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The United States Civil War

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The United States Civil War Chapter 14 The Secession Crisis The Withdrawal of the South fire eaters demand withdrawal of southern states from union after 1860 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The United States Civil War


1
The United States Civil War
  • Chapter 14

2
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3
The Secession Crisis
  • The Withdrawal of the South
  • fire eaters demand withdrawal of southern
    states from union after 1860 election
  • President Buchanan told Congress that no state
    had the right to secede form the Union, but
    suggested that the federal government had no
    authority to stop a state if it did (!)
  • Seceding states immediately seized federal
    property within their boundaries

4
  • The Failure of Compromise
  • after Southern guns fire on Northern ship at Fort
    Sumter, one last effort at compromise
  • Senator John Crittenden permanent slavery and
    reestablish Missouri Compromise Line
  • Remaining southern states willing to accept the
    plan, Northern Republicans not
  • Lincoln sneaks in on a train at night in
    disguise... inaugural address

5
  • First Battle Fort Sumter
  • FS was an island off the coast of S. Carolina
  • Lincoln send munitions to re-supply the fort
  • Choice for Confederate government submission or
    war
  • Union forces surrender after two days bombarding
  • More states follow seccession after Southern
    victory

6
  • The Opposing Sides
  • All important material advantages lay with the
    North (see graph on pg. 474)
  • North advantages
  • population
  • industrial system
  • transportation system
  • South advantages
  • defensive war
  • clear and firm commitment from supporters
  • communication
  • European dependence on King Cotton
  • Annapolis military leadership

7
The Mobilization of the North
  • Economic Measures
  • Homestead Act of 1862
  • Morrill Land Grant
  • transcontinental railroad
  • Union Pacific and Central Pacific
  • National Bank Acts 1/3 to government securities
  • Financing the War
  • levying taxes goods, services and first income
    tax
  • issuing paper currency greenbacks backed by
    govt similar to today
  • borrowing 400 million worth of public bonds,
    2.6 billion total (banks)

8
  • Raising the Union Armies
  • 1861 US army consisted only of 16,000 troops
  • Lincoln calls for an increase to 23,000 troops
  • Congress authorizes enlisting of 500,000
    volunteers for three year terms
  • Small enlistment construction of national draft
    law
  • man could escape service by hiring someone to go
    in his place or by paying the government fee of
    300 (!)
  • Opposition to draft laborers, immigrants and
    Peace Democrats
  • Draft Riots in New York
  • Irish workers blaming blacks
  • strike breakers
  • war being fought for the benefit of slaves who
    would take their jobs
  • lynchings
  • burning of an black orphanage
  • federal troops
  • Over 100 people dead
  • Over 2 million men would serve in the Union army

9
  • The War and Economic Development
  • sped up development of certain industries
  • coal up 20
  • railroad standard gauge track
  • agricultural technology farm hands fighting war
  • Costs rise
  • Lincoln and Wartime Politics
  • foolish to lose the whole by being afraid to
    disregard part
  • Regarding war tactics
  • domestic insurrection, no formal declaration of
    war
  • increased the size of the army without receiving
    legislative authority
  • naval blockade of the South

10
  • Lincoln and Wartime Politics Contd
  • Regarding the opposition to war (biggest problem)
  • suppression of Peace Democrats AKA
    Copperheads
  • ordered military arrests of civilian dissenters
  • suspended habeas corpus (right to a speedy trial)
  • martial law military rule
  • Rep. Vallandingham exiled to the South
  • Election of 1864
  • Republican Party Union Party after losing in
    1862 Congressional Elections
  • Lincoln nominated for President, Andrew Johnson
    for Vice President (AJ a War Democrat from
    Tennessee, who opposed his states decision to
    secede)
  • Democrats nominate George McClellan (GM a Union
    general who had been relieved by Lincoln)
  • adopted a platform denouncing the war and calling
    for a truce
  • hoped to win based on growing war weariness and
    Unions discouraging military position
  • Crucial Moment North gains several victories and
    captures Atlanta Georgia
  • Lincoln wins re-election

11
The Abolition of Slavery
  • The Politics of Emancipation
  • Republicans disagree sharply
  • Radicals wanted to use war to abolish slavery
    immediately and completely
  • Conservatives slower and gradual process for
    ending slavery
  • The Confiscation Acts
  • First Confiscation Act
  • any slave fighting the South would be freed
  • subsequent laws passed banned slavery in
    Washington and the West
  • Second Confiscation Act (considered Radical)
  • any slave belonging to owners fighting for the
    South would be freed
  • President could employ African Americans as
    soldiers
  • Radicals grow in power and prestige in the North

