1920's, The Great Depression and the New Deal - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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1920's, The Great Depression and the New Deal

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Title: 1920's, The Great Depression and the New Deal


1
1920's, The Great Depression and the New Deal
2
The Second Industrial Revolution
  • Innovation
  • U.S. develops the highest standard of living in
    the world
  • The twenties and the second revolution
  • electricity replaces steam
  • modern assembly introduced
  • Airplanes Charles Lindbergh first solo flight
    over the Atlantic Ocean (1927)

3
Socially transforming innovations
  • electricity
  • electric lightbulb (1880's 1924 the Phoebus
    cartel)
  • automobile
  • mass production assembly line
  • Fordism
  • radio

4
Scientific Advancements and Conservatism
  • The Scopes Trial (1925)
  • Eugenics Immigration Act of 1924

5
The Automobile Industry
  • Auto makers stimulate sales through model
    changes, advertising
  • Auto industry fosters other businesses
  • Autos encourage suburban sprawl

6
Patterns of Economic Growth
  • Structural change
  • professional managers replace individual
    entrepreneurs
  • corporations become the dominant business form
  • Big business weakens regionalism, brings
    uniformity to America

7
Glenwood Stove Ad
8
Economic Weaknesses
  • Railroads poorly managed
  • Coal displaced by petroleum
  • Farmers face decline in exports, prices
  • Growing disparity between income of laborers,
    middle-class managers
  • Middle class speculates with idle money

9
City Life in the Jazz Age
  • Rapid increase in urban population
  • Skyscrapers symbolize the new mass culture
  • Communities of home, church, and school are
    absent in the cities

10
Women and the Family
  • Ongoing crusade for equal rights
  • Flappers seek individual freedom
  • Most women remain in domestic sphere
  • Discovery of adolescence
  • teenaged children no longer need to work
  • indulge their craving for excitement

11
The Roaring Twenties
  • Decade notable for obsessive interest in
    celebrities
  • Sex becomes an all-consuming topic of interest in
    popular entertainment

12
The Flowering of the Arts
  • Alienation from 20s mass culture
  • "Exiled" American writers put U.S. in forefront
    of world literature
  • T.S. Eliot
  • Ernest Hemingway
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • Harlem Renaissance--African Americans prominent
    in music, poetry

13
The Rural Counterattack
  • Rural Americans identify urban culture with
    Communism, crime, immorality
  • Progressives attempt to force reform on the
    American people
  • upsurge of bigotry
  • an era of repression

14
The Fear of Radicalism
  • 1919-- Red Scare
  • illegal roundups of innocent people
  • forcible deportation of aliens
  • terrorism against radicals, immigrants
  • 1927-- Sacco and Vanzetti executed

15
Prohibition
  • 1918--18th Amendment ratified
  • 1920--Volstead Act prohibits production, sale, or
    transport of alcoholic beverages
  • Consumption of alcohol reduced
  • Prohibition resented in urban areas
  • Bootlegging becomes big business
  • 1933--18th amendment repealed

16
The Ku Klux Klan
  • 1925--Klan membership hits 5 million
  • Attack on urban culture, inhabitants
  • Defense of traditional rural values
  • Klan seeks to win U.S. by persuasion
  • Violence, internal corruption result in Klans
    virtual disappearance by 1930

17
Immigration Restriction
  • 1924--Congress restricts all immigration
  • Preferential quotas to northern Europeans
  • Mexican immigrants exempt from quota

18
The Fundamentalist Challenge
  • Fundamentalism stress on traditional Protestant
    orthodoxy, biblical literalism
  • 1925--Scopes Trial discredits fundamentalism
    among intellectuals
  • Modernists gain mainline churches
  • Fundamentalists strengthen grassroots appeal in
    new churches

19
Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover
  • Republican presidents appeal to traditional
    American values
  • Harding scandals break after his death
  • Coolidge represents America in his austerity and
    rectitude
  • Hoover represents the self-made man

20
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21
The Election of 1928
  • Democrat Al Smith carries urban vote
  • governor of New York
  • Roman Catholic
  • Republican Herbert Hoover wins race
  • Midwesterner
  • Protestant
  • Religion the campaigns decisive issue

22
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23
The Great Crash
  • 1928--soaring stock prices attract individual,
    corporate investment
  • 1929--stock market crashes
  • directly affects 3 million
  • credit crunch stifles business
  • Businesses lay off workers
  • Demand for consumer goods declines

