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Perception and Personality in Organizations

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Title: Perception and Personality in Organizations


1
Perception and Personality in Organizations
.
2
Foundations of Individual Behaviour
3
  • WE DONT SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE
    THINGS AS WE ARE.

4
Perception
  • The study of perception is concerned with
    identifying the process through which we
    interpret and organize sensory information to
    produce our conscious experience of objects and
    object relationship.
  • Perception is the process of receiving
    information about and making sense of the world
    around us. It involves deciding which information
    to notice, how to categorize this information and
    how to interpret it within the framework of
    existing knowledge.

5
Perception
  • A process by which individuals organize and
    interpret their sensory impressions in order to
    give meaning to their environment .

6
Perceptual Process Model
Environmental Stimuli
7
The Perceptual Process
  • Sensation
  • An individuals ability to detect stimuli in the
    immediate environment.
  • Selection
  • The process a person uses to eliminate some of
    the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain
    others for further processing.
  • Organization
  • The process of placing selected perceptual
    stimuli into a framework for storage.
  • Interpretation
  • The stage of the perceptual process at which
    stimuli are interpreted and given meaning.

8
Selective Attention
  • Characteristics of the object
  • size, intensity, motion, repetition, novelty
  • Perceptual context
  • Characteristics of the perceiver
  • attitudes
  • perceptual defense
  • expectations -- condition us to expect events

9
  • Factors in the Target
  • Motion
  • Novelty
  • Sounds
  • Size
  • Background
  • Proximity
  • Similarity
  • Factors in the perceiver
  • Attitudes
  • Motives
  • Interests
  • Experience
  • Expectations

Perception
  • Factors in the situation
  • Time
  • Work Setting
  • Social Setting

10
Figure-Ground Illustration
  • Field-ground differentiation
  • The tendency to distinguish and focus on a
    stimulus that is classified as figure as
    opposed to background.

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  • PERCEPTUAL GROUPING
  • Our tendency to group several individual stimuli
    into a meaningful and recognizable pattern.
  • It is very basic in nature and largely it seems
    to be inborn.
  • Some factors underlying grouping are
  • -continuity -closure
  • -proximity -similarity

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ATTRIBUTION THEORY
  • is the cause of the behavior seen as internal or
    external? we look for three types of information
    to decide
  • DISTINCTIVENESS Is this persons performance
    different on other tasks and in other
    situations?
  • CONSISTENCY Over time, is there a change in
    behavior or results on this task by
    this person?
  • CONSENSUS Do others perform or behave similarly
    when in a similar position?
  • YES answers lead to EXTERNAL attributions
    (Environmental causes)
  • NO answers lead to INTERNAL attributions
    (Personal causes)

19
Attribution Theory
  • When individuals observe behavior, they attempt
    to determine whether it is internally or
    externally caused.

Attribution of cause
observation
Interpretation
H
External
Distictinctiveness
L
Internal
H
Individual behavior
External
Consensus
L
Internal
H
Internal
Consistency
L
External
H high L- Low
20
Distinctiveness Does this person behave in
this manner in other situation
Consensus Do other person Behave in the Same
manner?
Consistency Does this person behave in this
same manner at other times ?
Internal Attribution
No Low Consensus Yes High Consensus
Yes High Consistency No Low Consistency
YES Low Distinctiveness NO High Distinctiveness
  • External
  • Attribution

21
PERCEPTUAL ERRORS ATTRIBUTIONS
  • STEREOTYPES Based on appearance
  • HALO (HORN) EFFECTS One outstanding
    characteristic noted
  • CONTRAST EFFECT Ordering
  • RECENCY EFFECT Limited recall
  • PROJECTION Similar to me Error
  • SKEWING ERRORS Central tendency, leniency,
    strictness bias
  • SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY People respond the way
    you expected they would
  • SELECTIVE PERCEPTION (MIND SETS) Filtering,
    selection,

