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Chapter 5: Nutritional Considerations


Chapter 5: Nutritional Considerations Proper nutrition can positively contribute to: Strength Flexibility Cardiorespiratory Endurance Performance vs. Food consumption ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 5: Nutritional Considerations

Chapter 5 Nutritional Considerations
  • Proper nutrition can positively contribute to
  • Strength
  • Flexibility
  • Cardiorespiratory Endurance
  • Performance vs. Food consumption
  • Myths and habits vs. physiological benefits
  • Psychological vs. physiological considerations

Nutrition Basics
  • Science of substances found in food that are
    essential to life
  • Carbohydrates (CHO)
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water

Nutritional Considerations
Science of substances found in food that are
essential to life
  • Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water
  • Roles
  • Growth, repair tissue maintenance
  • Regulation of body processes
  • Production of energy

  • Bodys most efficient energy source
  • Accounts for 55-70 of total caloric intake
  • Sugars
  • Simple (sugars) and complex (starch and fiber)
  • Monosaccharides
  • single sugars (fruits, syrup and honey)
  • Glucose
  • Disaccharides
  • 2 sugars combined (milk sugar, table sugar)
  • Should account for lt15 of caloric intake

  • Starches
  • Complex CHO
  • Long chain glucose units
  • Rice, potatoes, breads
  • Body cannot use starch directly
  • Broken down in simple sugars
  • Unused starches and sugars are stored as glycogen
    to be used by the body later
  • Inadequate CHO intake results in protein
    utilization for energy
  • Protein sparing action of glucose occurs if
    adequate CHO in the system

  • Fiber
  • Structural part of plants and is not digestible
    in humans
  • Soluble
  • Gums, pectin
  • Oatmeal, legumes, and some fruits
  • Insoluble
  • Cellulose
  • Grain breads and bran cereal
  • Aids normal elimination of waste (bulk)
  • Reduces risk of colon cancer and coronary artery
  • Reduces incidents of obesity, constipation,
    colitis, appendicitis, and diabetes

  • Intake should be approximately 25 grams per day
  • Most only consume 10-15
  • Excessive consumption may lead to intestinal
    discomfort and increased loss of calcium and iron

  • Most concentrated source of energy
  • Serves to make food flavorable and contain fat
    soluble vitamins
  • Essential for normal growth and development
  • Saturated vs. unsaturated
  • Saturated (fatty acids derived from animal
  • Unsaturated (plant derivatives - liquid at room

  • Other Fats
  • Phospholipids
  • Lecithin
  • Sterols
  • Cholesterol (consume lt300mg/day)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids (unsaturated fat) aids in
    reduction of heart disease, stroke, hypertension)
  • Found in cold-water fish
  • Fat Substitutes
  • Simplese and Olean
  • Contain 80 fewer calories than fat and no
  • May cause abdominal cramping and diarrhea

  • Trans Fatty Acids
  • Physical properties resembling fatty acids
  • Found in cookies, crackers, dairy and meat
    products, fast foods
  • Increase levels of bad cholesterol
  • No safe level
  • People should eat as little of them as possible

  • Required for growth, maintenance, and repair of
    the body
  • Aid with enzyme, hormone, and enzyme production
  • Should encompass 12-15 of daily caloric intake

  • Amino Acids
  • Basic units that compose protein
  • 20 amino acids compose the majority of body
  • Most can be produced by the body while others
    (essential) must be consumed
  • Animal products contain all essential amino acids
  • Incomplete sources (i.e. plants sources) do not
    contain all essential amino acids

  • Protein sources and needs
  • Most diets are rich in protein and often athletes
    consume twice the amount that is recommended
  • Excess protein is converted to fat and may result
    in dehydration and potential kidney damage
  • Increased physical activity results in increased
    need for protein in the diet

Regulator Nutrients
  • Vitamins (13) serve as regulators in many body
  • Fat soluble
  • Vitamins A, D, E , K
  • Found in fatty portion of foods and oils
  • Water soluble
  • Vitamin C, B-complex vitamins
  • Help to regulate metabolism but cannot be stored
  • Each serves a series of roles