24
Effects of the Depression
  • Hardship affects all classes
  • The middle class loses belief in ever-increasing
    prosperity
  • Thousands of young homeless, jobless

25
Fighting the Depression
  • Republican attempts to overcome catastrophe
    flounder
  • Depression gives Democrats opportunity to regain
    power

26
Hoover and Voluntarism
  • Hoover initially seeks solution through voluntary
    action, private charity
  • Eventually aids farmers and bankers
  • Resists Democratic efforts to give direct aid to
    the unemployed
  • perceived as indifferent to human suffering
  • programs seen as incompetent

27
Bank Failures, 1929-1933
28
The Emergence of Roosevelt
  • Franklin Roosevelt
  • born to wealth and privilege
  • 1921--crippled by polio
  • 1928--elected governor of New York
  • talented politician
  • 1932--defeats Hoover with farmer-
    worker-immigrant-Catholic coalition

29
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30
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31
The Hundred Days
  • Banking system saved from collapse
  • Fifteen major laws provide relief
  • New Deal aims to reform and restore, not
    nationalize, the economy

32
Roosevelt and Recovery
  • National Recovery Administration
  • industries formulate codes to eliminate
    cut-throat competition, ensure labor peace
  • codes favor big business, unenforceable
  • 1935--NRA ruled unconstitutional
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933
  • farmers paid to take land out of cultivation
  • prices increase
  • sharecroppers, tenant farmers dispossessed

33
Roosevelt and Relief
  • 1933--Harry Hopkins placed in charge of RFC to
    direct aid to unemployed
  • 1933--Civilian Conservation Corps provides
    employment to young people
  • 1935--Works Progress Administration place
    unemployed on federal payroll
  • Programs never sufficiently funded

34
Roosevelt and Reform
  • 1933-34--focus on immediate problems
  • 1935--shift to permanent economic reform

35
Challenges to FDR
  • Father Charles Coughlin advocates nationalizing
    banks, anti-Semitism
  • Francis Townsend calls for wealth redistribution
    from young to the elderly
  • Huey Long calls for redistribution of wealth by
    seizing private fortunes

36
Social Security
  • 1935--Social Security Act passed
  • Criticisms
  • too few people would collect pensions
  • unemployment package inadequate
  • Establishes pattern of government aid to poor,
    aged, handicapped

37
Labor Legislation
  • 1935--Wagner Act
  • allows unions to organize
  • outlaws unfair labor practices
  • 1938--Fair Labor Standard Act
  • maximum hour
  • minimum wage

38
Impact of the New Deal
  • Had a broad influence on the quality of life in
    the U.S. in the 1930s
  • Helps labor unions most
  • Helps women, minorities least

39
Rise of Organized Labor
  • 1932--National Recovery Act spurs union
    organizers
  • Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO) formed
    by John L. Lewis
  • CIO unionizes steel, auto industries
  • 1940--CIO membership hits 5 million, 28 of labor
    force unionized

40
The New Deal Record on Help to Minorities
  • Crop reduction program allows whites to fire or
    evict blacks, Hispanics
  • Public works programs help by providing
    employment
  • New Deal figures convince minorities that the
    government is on their side
  • 1934--Indian Reorganization Act gives American
    Indians greater control

41
Women at Work
  • Position of women deteriorates in 30s
  • jobs lost at a faster rate than men
  • hardly any New Deal programs help
  • Progress in government
  • Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor, the first
    woman cabinet member
  • women appointed to several other posts
  • Eleanor Roosevelt a model for activism

42
End of the New Deal
  • 1936--New Deal peaks with Roosevelts reelection
  • Congress resists programs after 1936

43
The Election of 1936
  • FDRs campaign
  • attacks the rich
  • promises further reforms
  • defeats Republican Alf Landon
  • Democrats win lopsided majorities in both houses
    of Congress
  • FDR coalition South, cities, labor, ethnic
    groups, African Americans, poor

44
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45
The Supreme Court Fight
  • Supreme Court blocks several of FDRs first-term
    programs
  • 1937--FDR seeks right to "pack" Court
  • Congressional protest forces retreat
  • FDRs opponents emboldened

46
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48
The New Deal in Decline
  • 1936--cutbacks for relief agencies
  • 1937--severe slump hits economy
  • Roosevelt blamed, resorts to huge government
    spending
  • 1938--Republican party revives

49
The New Deal and American Life
  • New Deals limitations
  • depression not ended
  • economic system not fundamentally altered
  • little done for those without political clout
  • Achievements
  • Social Security, the Wagner Act
  • political realignment of the 1930s
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