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Title: Innovative Textile Education and Training


1
Innovative Textile Education and Training
  • S.C.Harlock B.Sc. Ph.D., The University of Leeds
    - Media Innovations Ltd

2
Introduction
  • This presentation will
  • consider the changes taking place within textile
    and apparel education and training particularly
    within the U.K to explain the background to
    multimedia developments in textile and apparel
    education and training
  • describe developments in multimedia, computer
    based learning and proposals for new delivery
    mechanisms
  • present an overview of other global education and
    training initiatives in textiles an apparel

3
Current situation in UK Higher Education
  • Within the U.K. there has been a decline in
    student enrolment on science and technology based
    education in textiles

4
Why the decline?
  • Four factors have exacerbated this

5
Why the decline?
  • The decline in the textile manufacturing base and
    consequently perceived lack of career prospects

6
Changes in U.K. Textile and Apparel Manufacture
7
Changes in U.K. Textile and Apparel Manufacture
8
Why the decline?
  • Unpopularity of science and technology based
    courses generally
  • Unpopularity of manufacturing generally
  • Fee paying students are preferring to study
    textile related courses in which they believe
    they will excel, find interesting and may be seen
    as more "glamorous

9
Changes in demand for textile and apparel
education
  • Techno-management courses offering a
    combination of management/ business studies with
    textile/apparel technology have been popular
  • Difficult to sustain, because costly to support,
    maintain and update specialist machines and
    equipment, unless underpinned by substantial
    research funding
  • Research funding focusing on areas, notably
    technical textiles, where higher added value can
    be realised and specialist knowledge can provide
    a competitive advantage

10
Changes in demand for textile and apparel
education
  • The principle issues with technology based
    programmes would appear to be image of the
    industry and employment prospects

11
Changes in demand for textile and apparel
education
  • And yet
  • Fashion design, textile design, fashion
    management and marketing, fashion retailing are
    very popular programmes
  • Glamorous and generate good income for
    Universities/colleges
  • BUT
  • Many provide only limited technological and
    production knowledge relevant to textile and
    apparel industry
  • Career opportunities limited considerable over
    supply of fashion designers entering the market

12
Educational provision
  • Entry to further and higher education programmes
    of study is through the University and Colleges
    Admission Service (UCAS) http//www.ucas.com/
  • UCAS website cites approximately 92 institutions
    offering 452 Textile and Fashion Design,
    Management and Technology Courses at HNC, HND and
    Degree levels.
  • Search for Textile Technology courses on UCAS
    website reveals 4 institutions offering
    FT/sandwich courses at HND and Degree levels

13
Current situation in Higher Education in
B.Sc./M.Sc. courses in Textiles
  • University of Leeds
  • M.Sc. courses (FT) only (with conversion option)
    in
  • Advanced Colouration and Finishing Technology
  • Colour Management Systems
  • Technical Textiles and Performance Clothing
  • Textile Management
  • Textile Manufacturing and TQM

14
Current situation in Higher Education in
B.Sc./M.Sc. courses in Textiles
  • UMIST
  • (http//www.umist.ac.uk/departments/textiles/)
  • Merging with University of Manchester on
    01.10.2004 ( Professor Alan Gilbert, Vice
    Chancellor of Melbourne University will be new
    V.C.)
  • Departments of Textiles and Paper merged
  • B.Sc. courses (FT) (some with language and year
    abroad options) in
  • Textile Science and Technology
  • Textile Technology and Management
  • Clothing Technology and Fashion Management ( with
    Manchester Metropolitan University
  • Management and Marketing of Textiles
  • Fashion and Textile Retailing
  • Design Management for Fashion Retailing
  • Textile Design and Design Management

15
Current situation in Higher Education in
B.Sc./M.Sc. courses in Textiles
  • UMIST
  • M.Sc. courses (FT) in
  • - Textile technology
  • - International fashion retailing
  • M.Ent course (FT) in
  • - Textile design, technology and fashion

