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CARBOHYDRATES

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CARBOHYDRATES By: Dr Norhasmah Sulaiman Department Of Resources Management And Consumer Studies Faculty Of Human Ecology UPM Chemist s View of Carbohydrates Dietary ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CARBOHYDRATES


1
CARBOHYDRATES
  • By
  • Dr Norhasmah Sulaiman
  • Department Of Resources Management And Consumer
    Studies
  • Faculty Of Human Ecology
  • UPM

2
Chemists View of Carbohydrates
  • Dietary carbohydrate family includes
  • simple carbohydrate (sugars)
  • complex carbohydrate (Starches and Fibers)
  • The simple carbohydrate
  • Monosaccharides (single sugars)
  • Disaccharides (a pairs of monosaccharides)
  • The Complex carbohydrate
  • Polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides)

3
Simple Carbohydrates
  • Monosaccharides
  • Most of the monosaccharides important in
    nutrition are hexoses (hex six)
  • Simple sugars with six atoms of carbon and the
    formula C6H12O6
  • Monosaccharides
  • Glucose - hexagons
  • Fructose - pentagons
  • Galactose - hexagons

4
Simple Carbohydrates
  • Disaccarides
  • Maltose (Glucose Glucose)
  • Sucrose (Glucose Fructose)
  • Lactose (Glucose Galactose)
  • Are pairs of monosaccarides, each containing a
    glucose paired with one of the three
    monosaccarides

5
The Complex Carbohydrate
  • Contain many glucose units Poly
  • Contain few glucose units Oligo
  • Three polysaccharides
  • Glycogen
  • Animal meat and not at all in plants
  • Composed of glucose
  • Manufactured and stored in the liver and muscles
  • As a storage form of glucose

6
  • Starches
  • Human body glucose as glycogen
  • Plant cells store glucose as starches
  • Long, branched or unbranched chains of hundreds
    or thousands of glucose, molecules linked
    together
  • Fibers
  • Structural parts of plants
  • Plant-derived foods vegetables, fruits, grains
    and legumes
  • Described as nonstarch polysaccharides

7
  • Cellulose
  • Primary constituent of plant cell walls in
    vegetables, fruits and legumes.
  • Composed of glucose molecules and long chains
    however do not branch
  • Hemicelluloses
  • Main constituent of cereal fibers
  • Various monosaccharides backbones with with
    branching side
  • Many backbones and side chains are soluble and
    other are insoluble.
  • Pectins
  • Found in vegetables and fruits citrus fruits
    and apples)
  • Used by food industry to thicken jelly, salad
    dressings and texture

8
  • Gums and Mucilages
  • Gum such as gam arabic used as additives by food
    industry
  • Mucilages (guar and carrageenan) added to foods
    as stabilizers.
  • Lignin
  • Gives strength to foods
  • Occurs in the woody parts of vegetables carrots
    and the small seeds - strawberries

9
Other Classifications of Fiber
  • Fiber can be classified as
  • Soluble fibers
  • Insoluble fibers
  • Water-holding capacity
  • The capacity to capture water like a sponge,
    swelling and increasing the bulk of the
    intestines
  • Viscosity
  • The capacity to form viscous, gel-like solutions
  • Cation-exchange capacity
  • The ability to bind minerals
  • Bile-binding capacity
  • The ability to bind to bile acid

10
Functions of Carbohydrate
  • Supplying Energy
  • Brain cell and red blood cell
  • Sparing protein
  • Aid in synthesis of other substances
  • Non essential amino acid
  • Glycoproteins
  • Glycolipids
  • Promotes complete lipid metabolism
  • Provide bulk (fiber in the diet)
  • As sweetener
  • Food concentrated agent

11
Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
  • Mouth amylase
  • Starch Small polysaccharides
  • (maltose)
  • Stomach Stomachs acid bolus
  • Small intestine
  • Maltose Glucose glucose
  • maltase
  • Sucrose Fructose Glucose
  • Sucrase
  • Lactose Galactose Glucose
  • Lactase

12
  • Large Intestine
  • One to four hours after a meal all the sugars
    have been digested
  • INDIGESTABLE FIBER / STARCHES
  • Legumes, raw potatoes, banana
  • Promote bowel movement
  • Fiber- lower blood cholesterol

13
  • All CHO breaks down in digestion to
    monosaccharides glucose, fructose, galactose.
  • Monsaccharides are absorbed and fructose
    galactose becomes glucose.
  • Glucose is used by the cell hormone insulin
    needed for glucose to go from blood to cell.
  • Bodys uses of glucose
  • Energy
  • Maintenance of normal blood glucose level.
  • Glycogen.
  • Converted to body fat stored.

14
Health Problem Related Carbohydrate
  • Lactose Intolerance
  • Inability to digest the milk sugar
  • Bloating, gas, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea.
  • Acidophilus milk a cultured milk created by
    adding Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Breaks down lactose to glucose and galactose.
  • Dental Caries
  • Sugar and starch breaking down in the mouth
    contribute tooth decay.

15
  • Obesity
  • Chronic diseases
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Diabetes (Hypoglycemia)

16
Thank You.
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