  • Anitoxidants
  • May prevent premature aging, cancers, heart
    disease and other health problems
  • Help protect cells from free radicals
  • Include vitamins A, C, E
  • Found in a number of dark green, deep yellow and
    orange fruits and vegetables
  • Supplements
  • Vitamin Deficiencies
  • Illness that results from a deficit in a
    particular vitamin/mineral
  • Are avoidable if an adequate diet is consumed

  • More than 20 minerals have essential roles in the
  • Many are stored in liver and bones
  • Examples
  • Iron (energy metabolism and oxygen transport)
  • Magnesium (energy supplying reactions)
  • Calcium (bone formation, clotting, muscle
  • Sodium and Potassium (nerve conduction)

  • Most essential nutrient and most abundant in body
    (60 of body weight)
  • Essential for all chemical processes
  • Lack of water (dehydration) can lead to illness
    and death
  • Body has mechanisms to maintain homeostatic
    levels of hydration (kidneys and solute

  • Electrolyte Requirements
  • Involve minerals of the body - must maintain
    adequate levels for optimal functioning
  • Excess sweating can lead to depletion of these
  • Help to maintain levels of hydration
  • Can generally maintain through proper diet,
    however, additional salts may need to be added

Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations
  • Amount of nutrient required to prevent deficiency
  • Vary among individuals and across populations
  • Requirements vs. Recommendations
  • RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) vs. DRI
    (Dietary Reference Intake)

  • DRI includes
  • RDA
  • ULs (upper intake levels)
  • EAR (estimated average requirements)
  • AI (adequate intake)
  • Food Labels
  • Aids consumers in determining levels of nutrients
    in foods

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The Food Pyramid
  • Used to educate Americans on relationship of food
    choices to health
  • Illustrates food groupings and minimum number of
    required servings

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Nutrition and Physical Activity
  • Activity increases need for energy not
    necessarily all vitamins, minerals and nutrients
  • Vitamin Supplementation
  • Athletes believe large doses can lead to superior
    health and performance
  • Common practices
  • Vitamin C
  • To prevent common cold and slow aging
  • May cause kidney stones and diarrhea

  • Vitamin E
  • Protects cell membranes from damage
  • Little evidence to support enhancing performance
    or life expectancy
  • B-complex vitamins
  • Aid in release of energy from CHO, fat, and
  • If additional energy is required, increased
    caloric intake is necessary
  • Mineral Supplementation
  • Calcium and iron tend to be low and diets may
    need to be modified
  • Need to be certain additional minerals are
    necessary in diet prior to purchase (save money)

  • Calcium Deficiency
  • Most abundant mineral in body
  • Over time additional levels of calcium are
    required for bone maintenance
  • Without, bones become weak and brittle resulting
    in osteoporosis
  • Young adult requires 1000mg/day
  • Females tend not to get enough calcium in diet
  • While exercise helps bones to retain calcium,
    extreme levels of exercise, causing hormonal
    imbalances, can disrupt calcium retention
  • Supplementing with calcium carbonate or citrate
    is advisable

  • Milk products are the most reliable source of
  • Some athletes complain it causes upset stomach
    due to a build up of intestinal gas
  • May be lactose intolerant and lack the enzyme
    lactase (lactase deficient)
  • Can supplement with lactase (scientifically
  • Iron Deficiency
  • Common in females
  • Results iron-deficiency anemia, limiting oxygen
    carrying capacity of blood
  • Athlete feels tired and weak due to muscles
    inability to generate energy

  • Protein Supplementation
  • Approximately 1-1.5g/kg body weight of protein
    should be consumed for increasing muscle mass
  • Often times exceeded with normal diet and
    supplementation is not necessary
  • Creatine Supplementation
  • Naturally occurring substance in body produced by
    kidneys, pancreas and liver
  • Found in meat and fish
  • Role in metabolism
  • Two types (free creatine and phosphocreatine)

  • Phosphocreatine is stored in skeletal muscle and
    works to re-synthesize ATP during activity
  • Positive effects
  • increase intensity of workouts
  • lactic acid buffer
  • stimulates protein synthesis
  • decreases total cholesterol and total
    triglycerides and improves HDL-LDL ratio
  • increases fat free mass
  • Negative effects
  • weight gain
  • muscle cramping
  • gastrointestinal disturbances and renal
  • Not a banned substance, however, distribution by
    NCAA institutions is banned