16
Current situation in Higher Education in
B.Sc./M.Sc. courses in Textiles
  • Heriot Watt University
  • (http//www.hw.ac.uk/sbc/SOTWeb/SOTCourses.html)
  • B.Sc. courses (FT) in
  • - Clothing Design and Manufacture
  • - Textiles and Fashion Design Management
  • - Combined studies
  • M.Sc./Diploma courses (FT) in
  • - Clothing Management
  • - International Design Marketing ( Fashion and
    Textiles)

17
Current situation in Higher Education in
B.Sc./M.Sc. courses in Textiles
  • Bolton Institute of Higher Education
  • (http//www.bolton.ac.uk/courses/index)
  • Foundation degree in Textiles work based
    learning and negotiated learning contracts
  • B.Sc. course (FT and PT) in
  • - Textile Technology
  • M.Sc./Diploma courses (FT and PT) in
  • - Textile Studies

18
Current situation in Higher Education in
B.Sc./M.Sc. courses in Textiles
  • Manchester Metropolitan University
  • (http//www.mmu.ac.uk/courses/)
  • B.Sc. / HND courses (FT) in
  • - Textile Technology for Fashion
  • M.Sc./ courses (FT) in
  • - Clothing Product Development
  • - International Fashion Marketing

19
Technician level education and training
20
Technician level education and training
  • Technical certificate and other education for
    those in full time employment provided on day
    release or evening classes at local further
    education colleges or some institutions of higher
    education.
  • Competition from service sector and decline in
    industry has discouraged school leavers from
    entering industry.
  • Insufficient trainees within a given geographical
    area to justify provision of courses and
    companies reluctant to release trainees
  • Consequently courses not financially viable

21
Changes in demand for textile and apparel
education
  • BUT
  • Within the U.K.
  • Textile manufacturing 127000 employed in 5456
    business units
  • Apparel 84000 employed in 5631 business units
    Statistics from survey conducted by
    Skillfast-UK December 2002
  • So, despite the decline in the manufacturing
    base, there continues to be the demand for
    employees at all levels and hence the demand for
    them to be educated and trained.

22
Changes in demand for textile and apparel
education
  • However
  • Conventional delivery of technological education
    and training not cost effective because of
    insufficient student numbers
  • Therefore
  • To offer cost effective training requires a
    change in the mode of provision, tailored to the
    needs of industry and commerce, offered at a
    convenient time and place, to suit the individual
    needs of both the employee and the employer.

23
How can we meet this provision?
  • Need to recognise that
  • Students/employees prefer to learn at different
    times
  • Employers cannot afford to allow employees to
    study away from workplace
  • Emphasis now is on "learning for life" and wider
    access to learning.
  • The ultimate goal must be education on-demand -
    access and opportunity to learn at any time and
    any place together with the development of
    skills and experience.

24
How can we meet this provision?
  • Use alternative forms of delivery
  • E-learning
  • Video delivery
  • Synchronous and asynchronous communication e.g.
    Internet chat rooms, email
  • Classroom
  • Books
  • In-company practical training
  • Blended learning

25
What experience do we have in the use of
e-learning in textiles?
  • In 1994 development of a computer based learning
    system at the University of Leeds for textiles
    and apparel was started
  • A team comprising academic subject specialists,
    media production and computer based learning
    staff spent 18 months writing text and producing
    videos, animations, graphics

26
Experiences in the use of computer based learning
for Textiles and Apparel
  • Collaboration between academic staff in the
    Department of Textile Industries, Audio-visual
    services and the Computer Based Learning unit
  • Content was compiled and authored using an
    interactive document compiler to create
    Assymetrix TOOLBOOK multimedia files.
  • "Introduction to Textiles" launched in September
    1995.

27
Experiences in the use of computer based learning
for Textiles and Apparel
  • Features of the system are
  • It has dual functionality It provides a
    structured learning environment and a reference
    resource browser
  • It assumes no prior knowledge of Textiles or
    Apparel
  • It assumes no prior knowledge of computers
  • It is simple to use with interactive features
  • It has quick response - a minimum download time

28
Experiences in the use of computer based learning
for Textiles and Apparel
  • It contains
  • 800 screens ( pages)
  • 430 colour photographs
  • 200 graphics
  • 23 animations
  • 225 video sequences
  • 200 glossary items
  • 110 bibliography references
  • 600 self assessment exercises (MCQs)
  • Audio commentaries
  • Hypertext links
  • A tutorial on the use of the system
  • Glossary of terms