12
  • The Emancipation Proclamation
  • September 22, 1863 after Union victory at
    Antietam, Lincoln announces that as part of his
    war powers he would issue an executive order
    freeing all slaves in the Southern Confederacy
  • January 1, 1863, Lincoln formally signs
    Emancipation Proclamation freed all slaves in
    territories NOT under Union control... thus
    states and areas that belonged to the Union, did
    not have to free their slaves.
  • Made clear that the war was now being fought for
    preserving the Union and to eliminate slavery
  • slave states in the North began to free their
    slaves
  • Actually ended up freeing no slaves in the South,
    since they were no longer under Union control

13
  • African Americans and the Union Cause
  • 186,000 emancipated Southern blacks served as
    soldiers, sailors and laborers for Union forces
  • 54th of Massachusetts, Commander Robert G. Shaw
  • Black Soldiers
  • Most assigned menial tasks behind lines
  • High fatality rate from hard work
  • Paid 1/3 of white salary
  • Captured black soldiers were returned to slavery
    or immediately executed

14
  • Thirteenth Amendment 1865 abolished slavery
  • After War 1865 Freedmans Bureau directed by
    General Oliver O. Howard
  • agency of the army that distributed food to
    millions of former slaves
  • established schools
  • made efforts to give blacks their own land
  • far too small of an organization to deal with
    enormous problems facing South
  • not enough funding to achieve goals

15
The Mobilization of the South
  • The Confederate Government
  • The Confederate Constitution
  • Almost exactly the same as the Constitution of
    the United States, but with a few significant
    exceptions
  • it explicitly acknowledged the sovereignty of the
    individual states
  • specifically sanctioned slavery and made its
    abolition practically impossible
  • Jefferson Davis named President
  • Like the Union, leadership dominated from the
    West
  • No formal political parties, but there was
    dissention

16
  • Finance and Mobilization
  • The impossible task raising money
  • South had to create national revenue base in a
    society unaccustomed to taxes
  • small and unstable banking system
  • idea to collect money from states, but states
    unwilling
  • income tax imposed, but unsuccessful
  • borrowing did not work too many bonds sold
    (unvaluable)
  • prices in the South rose 9,000 percent (in
    economics called Hyperinflation!)

17
  • Finance and Mobilization Contd
  • Mobilization
  • decrease in volunteers in 1861
  • Conscription Act in 1862, no substitutes allowed
    after 1863
  • exemptions for plantations which had 20 or more
    slaves
  • rich mans war, poor mans fight
  • after 1862, Confederacy had trouble drafting more
    men
  • northern capture of cities
  • decrease in the Southern optimism
  • 1864 desperation
  • men as young as seventeen and as old as fifty
  • 100,000 desertions
  • 300,000 black troops trained but surrender
    occurred first
  • 900,000 Confederate Soldiers served during the
    entire war/ 2 million in Union

18
  • States rights versus Centralization
  • Greatest source of Southern Division during War
  • States rights enthusiasts resisted virtually all
    efforts to exert Confederate national authority
  • Confederacy succeeded in creating a larger
    bureaucracy than in Washington
  • imposed regulations on industry
  • impressed slaves for military efforts
  • seized control of railroads and shipping

19
Military Strategy, Campaigns and Battles
  • The Commanders
  • North
  • Lincoln realizes manpower and numbers were on his
    side
  • Searched for a general who was willing to use
    that to his advantage
  • March 1864 Ulysses S. Grant, referred to some as
    a butcher but his willingness to continue
    attack countered Southern tact
  • goal attack enemies army and resources, not
    territory
  • South
  • West Point and Annapolis factor
  • Jefferson Davis control freak
  • General Robert E. Lee (why did Lee fight for the
    South?)

20
  • The Sea Power
  • Union had overwhelming advantage of naval power,
    served two important roles
  • enforced blockade of the southern coast
  • assisted Union armies in field operations
  • emergence of ironclads Monitor v. Virginia
    (formerly the Merrimack)
  • Europe and the Disunited States
  • France and England sympathetic to Confederacy at
    first
  • dependent on Southern Cotton importation
  • saw United States as an economic rival
  • South had to rely on imports from Europe during
    the war
  • Abolitionist movement in England kept England
    (thus France) from joining South
  • King Cotton Diplomacy fails

21
  • The American West and the War
  • Texas was the only new territory to join the
    Confederacy, the rest joined the Union
  • Brutal fighting in Kansas and Missouri
  • Indians divided
  • Opening Clashes 1861
  • First Battle of Bull Run... Union believed one
    decisive victory could win it for the union
    troops retreat through the city of Washington
  • picnic baskets
  • Lincoln lost confidence in his commanders
  • dispelled illusion that the war would be a quick
    one
  • Missouri

22
  • The Western Theater
  • Ulysses S. Grant makes a name for himself by
    gaining control of Southern communications and
    forcing Confederates out of Kentucky and part of
    Tennessee
  • Victories for the North
  • The Virginia Front aka the Eastern front
  • General McClellan (head of US forces at the time)
    staged huge campaign to attack Richmond, but
    didnt go directly towards the city
  • 150,000 man army became known as Army of the
    Potomac
  • Peninsular campaign (see pg.492)
  • Thomas Stonewall Jackson marches army towards
    Washington, defeats two separate Union forces
  • McClellan was 25 miles from Richmond, but
    continued to find reasons for delay
  • Pope brashly leads Union in Second Battle of Bull
    Run... loses to Lee
  • September 17 at Antietam Creek, bloodiest day of
    battle in the Civil War... McClellan has forces
    Lee into retreat, but does not follow