  • Sugar and Performance
  • Ingesting large quantities of sugar prior to
    activity causes an increase glucose in the blood
  • Release of insulin stimulated allowing cells to
    utilize free circulating glucose, sparing blood
  • Positive effect on performance
  • However, some athletes are sensitive to high CHO
    feedings and have problems with increased levels
    of insulin

  • Caffeine
  • Central nervous system stimulant found in
    carbonated beverages, coffee, tea (chocolate
    contains compounds related to caffeine)
  • Increase alertness and decrease fatigue
  • Too much causes nervousness, irritability,
    increased heart rate and headaches
  • Headaches may result when ceasing caffeine use
  • Not detrimental to performance
  • Enhances fat utilization and endurance
  • Makes calcium more available allowing muscles to
    work more effectively
  • May cause slight headaches

  • Alcohol
  • Provides energy for the body
  • Little nutritional value
  • Central nervous system depressant
  • decreases coordination, slows reaction time,
    decreases mental alertness
  • increases urine production (diuretic effect)
  • Organic, Natural, of Health Foods
  • Claim to be safer and nutritionally superior due
    to absence of pesticides and fertilizers
  • All foods are organic due to presence of carbon

  • Organic Foods (cont.)
  • More expensive no increased benefit
  • Processing (preservatives) helps to maintain
    nutritional value
  • Using Herbal Supplements
  • Trend - natural alternatives to drugs and
  • Safe to ingest as natural medicines with few side
    effects (occasional allergic reaction)
  • Offer nutrients that nourish brain, glands and

  • Dont need to consume with food - contain own
    digestive enzymes
  • Work with the bodys functions (whole body
  • Caution must be exercised as there is no
    governmental control or regulation

  • Ephedrine
  • Stimulant used in diet pills, illegal
    recreational drugs, and legitimate OTC
  • Similar to amphetamine
  • Banned usage in both the NCAA and minor league
  • Adverse reactions
  • Heart attack, stroke, tachycardia, paranoid
    psychosis, depression, convulsions, fever, coma,
    vomiting, palpitations, hypertension, respiratory

Practicing Vegetarianism
  • Utilize plants to form foundation of diet -
    animal foods are either excluded or included in a
    variety of eating patterns
  • Economic, philosophical, religious, cultural, or
    health reasons
  • While practiced intelligently (not a fad) a
    vegetarian diet can result in deficiencies
  • Diet must be carefully planned

  • Total Vegetarian (vegan)
  • all plant diet, no animal products
  • must be certain to consume enough calories and
    vitamin B12, calcium, zinc, and iron
  • Lactovegetarian
  • Consume plant foods and milk products
  • Must watch iron and zinc levels
  • Ovolactovegetarian
  • Consume plant foods, milk products and eggs
  • Iron is still a concern
  • Semivegetarian
  • Still primarily plants but all other products are
    consumed except red meat.

Pre-event Nutrition
  • Importance and content pre-event meal vs.
    traditional rewarding that may hamper performance
  • Traditional steak and eggs
  • Long term food consumption is more important than
    immediate consumption
  • Purpose should be to provide competitor with
    nutrients/energy and fluids for competitions
    (taking digestibility into consideration

  • Encourage athletes to be conscious of diet
  • Diets are also individual to each athlete
  • Individual is the best judge of what should or
    should not be consumed
  • What is the individual comfortable with
  • Liquid Supplementation
  • Extremely effective and successful
  • 225-400 calories per serving
  • Successful in reducing pregame symptoms of dry
    mouth, abdominal leg cramps, nervous defecation
    and nausea

  • Food generally takes 4 hours to clear stomach and
    upper GI tract
  • Liquid supplements clear stomach and upper bowel
    before game time, settling the stomach and making
    available nutrients

Fast Foods
  • Way of life in America --world of fast food
  • Often meal of choice during travel
  • Big concern is the amount of fat (40-50 of
    calories from fat)
  • Size vs. supersize
  • Increased menu size is a plus (variety)
  • Nutritional information posting

Glycogen Supercompensation
  • Increase muscle and liver glycogen stores prior
    to major event by altering eating and training
  • Decrease training at least 48 hours prior to
  • Increase CHO loading to increase glycogen stores
    and positively impact muscle glycogen and muscle