29
ITT Introduction to Textiles Subjects
30
ITT Introduction to Textiles Topics
31
ITT Introduction to TextilesLearning
32
ITT Introduction to Textiles Evaluation
33
Experiences in the use of computer based learning
for Textiles and Apparel
  • Content delivered in 2 modules
  • Students typically spent 30-40 hours studying
    content of each module in computer based
    learning laboratory using work book
  • Tutorials/practical demonstrations support
    learning

34
Experiences in the use of computer based learning
for Textiles and Apparel
  • This significantly changed the mode of delivery
    of content
  • For the first time students could study at their
    own pace in their own learning environment.
  • Since 1995, an estimated 40,000 student hours of
    learning have been delivered using the system

35
Further Developments
  • Working on our own and in collaboration with
    training organisations including KLITRA and CBWT,
    9 more modules have been developed
  • Fashion technology
  • Clothing technology 2.0
  • Knitwear technology 1.0
  • Weaving technology 2.0
  • Textile testing 2.0
  • Nonwoven technology 2.0
  • Weft knitted fabric analysis
  • Woven fabric analysis
  • Fibre identification

36
Further DevelopmentsClothing Technology 2.0
37
Further DevelopmentsTextile Testing 2.0
38
Further Developments_ Fibre Identification
39
Commercial Usage
  • System now marketed worldwide in response to
    commercial demand
  • Approximately 80 copies of the system both in the
    U.K. and overseas, national and international
    commercial manufacturing and retail
    organisations.
  • Now used in secondary schools as well

40
How suitable is e-learning for training in
companies?
  • Training organisations also recognising the
    potential that this mode of delivery offers.
  • Employees may study within allotted periods in
    the factory in dedicated training facilities or
    during slacker production times.

41
The use of computer based learning to support
training in textiles and apparel
  • The Knitting and Lace Industries Training
    Association in the U.K piloted Introduction to
    Textiles within knitwear companies
  • They also collaborated in the development of a
    Knitwear Technology module specifically for
    knitwear manufacturers in the Scottish borders
    companies.
  • In 2002, the Confederation of British Wool
    Textiles conducted a pilot study of Introduction
    to Textiles for training purposes.
  • The new Weaving Technology module was also
    developed and piloted.

42
Evaluation of suitability of Introduction to
Textiles and Weaving Technology for training
purposes
  • Copies of Introduction to Textiles and Weaving
    Technology supplied to colleges delivering
    further education courses to trainees from
    manufacturers and some textile manufacturers
    themselves (including a fine worsted suiting
    manufacturer, a dyeing and finishing company and
    a carpet manufacturing company).

43
Employee response
 
44
Employee response
 

45
Employee response
 
 
46
Employee response
  • Comments made by the evaluators of Weaving
    Technology
  •  Very helpful, wish I had it sooner
  • The package was good but needs to be supported
    by lectures
  • Easy to follow and fun to use, makes learning
    enjoyable
  • A very comprehensive programme. .all in all an
    informative package also very well presented.

47
Latest developments
  • Currently working on a pan European (Leonardo da
    Vinci mobility funding) collaborative project
    involving
  • Euratex Belgium
  • University of Kaunas Lithuania
  • University of Liberec Czech Republic
  • Manufacturers in Poland and Estonia
  • KLITRA UK
  • CBWT UK
  • to develop 2 multimedia training modules on
    carpet and hosiery technology respectively.

48
Conclusions from studies
  • Several clear messages emerge from the experience
    of use to date.
  • Motivation is a key factor - it is not
    sufficient to offer such systems and expect all
    learners to accept it.
  • Support is needed in the form of learning
    facilitators, to co-ordinate, motivate and
    explain difficult concepts.
  • It needs to be integrated into programmes of
    study as one of a variety of modes of learning -
    Blended Learning

49
Model for a Vocational Learning Centre for
pre-degree textile education and training
Local Training Centres
Colleges/Universities
50
E-learning can be delivered from anywhere
51
Whats the benefits for companies ?
  • Convenience and ease of training
  • Consistent quality, format and standard of
    training material
  • Access to worldwide education and training
    material
  • Qualifications
  • The only viable means of providing technological
    training qualifications for their employees
  • Training opportunities for mature employees

