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DNA for Dummies (and the intellectually astute)

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DNA for Dummies (and the intellectually astute) A Dr. Parrott Production Secret of Photo 51: What organic polymer? Made of what monomers? Components? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DNA for Dummies (and the intellectually astute)


1
DNA for Dummies (and the intellectually astute)
  • A Dr. Parrott Production

2
  • Secret of Photo 51
  • What organic polymer?
  • Made of what monomers?
  • Components?

Tour of the Basics
3
DNA Wrap Basic DNA Wrap Advanced DNA Coiling
4
Replication DNA?DNA
  • Occurs during S phase of interphase in
    reproducing cells only
  • DNA template is copied complimentarily and semi
    conservatively
  • Occurs only in the nucleus

5
Meselson-Stahl Experiment How DNA Replicates DNA
Replication Bidirectional Replication Replication
Complete General DNA Workshop
6
Make a DNA strand complimentary to the
following DNA1 ATG GTG CAC CTG ACT CCT GTG GAG
AAG TCT DNA2 TAC mRNA Amino Acids tRNA
replication
7
DNA Replication Basic DNA Replication Fork Rep
Fork 2 DNA Replication DNA Polymerase
8
Tran scription DNA?mRNA
  • Occurs continually throughout the cell cycle with
    the exception of mitosis
  • Occurs in the nucleus as messenger RNA copies DNA

9
RNA Splicing Transcription Transcription
Complete Transcription the Movie
Regulated Transcription
10
Make a DNA strand complimentary to the
following DNA1 ATG GTG CAC CTG ACT CCT GTG GAG
AAG TCT DNA2 TAC Transcribe the above DNA
template into an mRNA mRNA UAC Amino
Acids tRNA
transcription
11
Translation mRNA?protein
  • Occurs continually throughout the cell cycle
  • Occurs at the ribosome as it
  • reads the mRNA codons
  • Matches codons to amino acids
  • Prompts tRNA to bring a.a.
  • Attaches a.a. with peptide bonds

DNA to Protein 2 PP Synthesis Walkthrough
12
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13
Translation
  • tRNA anticodon is complimentary to mRNA codon
  • tRNA is specific to the amino acid it brings
  • Peptide bonds connect amino acids to form
    polypeptide (protein)

Translation Basic Translation Advanced Protein
Synthesis Protein Synthesis 2 Translation the
Movie
14
Protein Synthesis Transcription Translation
DNA ? proteins
15
Make a DNA strand complimentary to the
following DNA ATG GTG CAC CTG ACT CCT GTG GAG
AAG TCT DNA TAC mRNA (codons) UAC Translate
the above mRNA strand into an amino acid
sequence (protein) Amino Acids Tyrosine tRNA
(anticodons)
translation
16
  • Watch RNAi Online http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sc
    iencenow/3210/02.html

17
Make a DNA strand complimentary to the
following DNA ATG GTG CAC CTG ACT CCT GTG GAG
AAG TCT DNA TAC mRNA (codons) UAC Amino
Acids Tyrosine What are the anticodons on the
tRNA for the above strands? tRNA (anticodons) AUG
18
To summarize
Protein Synthesis
19
(No Transcript)
20
Mistakes/Mutations
  • Mutation? any permanent alteration in the
    sequence of DNA bases
  • Mutagen? causes a mutation i.e. chemicals,
    radiation, spontaneous
  • Point mutations can result in frameshifts in the
    reading frame
  • Chromosomal mutations can result in
    translocations
  • Immortal Thread

21
Mistakes/Mutations
  • Silent mutation? change in n.t. sequence, but no
    change in product
  • Missense mutation? swapping of a.a. (sickle cell
    anemia, PKU)
  • Nonsense mutation? insertion of stop codon into
    sequence
  • Mutations Sickle Cell, 2
  • How Cancer Grows, 2
  • Evolutionary Arms Race HIV Resistance, 2

22
DNA Technology Applications What is the GPS element? DNA Technology Applications What is the GPS element? DNA Technology Applications What is the GPS element? DNA Technology Applications What is the GPS element?
Medicine Agriculture Forensics
What are some uses? Finding Disease Genes Gene therapy Drugs Biological Warfare Genetic Testing Ethics GMOs The Right to Know A Silent Forest Classical vs Transgenic Breeding Bioremediation Biofuels Crime Scene Investigation Genealogy
What are some examples Bioengineering Body Parts RNAi Therapy Breast Cancer Alzheimer's Disease Plasmids Protein Bt Corn Super Salmon, 2 Harvest of Fear Babies by Design? Transgenic Mouse The Killers Trail Forensic Anthropology Immigration Laetoli Footprints
What are some pros?
What are some cons?
23
Resources
  • DNA Learning Center 3D Animations
  • Genetics Movies
  • DNA Tutorial
  • Bacterial Replication Animations
  • Telomere Synthesis (shortening of linear
    chromosomes)
  • Gene Processing
  • Replication Animations
  • Gene Expression Animations
  • Gene Technology
  • DNA the Secret of Life Video
  • Cracking the Code of Life Video
  • Beadle-Tatum Experiments (one gene, one pp)
  • Protein Synthesis Tutorial
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