  • Six-day period
  • Phase I (Days 1-2) hard training with reduced
    CHO intake
  • Phase II (Days 3-5) decrease training and
    increase CHO (potentially increasing glycogen
    stores 50-100)
  • Phase III (Days 6-7) resume normal diet
  • Not clearly demonstrated as being beneficial in
    endurance activities
  • Do not perform more than 2-3 times per year
  • Ideally for prolonged duration events

Fat Loading
  • Fat loading vs. carbohydrate loading
  • Intent better energy source
  • Negative side effects
  • cardiac protein and potassium depletion
  • development of arrhythmias, increased serum and

Recommendations for Restoring Muscle Glycogen
After Exercise
  • When the time period between events is lt8 hours
  • Consume CHO ASAP to maximize recovery
  • Complete restoration requires 20-24 hours
  • Consume 0.45-0.55 grams of CHO per pound of body
    weight for each of the first 4 hours
  • Utilize nutrient rich carbohydrate foods
  • For a 24 hour period, 2.3 5.5 grams of CHO
    should be consumed per pound of BW

Weight Control and Body Composition
  • Gains and loss of weight in athletes can be
  • Intelligent and conscientious approach involves
    some knowledge of what is involved on the part of
    the athlete and athletic trainer
  • Results in athlete displaying discipline relative
    to types and quantities of food

Body Composition
  • Ideal body weight age-related height/weight
  • Inaccurate due to broad ranges and failure to
    take individual body types into consideration
  • Health and performance may be best indicators
  • Fat vs. nonfat components of body body

  • Non-fat or lean tissue (lean body weight)
  • bone, muscle, tendon, connective tissue
  • Body comp is the relationship between fat tissue
    and lean body tissue
  • Averages
  • Female 20-25 body weight fat
  • Male 12-15 body weight fat
  • Should not fall below 3 and 12 for males and
    female respectively
  • Results in loss of essential fat padding for

  • Overweight excess body weight relative to size
    and stature
  • Overfat excessively high percentage of total
    body weight is fat
  • Obesity extreme amount of excessive fat
  • Female gt30 and male gt20 percent body fat
  • Factors that determine amount of fat
  • Number of cells
  • Proliferation or hyperplagia of fat cells occurs
    from birth to puberty
  • Size of cells
  • Increase/decrease over time until adulthood
    relative to caloric balance
  • Change of weight change in size not number

  • Adipose cell stores triglycerides (liquid fat)
  • Moves in and out of cells according to energy
  • Moderate, long term activity uses greatest amount
    of fat
  • One pound of fat 3500 calories, stored as

Assessing Body Composition
  • Several methods
  • Hydrostatic, bioelectrical impedance, skinfold
    thickness measures
  • Skinfolds based on the fact that 50 of body fat
    is subcutaneous
  • Utilize skin fold calipers
  • Relatively low accuracy but is easy to learn and
  • Error is 3-5

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  • Hydrostatic Weighing
  • Utilizes underwater tank to determine body
  • Establishes relationship between lean mass (more
    dense) and fat mass (resulting in more buoyancy)
  • Very accurate method
  • Not always available, expensive equipment
  • Time consuming
  • Requires exhaling all air

  • Bioelectrical Impedance
  • Measures resistance of electrical current flow
    between points
  • Based on principle that electricity will flow
    through path of least resistance
  • Fat good insulator
  • Water good conductor
  • Impacted by levels of hydration
  • Expensive equipment

Determining Body Mass Index
  • Determine extent of overweight or obesity using
    height and body weight
  • BMI (body mass index) is a ratio of height and
  • Utilized to measure health risks associated with
  • BMI gt25 indicate excess body fat
  • BMI 25-30 indicates overweight
  • BMI gt30 indicates state of obesity

Assessing Caloric Balance
  • Caloric balance Calories consumed - calories
  • Positive caloric balance results in weight gain
    and vice versa for negative caloric balance
  • Can be calculated through accurate record keeping
    of calories consumed and expended relative to
    metabolic and activity needs
  • Calories are expended through
  • basal metabolism (calories expended at rest)
  • work (activity that requires more energy than
  • excretion