52
Whats the benefits for employees ?
  • Education on demand
  • Convenience and ease of training
  • Consistent quality,format and standard of
    training material
  • Access to worldwide education and training
    material
  • Qualifications
  • Opportunities for career enhancement
  • Tutor support
  • Training opportunities for mature employees

53
How can this be developed?
Partnership
54
Innovative textile education and training - Other
initiatives
  • UK Faraday Technitex Partnership
  • Europe
  • EC projects
  • Leonardo da Vinci projects
  • Textile elearning projects
  • Autex
  • Virtual textiles project
  • LIFT Group Netherlands
  • USA North Carolina State University
  • Canada Textiles Human Resources Council
  • Hong Kong Hong Kong Polytechnic University and
    CITA (Clothing Industry Training Authority)

55
Collaborative short course provision UK -
Technitex Faraday partnership
(http//www.technitex.hw.ac.uk/) Consortium of
the Universities of Leeds/Heriot Watt/UMIST and
BTTG established to collaborate on Technical
Textiles research and the provision of short
(unaccredited) training courses
56
Collaborative short course provision UK -
Technitex
  • Technitex Faraday partnership
  • Initial 3 year funding of 4.5 m for a programme
    of fundamental research, product development,
    consultancy and training courses
  • Level of response from companies good
  • Recently renewed with tapered funding of 1m
    needs to be self funding in 3 years
  • BTTG will lead the partnership with support from
    Regional development agencies

57
Innovative textile education and training
European Initiatives
  • Leonardo da Vinci European Community Initiative
  • http//europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/le
    onardo/leonardo_en.html
  • Transnational co-operative projects between the
    various players in vocational training - training
    bodies, vocational schools, universities,
    businesses, chambers of commerce, etc. - in an
    effort to increase mobility, to foster innovation
    and to improve the quality of training.
  • A database of Leonardo da Vinci projects can be
    found at the following URL
  • http//europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/le
    onardo/new/leonardo2/products/recherche_prod_en200
    0.cfm

58
Innovative textile education and training
European Initiatives
  • General elearning initiatives
  • There are numerous elearning initiatives details
    of which can be found under http//elearningeuropa
    .info
  • elearning textile projects LEONARDO DA VINCI
  • MERIT-TEX- Promoting Expertise on Industrial
    Excellence in Textiles
  • The project will develop training curricula and
    materials to advance the knowledge of personnel
    in the Textiles sector with regard to encouraging
    Industrial Excellence.

59
Innovative textile education and training
European Initiatives
  • FIBRONET (fabrice.pirotte_at_centexbel.be)
  • Development of a Vocational Tool on Textile
    Fibres designed for the New Work Situation in
    European SMEs based upon the use of new
    information and communication technologies
  • An interactive, web-based, training tool will be
    developed to inform upon all types of fibres to
    include information on technical characteristics,
    textile families, functionality and types of
    application
  • TEMPTEX. (http//www.temptex.net)
  • Development of a standard interactive template
    for innovative training in textilesIts aim is to
    transform training products, some parts of which
    only exist in hard copy, into interactive
    trainingproducts using ICT.

60
Innovative textile education and training
European Initiatives
  • Pan-European challenge for technological
    innovation (m.viel_at_itech.fr)
  • It involves the creation of a tool for 'training
    in technological innovation via research' for
    European higher-level students, in partnership
    with the European manufacturing industry.
  • SOLCO (http//www.rso.it/solco/)
  • Key Skills to Secure Development of the Local
    EconomyThe project aims to support government
    and local authority staff (social actors) in the
    development of public training policy for the
    local economy with regard to SMEs.

