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UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL DIFERENCES

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Ten questions an investigating officer might ask to confirm that the victim was intentionally selected because of his/her race, religion, color or national origin 10 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL DIFERENCES


1
Officer Richard Neil (retired)
Community Diversity Part 8
2
  • HATE CRIMES
  • TO DISLIKE PASSIONATELY OR INTENSELY
  • TO HAVE AN EXTREME AVERSION TOWARD ANOTHER
    PERSON, IDEA, OR OBJECT

3
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4
Problems caused by hate crimes
  • Hate crimes demand a special response from law
    enforcement and civic leaders
  • These crimes merit a priority response because of
    their special impact on the victim and the
    victims community
  • Hate crimes may effectively intimidate other
    members of the victims community, leaving them
    feeling isolated, vulnerable and unprotected by
    the law
  • Traditionally, victims have not received special
    attention or assistance

5
Problems caused by hate crimes
  • Acts are too frequently dismissed as pranks or
    ordinary cases of
  • Vandalism
  • Criminal damaging
  • Assault
  • Harassment
  • Menacing

6
Effective responses by police to crimes motivated
by hate are essential to prevent their spread
7
HATE CRIMES PLACE BASIC FREEDOMS OF AMERICAN
SOCIETY IN JEOPARDY
  • Right to individual liberty
  • Right to equality of opportunity
  • Right to religious expression
  • Right to freedom of association

8
In Ohio, a perpetrator commits a hate crime if he
or she intentionally selects the victim by
reason of the victims race, religion, color or
national origin. Hatred is not an element of the
crime.
9
ANY UNLAWFUL ACT DESIGNED TO FRIGHTEN OR HARM
AN INDIVIDUAL BECAUSE OF HIS OR HER RACE,
RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN
SPO14 HATE CRIME
10
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11
ETHNIC INTIMIDATION LAW IN OHIO ORC 2927.12
12
  • No person shall, by reason of the race, color,
    religion or national origin of another person or
    group of persons, violate the following sections
    of the Revised Code
  • 2903.21 Aggravated menacing
  • 2903.22 Menacing
  • 2906.06 Criminal Damaging or Endangering
  • 2909.07 Criminal Mischief
  • Division (A) (3) (4) or (5) of 2917.21
    Telecommunications Harassment

13
  • Division (A) (3) 2917.21 Prohibits any person
    from committing Aggravated Menacing during a
    telecommunication
  • Division (A) (4) 2917.21 Prohibits any person
    from knowingly stating to the recipient of a
    telecommunications that the caller intends
  • To cause damage to, or
  • Destroy public or private property, or
  • The recipient, any member of the recipients
    family or

14
  • Any other person who resides at the premises to
    which the telecommunications is made, owns,
    leases, resides or works in will
  • At the time of the destruction or damaging, be
    near or in, has the responsibility of protecting
    or insures the property that will be destroyed or
    damaged

15
  • Division (A)(5) 2917.21 Prohibits person from
    knowingly making a telecommunication to
  • The recipient of the telecommunication
  • To another person at the premises to which the
    telecommunication is made or
  • To those premises
  • The recipient or
  • Another person at those premises previously has
    told the caller not to make a telecommunication
    to those premises or
  • To any other person at those premises

16
Whoever violates section 2927.12, Ethnic
Intimidation, is guilty of ethnic intimidation,
which is an offense of the next higher degree
than the offense the commission of which is a
necessary element of Ethnic Intimidation
17
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18
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19
  • No person shall, by reason of the race, color,
    religion or national origin of another person or
    group of persons, violate the following sections
    of the Revised Code
  • 2903.21 Aggravated menacing
  • 2903.22 Menacing
  • 2906.06 Criminal Damaging or Endangering
  • 2909.07 Criminal Mischief
  • Division (A) (3) (4) or (5) of 2917.21
    Telecommunications Harassment

20
FEDERAL RELIGIOUS VANDALISM ACT
  • Makes it a Federal crime to intentionally damage
    or destroy any religious real property because of
    the religious character of the property where the
    loss exceeds 10,000
  • The law also punishes anyone who intentionally
    obstructs by force or threat of force any person
    in the engagement of that persons free exercise
    of religious beliefs

21
SPO15 EFFECTS OF HATE CRIMES
  • Special emotional and psychological impact on the
    victim and his/her community
  • Can increase racial, religious, gender and sexual
    orientation tensions
  • Can lead to reprisals by others in the community
    thereby escalating violence and turmoil

22
SPO15 EFFECTS OF HATE CRIMES
  • If officers fail to make an effective response or
    respond in ways that demonstrate a lack of
    concern, perpetrators may interpret the
    inactivity as official sympathy or even sanction

23
SPO15 EFFECTS OF HATE CRIMES
  • The impact of being a crime victim is traumatic
  • The impact of being a victim to a hate crime is
    compounded by the idea of being targeted for
    race, religion, gender or sexual orientation

24
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25
The importance of effective law enforcement
response to hate crimes
  • Reduces fear and anger facilitates recovery of
    victims, witnesses and the community
  • Convinces victims and the community that law
    enforcement takes their concerns seriously
  • Tells actual and potential offenders that such
    crimes will not be tolerated
  • Mitigates the potential for copy cat behavior

