catchment Councils
Catchment resource distribution
Sub Catch. Councils
Permit resource distribution
CS, Water User Ass. Water Utilities etc.
Consumer resource distribution
119
Desired institutional Set up (cont.)
  • Operational Functions

Basin Inst. ZAMCOM
Negotiation
National Steering Com.
Strategic Planning
Catchment Councils
Water Budgeting allocation
Sub Catch. Councils
Water Accounting (river)
CS, Water User Ass. Water Utilities etc.
Operational
120
Desired Institutional (cont.)
  • Government involvement

Basin Inst. ZAMCOM
Gvt takes the lead
National Steering Com.
Gvt participates
Catchment Councils
Government observes and directs
Sub Catch. Councils
Govt observes regulate
CS, Water User Ass. Water Utilities etc.
Government regulate
121
Brief History of catchment Councils
  • Water Development Advisory Councils
  • Mazoe pilot project
  • Mupfure Pilot Project
  • Formation of Catchment Councils.

122
Water Development Advisory Councils
  • The WDACs had a responsibility to plan water
    resources, on behalf of stakeholder in river
    systems.
  • The WDAC were only active in the late 70s and
    early 80s but latter became dormant.
  • In the 90s the institutions were found not to be
    serving the interests of all the water users
    minority of the society hence new institutions
    were introduced
  • they were upgrade RWA was upgrade to ZINWA,
    river boards to Sub-catchment councils and WDAC
    to Catchment councils.
  • New institution have expanded roles, powers and
    geographic area of responsibility

123
Mazoe pilot project (stakeholder driven)
  • The history of catchment and sub-catchment
    councils started at a workshop in Bindura 1996
  • an interim working group was established to form
    Mazoe catchment council and the sub catchment
    councils.
  • At the on set this group was stakeholder driven
    Government official were technical
  • a number of committees were formed as back up to
    the working group

124
Mazoe pilot (cont.)
  • the catchment Planning committee
  • water availability,
  • division of the sub-catchment,
  • preparation of catchment plans,
  • preparation of an allocation system etc
  • the logistics committee
  • to find ways of accessing the people in the Mazoe
  • to decide on the logistical arrangements e.g.
    seminars and works shops.

125
Mazoe pilot (cont.)
  • Public relations committee
  • to devise on means of interfacing with the public
  • making sure that people knew their role in the
    process
  • The fund raising committee
  • to devise means of accessing funds to finance
    publicity material, workshops, travel costs etc.
  • a secretariat that had
  • to do day to day work
  • to co-ordinate these committees,
  • provide secretarial and secretariat services.

126
Mazoe pilot (cont.)
  • A number of problems were encountered
  • finances, logistics, talking the same language
    and to understand each other.
  • lower tears were facilitated through political
    structure and the lowest level was the Ward.
  • Water User Boards chairman was automatically a
    member of the sub-catchment council
  • Sub-catchment councils chairmen and vice
    chairmen were appointed to the catchment council
  • Catchment Councils members elected chairmen and
    vice
  • The process took a period of about 1 year

127
Mupfure Pilot Project (gvt driven)
  • Mupfure pilot project was borne out of
    documentation prepared by consultants.
  • the project was approved by a donor hence it was
    fully funded,
  • the two pilot projects stated at the same time
    they launched their catchment councils at about
    the same.
  • The delay for Mupfure was on the documentation
    approval process.
  • it gained ground on implementation because of
    access to finances and the process had already
    been prescribed.

128
Mupfure Pilot (cont.)
  • The project had a manager, a chief executive and
    supporting staff.
  • the strategy was to work with target groups
    divided on sectoral lines e.g. rural and
    re-settlement,urban centres etc.
  • It did not take long to appoint members of the
    sub-catchment councils. However, it took a bit of
    time to come up with members from the
    resettlement and rural areas.
  • First water user associations were formed. From
    were representatives to the sub-catchment
    councils were elected.
  • The chairmen and vice chairmen were automatically
    made members of the catchment council

129
Formation of Catchment Councils
  • The ZINWA Act and Water Act of 1998 were to be
    operational on the 1st of January 2000.
  • Therefore, there was pressure to establish the
    ZINWA board whose 4 members came the Catchment
    Councils
  • the quickest way to have these people in place
    had to be adopt, thus the Mupfure approach was
    adopted country wide.
  • by the end of 1999 seven catchment councils
    namely, Sanyati, Mazoe, Save, Runde, Mzingwani,
    Gwayi and Manyame had been formed.

130
Formation (cont.)
  • The Mazoe system took a longer time to develop
    but at full development people were already aware
    of the purpose of their mission.
  • the Mupfure method was quicker to establish but
    the people elected did not know what they were
    supposed to do,
  • It took exactly a year for the people elected in
    the new CC to be in control of the situation a
    period equal to that spend establishing Mazoe
    Catchment Council.
  • hence would like to believe the that both systems
    were equally good.

131
Catchment Council membership
  • Rural district councils,
  • large scale and small scale miners,
  • large scale and small scale farmers,
  • communal and resettlement farmers,
  • urban local authorities and industrialists,
  • and other government institutions

132
Election of Catchment Council members
  • Members are nominated by the sub-catchment
    councils to be on the catchment councils
  • The chairman and vice-chairman are elected by the
    these people from the group.
  • One third is supposed to leave office and be
    replaced after a year. This is done to allow
    knowledge transfer from the old member.
  • The catchment councils are expected to funded
    from a water levy fund administered by ZINWA
  • a treasurer, elected at an annual general
    meeting, keeps the councils financial record.

133
Functions of Catchment Councils
  • Preparation of outline plans in conjunction with
    ZINWA, for its river system
  • determine and grant water permits
  • regulate and supervise the exercise of permit
    with respect to the river system
  • supervise the performance of sub-catchment
    councils
  • ensure users comply with the provisions of the
    Water Act

134
Powers of Catchment Councils
  • Employ or discharge persons conducting it affairs
  • Pay expenses allowances or fees to member
    attending meetings
  • Defend legal proceedings on behalf of committee
  • Pay salary or wages to members engaged by NSC

135
Meetings of Catchment Councils
  • The catchment council have the following meeting
    and two thirds represent a quorum
  • An annual general meeting of stakeholder
    representatives
  • receive and consider chairmens report
  • consider adoption of accounts
  • elect new member to fill vacancies
  • select treasurer
  • consider other matter

136
Meetings (cont.)
  • an extra ordinary annual general meeting
    following a petition by not less than on quarters
    of members
  • when the requested by a stake holder group or a
    group of sub-catchment councils sharing a public
    stream
  • A week after any sub catchment council meeting of
    with it has the notice

137
Work Currently of High Priority
  • Understanding water management in general
  • Preparation of catchment outline plans
  • Revision of water rights
  • Allocation of Water permits
  • Collection of Water levies
  • Regulate and supervise the exercise of permit
  • ensure measuring devices are in place to
    facilitate water measurements
  • monitor flows and water use in accordance with a
    permit

138
CONCLUSION
  • Catchment management is a complex process
  • Most countries have been able to implement it
    under environmental agency
  • the Zimbabwean context has been driven by the
    drought of 1991/92
  • this included legal reforms, institutional
    reforms and a water resources management strategy
  • even thought we have not completely managed to
    capture all the aspects
  • the Law is an important instrument to
    standardize and operationalize it.
  • This entails an institutional set up with roles
    and responsibilities set
  • followed by regulations to enforce compliance on
    certain provision
About PowerShow.com