61
Innovative textile education and training
European Initiatives
  • eTELESTIA (info_at_etelestia.com)
    eCONTENT
  • Enhancing content production in a multilingual
    and multicultural environmentDevelopment of a
    global on-line network offering localised
    e-learning content and services in the fashion
    and clothing sector.
  • Taitava tevanake (leena.piispa_at_uta.fi)
    EQUAL
  • Its aim is to support enterprises in adapting to
    structural change and in introducing new
    technologies.
  • UP-SKILLS (jaimefs_at_eng.uminho.pt)
    LEONARDO
  • The project will analyse the professional
    profiles of senior staff of SMEs to reduce the
    gap between technical and strategic levels of
    management

62
Innovative textile education and training
European Initiatives
  • Autex (http//www.autex.org)
  • This is an interdisciplinary organisation
    grouping together universities with established
    international reputations in textile education
    and research. It was founded in 1994.
  • The AUTEX Association consists of members within
    Europe (within and outside the European Union)
    and beyond, including the USA. (15 Full European,
    11 Associate European and NCSU)
  • AUTEX mission statement
  • "To facilitate co-operation in high level
    Textile Education and Research".
  • E-TEAM programme, an Advanced Masters programme
    in Textiles.

63
Innovative textile education and training
European Initiatives
  • Fashion -on line project (www.atc.gr/fol)
  • FASHION ON-LINE aims at demonstrating by
    systematic benchmarking and the deployment of
    selected pilots to assess the efficiency of
    innovative technologies in overcoming the main
    obstacles to broad adoption of B2C e-commerce by
    fashion SME retailers, their business partners
    and consumers, namely the size fit problem
    (related to customers body size and shape) and
    the product description problem (fabric colour,
    garment style).

64
Innovative textile education and training
European Initiatives
  • LIFTGroup (http//www.liftgroup.nl/)
  • Dutch Educational Centre for the Textile and
    Garment Industry. It provides, develops and
    co-ordinates educational programmes geared to the
    needs of the industry, and specialises in
    consultancy, training courses, training handbooks
    and educational materials. It also operates an
    apprentice system for vocational training.
  • Tekot International is a European partnership of
    LIFT group, CapitB (U.K) and Teko-Center
    (Denmark)

65
Innovative textile education and training
European Initiatives
  • LIFTGroup Compacity

The competency based publishing and learning
environment for the textiles industry
  • Through my web browser I create an individual
    learning path through all media.

66
Innovative textile education and training
European Initiatives
  • LIFTGroup Compacity

European knowledge exchange and transfer for the
textiles and clothing industry through the launch
of an ultra-modern learning environment Compacity
, is gigantic database containing all knowledge
and subject matter of relevance to the textile
sector, constitutes a major breakthrough for the
knowledge society.
67
Innovative textile education and training
European Initiatives
  • Compacity

Data conversion to competency learning
European knowledge exchange and transfer for the
textiles and clothing industry through the launch
of an ultra-modern learning environment Compacity
, is gigantic database containing all knowledge
and subject matter of relevance to the textile
sector, constitutes a major breakthrough for the
knowledge society.
68
Innovative textile education and training USA
Initiatives - NCSU
  • North Carolina State University, College of
    Textiles
  • Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center (NCRC)
    (http//www.tx.ncsu.edu/ncrc/) is a cooperative
    center with a lot of industrial partners and
    carries out a lot of fundamental work (through
    sponsored graduate students)
  • NCRC is working with INDA (http//www.inda.org/)
    the trade association representing the nonwoven
    fabrics industry in the USA to offer a series of
    short courses on specialist topics. These will
    be official NC State graduate courses offered
    either for credit or non-credit as short courses
    These courses will also be packaged and used for
    distance education.

69
Innovative textile education and training USA
Initiatives - NCSU
  • Distance Learning is offered by the TEARS group
    (http//www.tx.ncsu.edu/extension/service/)
  • These are short courses held either on campus or
    in mills (US or Central America). These are
    non-credit courses (i.e. cannot count towards a
    degree program) and are more rudimentary in
    nature.
  • CD Rom and online versions being developed using
    Talking heads approach

70
Innovative textile education and training USA
Initiatives - NCSU
71
Innovative textile education and training USA
Initiatives - NCSU
  • Distance Education is offered through TOP
    (http//www.tx.ncsu.edu/academic/distance/index.ht
    ml)
  • This includes several undergraduate and graduate
    courses. The courses were traditionally offered
    via video tape but are being made available on
    CD/DVD and ultimately on-line.