26
The importance of effective law enforcement
response to hate crimes
  • Reduces the potential for retaliation
  • Generates trust and goodwill between the
    community and the police department
  • Increases the police departments credibility
  • Increases law enforcement officer pride and
    satisfaction in his/her job

27
SPO16 TECHNIQUES AN OFFICER CAN USE TO HELP
DETERMINE IF THE PERPETRATOR INTENTIONALLY
SELECTED THE VICTIM BECAUSE OF A PROTECTED
CHARACTERISTIC
  • The presence of visible symbols of hatred and
    bias
  • The victims report as to
    what the perpetrator said and
    did
  • Absence of any other motive

28
NATURE OF THE PERPETRATOR
  • The majority of hate crime perpetrators are young
    people
  • A compilation of arrest records from the entire
    U.S. document that most hate crimes are committed
    by persons under 21 years of age
  • More likely to be committed by groups than
    individuals

29
NATURE OF THE PERPETRATOR
  • The rise in hate crimes parallels the rise in the
    number of young people joining hate organizations
  • 1988 - 1500 members of the Skinheads in 12 states
  • 1993 - 3500 members of the Skinheads in 40 states

30
2008 FBI Statistics-Hate Crimes
  • Intimidation accounted for 48.8
  • Simple assaults 32.1
  • Aggravated assaults 18.5 percent.
  • Seven murders were reported as hate crimes
  • 3,608 crimes against property
  • 17.7 percent consisted mainly of robbery,
    burglary, theft, and arson

31
NATURE OF THE PERPETRATOR
  • In 2000, nearly
  • 65 of hate crime offenders were White
  • 19 were Black
  • 5 were multiracial
  • 14 were of Asian-Pacific Island origin
  • 1 was Native American and
  • 10 of the offenders were unknown.

32
2008 FBI Statistics-Hate Crimes
  • 61.1 were white
  • 20.2 were black
  • 11 were of an unknown race
  • 31.9 percent of hate crimes took place in or near
    homes
  • 17.4 percent took place on highways, roads,
    alleys, or streets
  • 11.7 percent in schools and colleges
  • 6.1 percent in parking lots and garages

33
2008 FBI Statistics-Hate Crimes
  • 11.7 percent in schools and colleges
  • 6.1 percent in parking lots and garages
  • 4.2 percent in churches, synagogues, or temples
  • There were 105 anti-Islamic incidents reported in
    2008
  • One-tenth the amount of anti-Semitic incidents,
    which totaled 1,103

34
Ten questions an investigating officer might ask
to confirm that the victim was intentionally
selected because of his/her race, religion, color
or national origin
35
10 QUESTIONS
  • Is the victim different from the suspected
    perpetrators with regard to
  • Race
  • Religion
  • National Origin
  • Color
  • Did the incident occur because of this difference?

36
10 QUESTIONS
  • Did the victim recently move into the area and is
    his or her family the only one or one of just a
    few families of their racial, ethnic or religious
    groups in the neighborhood?
  • What is the victims relationship with his or her
    neighbors and/or local community groups?

37
10 QUESTIONS
  • Has the victim experienced past or repeated
    incidents of a similar nature?
  • Was the victim put into a state of fear by the
    incident and did the perpetrator commit the crime
    with the goal of creating such fear?

38
10 QUESTIONS
  • Is there a connection between the date of the
    incident and the holidays, special programs or
    events?
  • Is an organized hate group indicated in the
    incident?
  • Is hate literature involved?
  • Is there suspected hate activity in the area?

39
10 QUESTIONS
  • Does the MO signify a copycat syndrome that
    might be the result of media coverage of other
    similar incidents?
  • Were there any recent occurrences in the
    community or incidents reported in the media in
    which a member of the group to which the victim
    belongs, making this a payback or revenge
    incident harmed member of the offending group?

40
OTHER INDICATORS
  • Bias related comments, written statements or
    gestures made by the offenders
  • Bias related drawings, markings, symbols or
    graffiti left at the scene of the incident
  • Objects or items that represent the work of
    organized hate groups

41
VICTIMS OF HATE CRIMES EXPRESS FIVE NEEDS
  • To feel safe
  • To feel that people care
  • To receive assistance
  • Redemption
  • Retaliation

42
VICTIMS OF HATE CRIMES EXPERIENCE DEEP EMOTIONAL
STRESS THAT IS HEIGHTENED BY FEELINGS OF
  • Fear
  • Terror
  • Personal violation
  • Degradation

43
Refer victim to individuals or organizations that
can provide support and assistance, such as
victim assistance agencies
  • Court-affiliated  
  • Community-based
  • Social service organizations
  • Clergy in the victims religious denomination or
    religious preference
  • Legal services

44
SPO17 ACTIONS AN OFFICER SHOULD TAKE DURING THE
GOLDEN HOUR
  • They must rescue any victims and/or administer
    appropriate emergency care
  • They must prevent any further contamination if
    chemical weapons are involved
  • They must prevent further casualties

45
SPO17 ACTIONS AN OFFICER SHOULD TAKE DURING THE
GOLDEN HOUR
  • They must protect the scene from the standpoint
    of evidence
  • They must endeavor to identify victims,
    witnesses, evidence and suspects while the crime
    scene is still fresh

46
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47
Officer Richard Neil (retired)
www.OfficerNeil.com
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