22
ATTRIBUTION ERRORS
  • THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR
  • the cause of poor performance (by others) is due
    to personal factors (lazydidnt try very hard)
  • SELF-SERVING BIAS
  • the cause of poor performance (by myself) is due
    to situational factors (poor support), not
    because of a lack of effort

23
Improving Perceptual Accuracy
Diversity Management
Improving Perceptual Accuracy
Empathize With Others
Know Yourself
Postpone Impression Formation
Compare Perceptions With Others
24
Know Yourself (Johari Window)
Unknown to Self
Known to Self
Known to Others
Unknown to Others
25
Defining Personality
  • Relatively stable pattern of behaviours and
    consistent internal states that explain a
    person's behavioural tendencies
  • Sum total of ways in which an individual reacts
    and interacts with others and environment

26
Determinants of Personality
27
Big Five Personality Dimensions
Caring, dependable
Poised, secure
Sensitive, flexible
Courteous, empathic
Outgoing, talkative
28
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  • Extroversion versus introversion
  • Sensing versus intuition
  • Thinking versus feeling
  • Judging versus perceiving

Courtesy of Thompson Doyle Hennessey Everest
29
Locus of Control and Self-Monitoring
  • Locus of control
  • Internals believe in their effort and ability
  • Externals believe events are mainly due to
    external causes
  • Self-monitoring personality
  • Sensitivity to situational cues, and ability to
    adapt your behaviour to that situation

30
Personality Traits
31
Personality Theories
  • Trait Theory
  • Psychoanalytical theory
  • Social Learning theory
  • Self theory

32
Personality Traits
  • Traits are relatively stable and consistent
    personal characteristics
  • Assumptions for Trait theory
  • Traits are-
  • Common but vary in absolute amounts
  • Relatively stable
  • Can be inferred by measuring his/her
    behavioral indicators

33
Trait Theory
  • Trait personality theories suggest that a person
    can be described on the basis of some number of
    personality traits
  • Allport identified some 4,500 traits
  • Cattel used factor analysis to identify 30-35
    basic traits
  • Problems with trait theory include
  • Lack of explanation as to WHY traits develop
  • Issue of explaining transient versus long-lasting
    traits

Allport
34
Overview of the Big 5
35
The Trait Theory
36
Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Psychoanalytic theory, as devised by Freud,
    attempts to explain personality on the basis of
    unconscious mental forces
  • Levels of consciousness We are unaware of some
    aspects of our mental states
  • Freud argued that personality is made up of
    multiple structures, some of which are
    unconscious
  • Freud argued that as we have impulses that cause
    us anxiety our personality develops defense
    mechanisms to protect against anxiety

37
Freudian Theory
  • Levels of consciousness
  • Conscious
  • What were aware of
  • Preconscious
  • Memories etc. that can be recalled
  • Unconscious
  • Wishes, feelings, impulses that lies beyond
    awareness
  • Structures of Personality
  • Id
  • Operates according to the pleasure principle
  • Ego
  • Operates according to the reality principle
  • Superego
  • Contains values and ideals

38
Defense Mechanisms
  • Defense mechanisms refer to unconscious mental
    processes that protect the conscious person from
    developing anxiety
  • Sublimation person channels energy from
    unacceptable impulses to create socially
    acceptable accomplishments
  • Denial person refuses to recognize reality
  • Projection person attributes their own
    unacceptable impulses to others
  • Repression anxiety-evoking thoughts are pushed
    into the unconscious

39
Defense Mechanisms
  • Rationalization Substituting socially
    acceptable reasons
  • Intellectualization Ignoring the emotional
    aspects of a painful experience by focusing on
    abstract thoughts, words, or ideas
  • Reaction formation Refusing to acknowledge
    unacceptable urges, thoughts or feelings by
    exaggerating the opposite state
  • Regression Responding to a threatening
    situation in a way appropriate to an earlier age
    or level of development
  • Displacement Substituting a less threatening
    object for the original object of impulse

40
Social Learning Theory
  • It emphasizes on how an individual behaves or
    acts in a given situation.
  • It holds the view that the specific
    characteristics of a situation determine how an
    individual will behave in such situation.

