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The Muslim World

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Title: The Muslim World


1
Chapter 11
The Muslim World
By Cheng Chen
2

Section 1-Rise of Islam
  • In years to come, Muhammad would be recognized
    by millions of Muslims as the Prophet. Islamic
    would be carry out through three continents and
    it would be one of the most powerful foces in
    world history.

3
Oasis Towns and Desert Life
  • Islam appeared in the Arabian Peninsula, parts of
    southwestern Asia.
  • Many Arab clans at that time were nomadic
    herders, called Bedouins, adapted to the
    conditions of the desert. Using camels, they
    crossed long streches of blistering, sandy desert
    in search of seasonal paturelands.
  • Bedouins regularly traded with other Arabs who
    had settled in oasis towns like Mecca in wester
    Arabia. Mecca was a bustling market town at the
    crossroads of two main caravan routes.
  • Mecca was also a thriving pilgrimage center.
    Arabs came to pray at the Kaaba, an ancient
    shrine that Muslims today believe was built by
    the prophet Abraham.

4
The Prophet Muhammad
  • Muhammad was born in Mecca about 570. In his
    youth , he worked as a shepherd among the
    Bedouins. Later he became a successful merchant.
  • In the age of 40 he heard the voice of angel
    Gabriel in the desert, the angel tells him to
    become the messenger of God.
  • Muhammad devoted the rest of his life to
    spreading Islam. He urged people to give up their
    false gods and submit to the one true God.
  • At first few people listened, in 22 faced with
    threat of murder, he and his followers left Mecca
    for Yathrib, a journet known as the hijra.
  • In 630 he return to Mecca, and destroyed the
    idols in the Kaaba. He work to unit the Arabs.
  • His death in 632 plunged his followers into
    grief. Later Abu Bakr was elected the first
    caliph, or seccessor to Muhammad.

5
The Message of Islam
  • Muslims believe in one all-powerful,
    compassionate God, who name is Allah.
  • Islam also teaches that people are responsible
    for their own actions.
  • Quran, is the sacred text of Islam
  • There are Five Pillars of Muslim
  • 1. There is no god but God, Muhammad is the
    messenger of God.
  • 2. Daily prayer/ Muslims may pray anywhere/
    they often gathered in Mosque.
  • 3. Giving charity to poor.
  • 4. Fasting from sunrise to sunset during the
    holy month of Ramadan.
  • 5. All Muslims are expected to visit the
    Kaaba at least once.

6
Women in Early Muslim Society
  • Islam affirmed the spiritual equality of women
    and men.
  • The Quran fohibited the killing of daughters and
    ensured protetion for widow.
  • Inheritance laws guaranteed a woman a share of
    her parents or husbands property.
  • Muslim wome are freely to marriage and divorce.
  • The amount of an inheritance given to a daughter
    ws less then a son.
  • The Quran permitted a man to have up to four
    wives if he treated them all justly.

7
Section 2-Islam Spreads
  • Inspired by the teaching of Muhammad, Arab
    armies surged across the Byzantine and Persian
    empires. In short period of time, an Arabic
    empire reached from the Atlantic to the Borders
    of India.

8
The Age of Conquest
  • Under the fist four cliphs, Arab armies marched
    from victory to victory. They conquered great
    chunjs of Byzantine empire, including the
    provinces of Syria and Palestine wi the cities of
    Damascus and Jerusalem. Next was the Persian
    empire, then swept into Egypt and later defeating
    Byzantine forces across North Africa.
  • Efficient fighting methods contributed to the
    Arab success.
  • The key reason for Arab success was the common
    faith Myhammad had given his people.
  • With the lands they conquere, Muslim leaders
    imposed a special tax on non-Muslims, but they
    were allow to pratice their own religion.

9
The Muslim Presence in Europe
  • The major areas of Muslim influence in Europe at
    this time were Spain and Sicily.
  • For centuries, Spain was one of the most
    brilliant corners of the Muslim world. Princes
    encouraged poetry, the arts and sholarship.
  • Also during the early Middle Ages, when Europe
    was weak, the Arabs seized control of Sicily and
    a number of other Mediterranean islands.

