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Industrial Revolution


INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Unlike the French Revolution, the industrial Revolution was economic, having to do with the production of wealth, the techniques of manufacture ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution
  • Unlike the French Revolution, the industrial
    Revolution was economic, having to do with the
    production of wealth, the techniques of
    manufacture, the exploitation of natural
    resources, the development of new technologies,
    the formation of capital, and the distribution of
    products to consumers
  • It would lead to the dominance of Britain, and
    Europe in General

The Industrial Revolution in Britain
  • What is it? The process of shifting from hand
    tools to power machinery

The Agricultural Revolution
  • English parliament was dominated by the land
    owning class
  • Extreme political stability in England led to the
    Agricultural Revolution in England
  • This landowning class sought to increase profit
    through improved cultivation and stock raising
  • Example, the use of fertilizer such as manure,
    better inventions such as the horse hoe, new
    crops, and included scientific ideas such as crop
  • Additionally, science was applied better
    breeding to produce larger cattle

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Enclosure Acts
  • Much of English land was still public, and was
    controlled by common rights
  • Since the landowners controlled parliament, they
    passed a series of acts that fenced them, and
    made them private
  • Because of this, small tracts of land could be
    gobbled up by large landowners, and it would be
    leased out to small farmers

Labour intensive vs capital intensive
  • This system, compounded with new inventions,
    freed up new labour, as farming became more
  • Many farmers became wage earners, who worked for
    big farmers, or other jobs like weaving
  • They were also mobile, able to go where the work
    was because they were no longer dependant on the

  • Agricultural Revolution
  • The Seed Drill -Jethro Tull (1674 - 1741)
  • Jethro Tull - his two inventions the seed drill
    and horse hoe. The seed drill was an innovation
    that allowed seeds to be easily planted deep into
    the earth instead of on top where the majority
    were washed away or otherwise lost. The machine
    was pulled by horses and consisted of rotating
    drills or runners that would plant seeds at a set
    depth. His other invention, the horse hoe, was
    another revolutionary device which allowed for
    much more efficient planting by allowing a horse
    to pull a plow quickly.
  • Lord Townshend
  • Townshend was another key player in popularizing
    root vegetables, even more so than Tull. Called
    "Turnip" Townshend by others, he was famous for
    his cultivation of turnips and clover on his
    estate in Norfolk. He introduced the four-course
    rotation of crops which helped keep the ground
    good for farming almost all year. This cycle
    consisted of wheat, turnips, oats or barley, and
  • Robert Bakewell (1725 - 1795)
  • Bakewell was the first and most prominent stock
    breeder of farm animals. By breeding only animals
    with certain qualities, Bakewell was able to
    breed much more livestock. Bakewell kept
    elaborate genealogical records of his valuable
    animals and maintained his stock carefully he
    was renowned for his success with sheep. By the
    end of the eighteenth century, his principles of
    stock breeding were practiced widely.

Industrialism in Britain
  • Because Britain was so strong after the
    Napoleonic wars, they had the most colonies
  • Consequently, they had the most markets all over
    the world
  • The British merchant could sell as much as could
    be produced
  • They had to search for more rapid methods of
  • Example, cotton. The demand for cotton was
    exceptionally high
  • The market was endless if it could be produced by
  • What was needed was capital money to be
  • England had this because they were already
    wealthy from commerce and agriculture

Key Inventions
  • 1733 John Kay invents the Fly Shuttle
  • Meant that only one person was needed to weave
    cloth on a loom
  • Because output of weaving increased, demand for
    yarn increased
  • 1760s, spinning jenny invented
  • Steam engine invented for spinning

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  • These machines were bigger, so Richard Arkwright
    set up the first mills, or factories, and brought
    the workers in
  • Eli Whitney, 1793, invented the cotton Gin, which
    sped up the removal of cotton seed
  • This greatly increased the output of cotton
  • By 1820, Cotton made up ½ of British exports

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Steam Engine
  • Britain was running out of timber, so alternate
    sources of energy where needed
  • By 1780, Boulton and Watt were manufacturing
    steam engines for use
  • The steam engine went from use in factories, to

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  • Led to the development of railways
  • By 1840s, the era of railways was underway in
    Europe and the US

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New Industrial Cities
  • In population, Manchester grew from 25000 in 1772
    to 455000 in 1851
  • But incorporation of a new city was difficult
    because it was unusual.
  • Therefore, new cities had difficulty with
    infrastructure, such as sewage

  • New cities were dreadful places
  • Blackened by the early coal age
  • Housing for workers was hastily built
  • And always in short supply
  • Entire families lived in single rooms

  • Most factories only required unskilled labour
  • Skilled workers, such as weavers, had been
    displaced by machines, and looked for any odd job
  • Factories paid wages that were too low to allow a
    man to support his wife and children
  • The work was so mechanical, that the work of
    children was often preferred

  • Hours in factories were long, 14 plus hours a day
  • Not new to farmers, but the conditions were more
  • Unorganized, bargained independently with
  • The owners, who were small business people, faced
    competition, and them too were in debt

  • They held wages to the lowest possible amount
  • Some regulation was in motion, such as the first
    Factory Act of 1802, which regulated the use of
    pauper children
  • But, there were no factory inspectors
  • Mainly, the new industrialists wanted to be left

  • The Industrial Revolution created a new working
  • The new class of industrial workers included all
    the men, women, and children labouring in the
    textile mills, pottery works, and mines
  • Wages were low, hours were long, and working
    conditions unpleasant and dangerous

  • Women and children regardless of where they
    worked, had the most exploitative working
    condition and the lowest rates of pay.
  • This is a picture of two children working in the
    mines. They were small enough to fit into narrow
    space. These are often the conditions children
    worked in.

  • Houses were built in rows or in squares with a
    common courtyard, in which there might be a water
    tap and a common toilet.
  • There was little access to fresh air and little
    provision for clean water or removal of refuse,
    including human waste.

Classical Economics Laissez Faire
  • 1776, Adam Smith Publishes Wealth of Nations
  • Criticized mercantilism
  • Natural laws of production and exchange should be
    allowed to rule
  • Economics runs outside of government
  • Natural laws of supply and demand
  • People such use their rational thought because
    they know their natural interests better than
    anyone else
  • The natural interests will add up to the
    interests of all

  • Government should provide laws and courts
  • Iron law of Wages workers should only be paid
    at the subsistence level, because if they make
    more, they have more children, and eat up the
    extra money