41
Humanistic Perspectives
  • Carl Rogers self theory
  • Self image
  • Ideal self
  • Looking self glass
  • Rreal self

42
Self theory
  • We have needs for
  • Self-consistency (absence of conflict between
    self-perceptions
  • Congruence (consistency between self-perceptions
    and experience)
  • Inconsistency evokes anxiety and threat
  • People with low self-esteem generally have poor
    congruence between their self-concepts and life
    experiences.

43
How personality develops or shapes?
  • Some findings
  • Freuds four stages
  • Eriksons eight life stages
  • Argyris Immaturity to maturity stages

44
Freuds four stages
  • The Oral stage- Lasts for the first year
  • The Anal stage- Two to three years
  • The phallic stage- At the age of four years
  • The latency stage- B/w age of six to seven years
  • The genital stage-During adolescences adulthood

45
Freud criticisms and critiques
  • He studied very few people so not representative
    sample
  • Process of psychoanalysis interviewing- exhibit
    preconceived notions and biases
  • His measures/methods were untreatable
  • Definitions dont lend themselves to
    experimentation
  • Ones personality is fixed and unchanging

46
Eriksons eight life stages
  • Infancy- first year
  • Early childhood- Two and three years
  • Play age-Four and Five years
  • School age-Six to twelve years
  • Adolescence-Teenage period
  • Young adulthood- During Twenties
  • Old(sunset) age- Adult

47
Argyris Immaturity to maturity stages
  • From
  • Passivity to activity
  • Dependence to Independence
  • Selective behavior
  • Shallow interest to deep interest
  • Short term perspective to long perspective
  • Subordinate position to superordinate position
  • Lack of self awareness to self awreness and
    control

48
Measuring Personality
  • Self report surveys
  • Projective tests ( Rorschach Inkblot Test and
    Thematic Appreciation Test)
  • Assessment Centres

49
Assessing the Unconscious
  • Projective Tests
  • used to assess personality (e.g., Rorschach or
    TAT tests)
  • How? provides ambiguous stimuli and subject
    projects his or her motives into the ambiguous
    stimuli

50
Assessing the Unconscious -- Rorschach
  • Rorschach Inkblot Test
  • the most widely used projective test
  • a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann
    Rorschach

Rorschach
51
Assessing the Unconscious--Rorschach
used to identify peoples inner feelings by
analyzing their interpretations of the blots
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Assessing the Unconscious--TAT
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  • People express their inner motives through the
    stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

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AM I a TYPE-A? Identify the number on the scale
that best characterizes your behavior for each
trait.
  • Casual about appointments Never late
  • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • Not competitive Very competitive
  • 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • Never feel rushed Always feel rushed
  • 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • Take things one at a time Try to do many
    things at once
  • 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • Slow doing things Fast (eating, walking,
    etc.)
  • 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • Express feelings "Sit on" feelings
  • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • Many interests Few interests outside work
  • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

60
Results
  • A total of 120 or more indicates that you are a
    hard-core Type A. Scores below 90 indicate that
    you are a hard-core Type B. The following gives
    you more specifics
  • 120 or more points A personality type
  • 106-119 A
  • 100-105 A
  • 90-99 B
  • Less than 90 B
  • If you score in the "A" categories, you need to
    be aware of your tendency to focus on quantity
    over quality. You may do better in jobs that are
    routine and rely on speed rather than creativity
    for success. In addition, Type As often
    experience moderate to high levels of stress.

61
WHAT'S MY BASIC PERSONALITY?
  • 1 2 3 4 5
  • Quiet Talkative
  • Tolerant Critical
  • Disorganized Organized
  • Tense Calm
  • Imaginative Conventional
  • Reserved Outgoing

62
  • Uncooperative Cooperative
  • Unreliable Dependable
  • Insecure Secure
  • New Familiar
  • Sociable Loner
  • Suspicious Trusting
  • Undirected Goal-oriented
  • Enthusiastic Depressed
  • Change Status quo
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