10
Movements Within Islam
  • Not long after Muhammads death, divisions arose
    within Islam over his successor. The split
    between Sunni and Shiite.
  • The Sunnis felt that the claiph should be chosen
    by leaders of the Muslim community, and he should
    be viewed as a leader, not as a religious
    authority.
  • The Shiites argued that the onlytrue successors
    to the Prophet were descendants of Muhammad.
  • Ali became fourth caliph, but was assassinated in
    661. His son, too,was killed.
  • The division between Sunni and Shiite Muslims has
    survided for more than 13,000 years.

11
The Arab Empire
  • After the death of Ali, the Umayyad family set up
    a dynasty that ruled the Islamic world until 750.
  • The Umayyads faced numerous problems, to govern
    their empire they relied on local officials.
  • Shiites hated the Umayyads because they had
    dishonored the Prophets family.
  • Muslims found a new leader in Abu al-Abbas, and
    he then founded the Abbassid dynasty, which
    lasted until 1258.
  • It was time of peace durin the Abbassid dynasty.
  • From 786 to 809 , the claiph Harun al-Rashid
    ruled, he was seen as a model ruler and as a
    symbol of wealth and splendor.

12
Decline of the Caliphate
  • As the caliphs power faded, civil wars eruptd,
    and Shiite rulers took over parts of the empire.
    Between 900 and 1400, a series of invasions was
    also added to the chaos.
  • In the the 900s, the Seljuk Turks migrated into
    the Middle East from Central Asia.
  • In 1099, after a long and bloody siege, christian
    crsaders captured Jerusalem, a city holy to
    Christians, Muslims, and Jews. For 200 years, the
    city passed back and forth between Muslims and
    Christians.
  • In 1216, Genghiz Khan led the Mongols out of
    Central Asia across Persian and Mesopotamia.
  • In 1258, Hulagu, grandson of Genghiz, burned and
    looted Baghdad, killing the last Abbassid caliph.
  • In the late 1300s, another Mongol leader, Timrith
    Lame , or Tamerlane, led his armies into the
    Middle East and conquer Muslim as well as
    non-Muslim lands. His armies overran Persia and
    Mesopotamia before invading Russia and India.

13
Golden Age of Muslim Cilization
  • By 830, the cliph had set up the House of
    Wisdom, a library and university in Baghdad.
    Under the Abbassids, Islam absorbed traditons
    from many cultures. A vital new cilvilization
    rose that flourished in cities from Damascus to
    Cairo to Cordoba and later to Delhi in India. The
    great works produced bu scholars of the Abbassid
    golden age shaped the Muslim world just as Greek
    and Roman classics shaped western culture.

14
Society and the Economy
  • The Muslim empire united people from diverse
    cultures, including Arabs, Persians, Egyptians
    and other Africans, and Europeans.
  • Muslim scociety ws more open thatn that of
    medical Europe, people could move up in society,
    especially through reiligious, scholarly, and
    military achievements.
  • Muslims could not be enslaved. Non-Muslim slaves
    could also be freed in many other ways.
  • Between 750 and 1350 , merchants built a vast
    trading network across the Muslim world and
    beyong, spreading Islam peacefully in their
    wake.Muslim traders traveled the Silk Road from
    China.
  • Handicraft manufacturing in Muslim cities was
    typically organized by guilds. Workers also get
    pay by wages.
  • Muslim farmers cultivated sugar cane, cotton,
    dyes, medicinal herbs, fruits, vegetables, and
    flowers that were bought and sold in world
    markets.

15
Muslim Art
  • The Quran strictly banned the worship of idols,
    Muslim religious leaders forbade artists to potry
    God or human figures in religious art.
  • The walls and ceilings or mosques were decorated
    with elaborate abstract and geomatric patterns.
  • In nonreligious arts, some Muslim artists did
    paint human and animal figures.
  • Muslim architects adapted the domes and arches of
    Byzantine buildings to new uses.

