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Communication

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Explore possible barriers to communication Relate and communicate multicultural and ... gestures, expression Effective Communication For communication to be ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Communication


1
Communication
  • Essential Skills for Health Care Professionals

2
Objectives
  • Students will
  • Demonstrate the use of positive communication
    techniques.
  • Utilize two types of communication.
  • Explore possible barriers to communication
  • Relate and communicate multicultural and
    multilingual needs.
  • Differentiate between subjective and objective
    information.
  • Maintain confidentiality.
  • Evaluate technological threats to
    confidentiality.
  • Discuss patient/client confidentiality.
  • Analyze legal ethical aspects of
    confidentiality.

3
Communication
  • The exchange of information
  • Two types
  • Verbal - written or spoken language
  • Nonverbal - message spread through body language,
    gestures, expression

4
Effective Communication
  • For communication to be effective
  • Use words that mean the same thing to you and the
    receiver of the message.
  • Use familiar words.
  • Be brief and concise.
  • Give information in a logical and orderly manner.
  • Give facts and be specific

5
Components of Communication
  • Sender - person sending the message
  • Message - information to be conveyed
  • Receiver - person the information is
    intended for
  • Problems in either component can lead to
    miscommunication and/or misunderstandings

6
Barriers to Communication
  • Communication barrier Anything that gets in the
    way of clear communication.
  • May be in sender, message, or receiver
  • Common Barriers include
  • Psychological attitudes and prejudice
  • Cultural diversity
  • Physical disabilities

7
Psychological Barriers
  • Psychological barriers are often caused by
  • Prejudice
  • Attitudes
  • Personality
  • Stereotypes such as dumb blonde or fat slob
    cause us to make snap judgments about others that
    affect the communication process.
  • Health care workers must learn to put prejudice
    aside and show respect for all
    individuals.

8
Guidelines
  • Health care workers must examine any prejudices
    they may have and learn to put these aside
  • Never use language that others may view as
    offensive
  • Learning to read others body language can help
    to prevent misunderstanding

9
Cultural Barriers
  • All cultural beliefs must be respected.
  • Every culture has beliefs and practices regarding
    health and illness such as
  • the body needs balance if the body is cold,
    they eat hot foods.
  • illness is due to demons and evil spirits
  • illness is punishment from God
  • Patients may practice their cultural remedies in
    addition to modern healthcare techniques.

10
Guidelines for Cultural Diversity
  • Language differences people who dont speak
    English may have a difficult time communicating.
    You should
  • Speak slowly
  • Use nonverbal communication (smile)
  • Avoid tendency to speak louder
  • Find an interpreter

11
Guidelines for Cultural Differences
  • Eye contact in some cultures, its not
    acceptable, and looking down is a sign of respect
  • Terminal illness in some cultures, the patient
    is NOT told his/her prognosis, and family members
    are responsible for making care decisions
  • Touch in some cultures, it is wrong to touch
    someone on the head. Others may limit touch
    between male and female
  • Personal care in some cultures, only family
    members provide personal care

12
Guidelines for Cultural Differences
  • Respect and acceptance of cultural diversity is
    essential for any health care worker.
  • If unsure of cultural practices, speak with the
    patient or family to prevent future
    misunderstandings

13
Physical Barriers
  • Physical barriers may include
  • Deafness or hearing loss
  • Blindness or impaired vision
  • Aphasia or speech disabilities

14
Communicating with the Hearing Impaired
  • Use body language such as gestures and signs.
  • Speak clearly in short sentences.
  • Face the individual to facilitate lip reading.
  • Write messages if necessary.
  • Make sure hearing aids are working properly

15
Communicating with the Visually Impaired
  • Use a soft tone of voice.
  • Describe events that are occurring.
  • Announce your presence as you enter a room.
  • Explain sounds or noises.
  • Use touch when appropriate.