72
Innovative textile education and training USA
Initiatives - NCSU
  • The Anni Albers Program http//www.tx.ncsu.edu/de
    partments/tatm/anni_albers.html
  • Students completing the Anni Albers Program will
    earn two undergraduate degrees a Bachelor of Art
    and Design in the College of Design, and a
    Bachelor of Science in Textile Technology in the
    College of Textiles.
  • The Eli Whitney Scholars Program
    http//www.tx.ncsu.edu/departments/tatm/eli_whitne
    y.html
  • The Eli Whitney Scholars Program allows students
    to earn two degrees a BS in Textile and Apparel
    Management and a BA in Multidisciplinary Studies.

73
Innovative textile education and training USA
Initiatives - NCSU
  • Centennial Campus(http//centennial.ncsu.edu/ )
  • North Carolina State University's vision of the
    campus of the futurea "technopolis" of
    university, corporate and government RD
    facilities and business incubators, with an
    exciting town centre, executive conference centre
    and hotel, upscale housing, and recreational
    amenities

74
Innovative textile education and training
Canadian initiatives - THRC
  • Textiles and Human Resources Council of Canada
    (http//www.thrc-crhit.org/) an independent,
    non-profit, non-government partnership, have
    introduced several initiatives
  • Textile Management Internship Program (TMIP and
    WebTMIP) and Textile Training through Technology
  • Conventional, CD Rom and ultimately WWW based
    delivery of educational and training material. (
    Licensed the use of assets from ITT).

75
Innovative textile education and training
Canadian Initiatives - THRC
  • Skills needs assessment programme
  • Access to online Workplace Performance Skills
    Programs from Harvard Business School and Cardean
    University consortium for employees at all levels
  • In-company skills and learning centres
  • Career-Tex to stimulate interest
  • Textile Opportunities programme Wage subsidies
    to encourage graduate recruitment

76
Innovative textile education and training Hong
Kong Initiatives
  • Hong Kong Polytechnic University Institute of
    Textiles and Clothing (http//www.itc.polyu.edu.hk
    /)
  • In addition to conventionally delivered
    programmes it offers distance learning
    programmes, available in China, where the staff
    concerned also travel to support the delivery.

77
Innovative textile education and training Hong
Kong Initiatives
  • Apparelkey.com (http//www.apparelkey.com/) is an
    apparel manufacturing knowledge portal site
    developed by the Institute of Textiles and
    Clothing (ITC) of The Hong Kong Polytechnic
    University (PolyU) in collaboration with the
    Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK). .
  • links users to a worldwide community of apparel
    experts, and access to new product development
    intelligence, authoritative expertise and
    information on apparel manufacturing

78
Innovative textile education and training Hong
Kong Initiatives
  • CITA Clothing Industry Training Authority
    (http//www.clothingtraining.hk/)
  • CITA offers a wide range of services to the
    clothing industry. One innovative educational and
    training programme is their learning portal
    ec-learning.co.hk which provides on-line modules
    in 3D pattern design and grading and a chat line
    for support.

79
Summary
  • This paper has
  • considered the changes taking place within
    textile and apparel education and training
    particularly within the U.K to explain the
    background to multimedia developments in textile
    and apparel education and training.
  • described developments in multimedia, computer
    based learning and proposals for new delivery
    mechanisms
  • presented an overview of other global education
    and training initiatives in textiles an apparel

80
Final Thoughts
  • Asia is seeing a massive an insuperable demand
    for higher education. It is beyond the ability of
    the worlds universities to satisfy the needs by
    physical campuses
  • A Olsen THES May 16th 2003

81
Final Thoughts
  • By 2020 China will be unable to supply the 20
    million university places required to meet the
    needs of its developing economy and by 2015 India
    will struggle to supply a needed 9 million
    places. Demand will far exceed the capacity of
    the global education industry to provide
    enrolments .. E-learning offers a quantum leap
    in economies of scale.and is expected to boom if
    SARS forces students to study more from home
  • THES May 16th 2003

82
Innovative Textile Education and Training
  • S.C.Harlock B.Sc. Ph.D., The University of Leeds
    - Media Innovations Ltd
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