16
Literature
  • The great work of Islamic literature was the
    poetic Quran itself. Scholars studied the sacred
    words of the Quran in Arabic and then produced
    their own works interpreting its meaning.
  • Bedouin poets chanted that the dangers of desert
    journeys, the joys of battle, or the glories of
    their clans. The most important theme, chivalry
    and the romance of nomadic life, recurred in Arab
    poetry.
  • A Persian Muslims, name Firdawsi wrote in Persian
    using Arabic script. His masterpiece, the
    Shahnamah, or kings bood of kings, tells the
    history of persia in 60,000 verses.
  • Omar Khayyam, famous in the Muslim world as a
    scholar and astronomer, is best known to
    westerners for The Rubariyat.
  • Arab writers prized the art of storytelling. The
    best-known collection is The Thousand and One
    Night, a group of tales narrated bu the fictional
    pricess Scheherezade.

17
The World of Learning
  • Muslim scholars translated the works of the Greek
    philosophers, as well as many Hindu and Buddhist
    texts.
  • In Cordoba, the philosopher Ibn Rushd known in
    Europe as Averroes-he puts all knowledge to the
    test of reason.
  • Ibn Khaldun set standards for the scientific
    study of history, he stressed the importance of
    studying the causes of events.
  • The greatest Muslim mathematician was
    al-Khwarizimi study of algebra.
  • Muhammad al-Razi-the most respected doctor in the
    city, al-Razi was engaged in serious
    environmental research.
  • Government set up hospitals for people, an
    injured people could get quick treatment similar
    to todays emergency room.
  • Persian physician Ibn Sina, his great work was
    the Canon on Medicine, a huge ecyclopedia of what
    the Greeks, the Arab, and he himself had learned
    about the diagnosis and treatment of disese.

18
Muslims in India
  • Muslim invaders built a dazzling new Muslim
    empire in India. The arrival of Islam brought
    changes to India as great as those caused bu the
    Aryan migrations 2,000 years earlier. As Muslims
    mingled with Indians, each civilization asorbed
    elements from the other.

19
The Muslim Advance
  • The Gupta empire fell about 550, India fragmented
    in to many local kingdoms.
  • Arab armies conquered the Indus Valley in 711,
    they advanced no farther into the subcontinent.
    About 1000, Turkish converts to Islam pushed into
    India.
  • In the late 1100s, though, the sultan of Ghur
    defeated Hindu armies across the northern plain.
    He made Delhi his capital, his successors
    organized the Delhi sultanate, which lasted from
    1206 to 1526.

20
Delhi Sultanate
  • Muslim rule brought changes to Indian government
    and society. Sultans expanded their power over
    much India, introducing Muslim traditions of
    government.
  • The newcomers helped create a brilliant
    civilization at Delhi, where Persian art and
    architecture flourished.
  • In 1398, Tamerlane invaded India, he plundered
    the northern plain and smashed into Delhi. Ten of
    thousands of artisans were enslaved and marched
    off to build Tamerlanes capital at Samarkand.

21
Meeting of Two Cultures
  • Muslim conquest of northern India inflicted
    disaster on Hindus and Budhists.
  • The Muslim advance brought two utterly different
    religions and cultures face to face. Hindus
    recognized many sacred texts and prayed before
    statues representing many gods and goddesses.
    Islam was a newer faith with a single sacred
    text.
  • Some Muslim scholars argued that behind the many
    Hindu gods and goddesses was a single god.
    Hinduism was thus accepted as a monotheistic
    religion.
  • An Indian holy man, Nanak, sought to blend Muslim
    monotheism and Hindu beliefs. His teaching s led
    to the rise of a new religion, Sikhism,in
    northern India.

22
Mughal India
  • In 1526, Turkish and Mongol invaders again poured
    through the mountain passes in Indian. At the
    head was Babur, who claimed descent from Genghiz
    Khan nad Tamberlane.
  • Baburs force was small but had cannons, which he
    put to good use. Babur swept away the remnants of
    the Delhi sultanate and set up the Mugha dynasty,
    which ruled from 1526 to 1857.
  • The chief builder of the Mughal empire was Babur
    grandson Akbar. His long reign, from 1556 to
    1605, earning the title Akbar the Great.
  • Akbars son Jahangir was a weaker ruler than his
    father. But his wife, Nur Jahan, she was an able
    leader whose shrewd political judgment was
    matched only by her love of poetry and royal
    sports.
  • The high point of Mughal literature, art and
    architecture came with the reign of Shah Jahan,
    when his wife, Mumtaz Mahal died he had a
    stynning tomb built for her, the Taj Mahal.