  • Must calculate total time engaged in all 3 areas
    over a 24 hour period
  • BMR is determined in laboratory setting through
    indirect calorimetry which measures oxygen uptake
  • Work (type, intensity, duration) must be
  • Body size also factors in
  • Energy expenditures can be consulted to determine
    average energy expenditures per activity

Methods of Weight Loss
  • Exercise or dieting alone is ineffective over the
    long run
  • Dieting alone results in lean body tissue loss
  • Should not drop below 1000-1200 calories for
    women and 1200-1400 for men
  • Exercising, while resulting in loss of fat mass,
    will also enhance strength, cardiorespiratory
    endurance and flexibility

  • The key is moderation
  • A combination of dieting and exercise
  • A negative energy balance must be achieved
  • Loss of 1.5-2.0 pounds per week is adequate
  • Weight loss of more than 4-5 pounds per week can
    be attributed to dehydration
  • It takes time to put weight on and also takes
    time to take it off

Low Carbohydrate Diets and Weight Loss
  • New recommendations limit CHO
  • Typically involves replacement of CHO with fat
    and protein
  • Consuming high CHO diet results in
  • Increased blood glucose
  • Insulin production causes glucose to be used by
    cells and increases fat deposit
  • Stimulates hunger signals from brain
  • Creates a cycle

  • Overweight individuals tend be have
    hyperinsulinemia (elevated insulin)
  • Result of the cycle
  • Reducing CHO
  • Increases glucagon (increases fat burning)
  • Also causes cholesterol removal from arteries
  • Severe CHO restriction results in ketosis
  • Blood glucose levels stabilize
  • Insulin levels drop
  • Body is already burning fat rapid weight loss

Methods of Weight Gain
  • Aim should be to increase lean body mass
  • Increased physical activity (muscle work) and
    dietary modifications
  • Approximately 2500 calories is required per pound
    of lean body mass, an increase 500-1000 calories
    per day
  • A 1-2 pound per week gain is adequate

Disordered Eating
  • Spectrum of abnormal eating habits
  • Mild food restriction, binging, purging, bulimia,
    anorexia nervosa
  • Multi-factorial
  • Social, familial, physiological, psychological

  • More prevalent in athletic populations
  • Control over body weight/composition for
  • In addition to the emotional and social pressures
    characteristic of eating disorders, physiological
    effects can impact health and performance of the
  • Education of athletic trainers in this area is
  • Prevention and management strategies

  • Bulimia
  • Generally females ranging in age from adolescence
    to middle age
  • Periods of starvation, bingeing (thousands of
    calories) and purging through vomiting, fasting
    and laxatives/diuretics

  • Characteristics
  • Typically bulimic athletes are white, middle to
    upper-middle class
  • Perfectionist, obedient, over-compliant, highly
    motivated, successful academically, well-liked,
    and a good athlete
  • gymnastics, track, dance
  • occasionally seen in male gymnasts and wrestlers
  • Bingeing and purging can result in stomach
    rupture, heart rhythm, liver damage, tooth decay
    from acids, chronically inflamed mucous lining of
    mouth and throat

  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • 30-50 of anorexics also suffer from bulimia
  • Characterized by distorted body image and
    constant concern about weight gain
  • Impacts mostly females
  • Starts often with adolescents and can be life
  • While the athlete tends to be too thin they
    continue to feel fat
  • Deny hunger and are hyperactive
  • Highly secretive

  • Early intervention is critical with eating
  • Empathy is a must
  • Psychological counseling is key
  • Must have athlete recognize the problem, accept
    the benefits of assistance and must voluntarily
    accept help for treatment to work

  • Anorexia Athletica
  • Condition specific to athletes
  • Characterized by features common in anorexia
  • No self-starvation practices
  • Signs
  • Disturbance of body image
  • Weight loss gt5 of body weight
  • Gastrointestinal complaints
  • Primary amenorrhea
  • Menstrual dysfunction
  • Absence of illness explaining weight reduction
  • Fear of becoming obese
  • Binging, purging, compulsive eating, or caloric

Female Athlete Triad
  • Potentially fatal problem
  • Combination of eating disorder, amenorrhea and
  • Some suggest eating disorders may exist in 62 of
    females in certain sports and amenorrhea found in
  • Major risk is the fact that bone lost may not be