23
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24
  • 1863 Year of decision
  • Hooker moves into position to attack Lee at
    Fredericksburg, but withdrawals
  • Lee attacks and divides the forces at Battle of
    Chancellorsville, Union retreats (loses Stonewall
    Jackson)
  • Lee defeats Union objective of Richmond, but did
    not defeat union army
  • Stonewall Jackson dead
  • Ulysses S. Grant continues to win in the West
    with a siege-style victory at Vicksburg
  • Union gains control of Mississippi River

25
  • 1863 Year of decision Contd
  • Lees big decision Invade the North,
  • divert Unions attention from the Mississippi
  • a major victory on Union soil might bring
    European countries to Southern aid
  • Gettysburg, Pennsylvania July 1-3 1863, most
    celebrated battle of the war
  • Meade v. Lee
  • 75,000 Confederate Forces v. 90,000 Union forces
  • Pickets Charge second Confederate charge, one
    mile of distance in the open
  • Lee retreats (Confederacy will never invade
    Northern lands again) Also, Confederacy has lost
    so much, they can not recover!
  • Chattanooga
  • Grant saves Union forces under southern siege
  • Union now effectively controls four of the eleven
    confederate states
  • Southern goal shifts no longer for a decisive
    military victory, but rather exhaust the Northern
    will to fight

26
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27
  • Last Stage 1864 1865
  • Ulysses S. Grant (now head of Union army), plans
    two great offensives in 1864
  • Army of the Potomac would advance toward Richmond
    and force Lee into decisive battle (see pg. 498)
  • William T. Sherman would advance to Georgia and
    destroy the remaining Confederate forces (see pg.
    499)
  • Grant leads army into Virginia and encounters Lee
    on several occasions and endures huge loses but
    keeps going (Grant would loose 55,000 men in one
    month)

28
  • Last Stage 1864 1865 Contd
  • Seizes and sieges Petersburg which is Richmonds
    communication center...siege would last nine
    months....
  • Decisive battle for Sherman was battle of
    Nashville, crushed Southern army
  • Tecumseh Sherman March to Sea War is all
    hell theory destruction of enemy resources as
    vital
  • ...Meanwhile back in Virginia Grant seizes vital
    Railroad connection southwest of Petersburg...
    Lee can now no longer hope to defend Richmond

29
  • Last Stage 1864 1865 Contd
  • Lee tries to escape, but path is blocked by Union
    forces
  • General Lee makes arrangements to meet with
    General Grant in the small town of Appomattox
    Courthouse, Virginia
  • April 9, 1865 Lee surrenders to Grant
  • Nine days later near Durham, North Carolina,
    Johnson surrenders to Sherman

30
Effects of War on Society
  • Statistics
  • More than 618,000 Americans died during the Civil
    War, far more than the 115,000 that died during
    WWI and the 318,000 that died during WWII
  • Inflation and Public Debt
  • In the North, 70 million in greenbacks
    fluctuated and production caused inflation
  • In the South, Confederacy had issued a total of
    1.5 billion in paper money none of which was
    supported by a single, uniform banking system

31
  • Role of Women
  • In North took positions vacated by men
    teachers, retail sales, office workers, factory
    hands
  • In South managed slave work forces, learned to
    plow fields and harvest crops, and teachers...
    this would later cause many to question southern
    chivalry
  • U.S. Sanitary Commission and Dorthea Dix
  • nursing used to be dominated by men
  • women of both North and South worked in field
    hospitals for war
  • added feminine roles and care to nursing
  • sharp criticism from doctors
  • Elizabeth C. Stanton Susan B. Anthony National
    Womans Loyal League 1863
  • Clara Barton, founder of American Red Cross 1888

32
  • Devastation of the South
  • Economic
  • Southern cotton market cut off from Northern
    Markets
  • Sale of cotton overseas much more difficult
  • production went up in the North, but decreased in
    the South
  • Physical almost all of the major battle of the
    war took place in the South
  • railroad system destroyed
  • plantations destroyed
  • cities destroyed

33
  • Devastation of the South Contd
  • Communities
  • Union naval blockade produced shortages in
    everything
  • male farm workers went off to fight, land went
    untended
  • doctors, blacksmiths and carpenters in short
    supply
  • food riots
  • Changing Labor Patterns
  • Widowed and single women needing to find
    employment, necessity rather than choice,
    expanded the number of acceptable roles for women
    in both regions
  • Free slaves escaping to the North caused huge
    decrease in manual labor supply
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