23
The Ottoman and Savid Empires
  • While the Mughals ruled India, two other
    dynasties, the Ottomans and Safavids, dominated
    the Middle East and parts of Eastern Eruope. In
    1453, Ottoman cannons blasted gaps in the great
    defensive walls cannons blasted gaps in the great
    defensive walls of Constntinople. The new
    military technology helped the Ottomans and
    Safavids create strong central governments. As a
    result, this period from about 1450 to 1650 is
    sometimes called the age of gunpowder empires.

24
The Otoman Advance
  • The Ottomans were yet another Turkish speaking
    nomadic people who had migrated from Central Asia
    into northwestern Asia Minor.
  • In the 1300s, they expanded across Asia Minor and
    into the Balkans.
  • In 1453, Muhammad II captured Constantinople,
    which he renamed Istanbul.
  • In the next 200 years, the Ottoman empire
    continued to expand.
  • In 1529 and 1683, Ottoman armies besieged Vienna,
    sending waves of fear through Western Europe.

25
Ottoman Culture
  • The Ottoman empire enjoyed its Golden ages under
    the sultan Suleiman, who ruled from 1520 to 1566.
  • The Ottomans ruled diverse peoples who had many
    religions. Non- Muslims were organized into
    millets, or religious communities.
  • Ottomans recruited officers for the army and
    government from among the huge populations of
    conquered people in their empire.
  • The Ottoman empire was a powerful force for 500
    years. By the 1700s, however, European advances
    in both commerce and military technolgy were
    leaving the Ottomans behind.

26
The Safavid Empire
  • By the early 1500s, the Safavids, a
    Turkish-speaking dynasty, had united a strong
    empire in present-day Iran.
  • The outstangding Safavid ruler, Shah Abbas the
    Great, revived the glory of ancient Persia. From
    1588 to 1629, he centralized the government and
    created a powerful military force.
  • To strengthen the economy, Abbas reduced taxes on
    farmers and herders and encouraged the growth of
    industries.
  • Under Abbas, Isfahan flourished as a center of
    Persian culture. He welcomed artists, poets, and
    scholars to the court.
  • Safavid glory slowly faded after the death of the
    Shah Abbas, though the dynasty held onto power
    until 1722.
  • In late 1700s, a new dynasty, the Qajars won
    control of Iran.

27
Regent Questions
  • 1) A major feature of the Golden Age of Moslem
    culture was the
  • political and economic isolation of the Arab
    world
  • development of the foundations of modern science
    and mathematics
  • adoption of democratic government
  • persecution of Jews and Christians

28
Regent Questions
  • 2) The contributions of the Golden Age of Islamic
    civilization include.
  • advances in mathematics
  • irrigation systems
  • polytheistic beliefs
  • gunpowder and guns

29
Regent Questions
  • 3) Which activity occurred during the Golden Age
    of Muslim culture?
  • destruction of books containing Greek and Roman
    ideas
  • beginning of pilgrimages to Mecca
  • opposition to freedom of thought and to foreign
    ideas by rulers
  • major discoveries in mathematics and science

30
Regent Questions
  • 4) Mansa Musas journey to Mecca in the 1300s is
    evidence that
  • the Crusades had a great influence on western
    Africa
  • most African leaders were educated in the Middle
    East
  • European culture was superior to the cultures of
    western Africa
  • Islam had a major influence on the Mali Empire

31
Regent Questions
  • 5) Which factor helps explain the scientific and
    literary achievements of the Muslims during their
    Golden Age (A.D. 800-1300)?
  • expansion of trans-Atlantic trade
  • innovations introduced by the Europeans during
    he Renaissance
  • cultural diversity accepted by many Islamic
    governments
  • legal equality of all people in the Islamic
    empire

32
Answers
  • 1.B
  • 2.A
  • 3.D
  • 4.D
  • 5.C

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