16
Communicating with Patients with Aphasia or
Speech Impediments
  • These patients may have difficulty remembering
    the correct words, may not be able to pronounce
    certain words, and may have slurred speech.
  • The health care worker must be patient
  • Allow them to try and speak
  • Encourage them to take their time
  • Repeat the message to assure accuracy
  • Encourage them to use gestures or point to
    objects
  • Provide pen and paper if they can write
  • Use pictures with key messages communicate

17
Recording and Reporting
  • Reporting is the oral account of care and
    observations.
  • Recording (charting) is the written account of
    care and observations.
  • During end-of-shift report, information is shared
    about
  • The care given
  • The care that must be given
  • The persons condition

18
Recording and Reporting
  • Communication between health care workers is
    critical in ensuring quality patient care.
  • Workers must listen carefully and make
    observations.
  • Observations must be accurate, concise, and
    complete.
  • Use facts and report only what you saw, not the
    reasons.
  • NOT Mrs. Jones is in pain.
  • INSTEAD Mrs. Jones is holding her chest with
    wheezing as she breathes.
  • Objective / Sign what was seen or Observed
  • Subjective / Symptom - what the patient Said

19
Observations
  • Health care workers use their senses to
  • See
  • Color of skin, swelling or edema
  • Presence of rash or sore
  • Color of urine or stool
  • Amount of food eaten
  • Smell
  • Body odor
  • Unusual odors of breath, wounds,
  • urine or stool (feces)

20
Observations
  • Touch
  • Pulse
  • Dryness or temperature of skin
  • Perspiration
  • Swelling
  • Hearing
  • Respirations
  • Abnormal body sounds
  • Coughs
  • Speech

21
The Medical Record
  • The medical record, or chart, is
  • A written account of a persons condition and
    response to treatment and care
  • A permanent, legal document
  • Medical facilities have policies about
  • Who can see them
  • Who records
  • When to record
  • Abbreviations
  • How to correcting errors
  • What color of ink to use
  • How to sign entries

22
Confidentiality
  • You have an ethical and legal duty to keep the
    persons information confidential.
  • The Health Insurance Portability and
    Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) provides
    federal protections for personal health
    information and gives patients an array of
    rights with respect to that information.

23
HIPAA Guidelines
  • Health care workers have access to information
    related to the care of their patients.
  • Any information is confidential and is only
    reported to others involved in care of the
    patient.
  • Care must be taken when reporting any information
    to prevent others from hearing the information.
  • Patient information should never be discussed in
    public areas such as hallways, cafeterias,
    elevators, etc.

24
Recording Time
  • Many facilities use a 24 hour clock.
  • It eases the confusion of whether a time is AM or
    PM.
  • 100am - 0100
  • 100pm - 1300
  • 630am - 0630
  • 630pm - 1830

25
Medical Terminology
  • Prefixes, roots, and suffixes
  • A prefix is a word element placed before a root.
  • The root is the word element that contains the
    basic meaning of the word.
  • A suffix is a word element placed after a root.
  • Medical terms are formed by combining word
    elements.
  • Prefixes always come before roots.
  • Suffixes always come after roots.
  • A root can be combined with prefixes, roots, and
    suffixes.

26
Abbreviations
  • Abbreviations are used frequently in health care
    facilities
  • Use only those accepted by the center.

27
Computers in Health Care
  • Computers are routinely used in health care
    facilities to collect, send, record, and store
    information.
  • The following guidelines apply
  • Use computers only for work purposes.
  • Do not share your password.
  • Employers may monitor your
  • computer use.

28
Phone communications
  • Good communication skills are needed when
    answering phones.
  • Be professional and courteous.
  • Answer with a greeting, your location, name, and
    title.
  • Take messages accurately and deliver promptly.
  • Follow the centers policies regarding who can
    answer and take messages.
  • Many facilities restrict cell phone use
  • during work hours.

29
Conflict
  • Conflict can occur in any setting.
  • If problems are not worked out, the following can
    occur
  • Unkind words or actions occur.
  • The work setting becomes unpleasant.
  • Care is affected.

30
Dealing with Conflict
  • Ask your supervisor for some time to talk
    privately.
  • Approach the person with whom you have the
    conflict.
  • Agree on a time and place to talk.
  • Talk in a private setting.
  • Explain the problem.
  • Listen to the person.
  • Identify ways to solve the problem.
  • Set a date and time to review the matter.
  • Thank the person for meeting with you.
  • Carry out the solution.
  • Review the matter as scheduled.

31
Problem - Solving
  • Use the following steps to help resolve
  • conflict.
  • Define the problem.
  • Collect information.
  • The information must be about the problem.
  • Identify possible solutions.
  • Select the best solution.
  • Carry out the solution.
  • Evaluate the results
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