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The Late Middle Ages


... authority over the Church and the Pope National and monarchical power continued to grow Ferdinand and Isabella Spain Spanish Inquisition begins Targeted Jews ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Late Middle Ages

The Late Middle Ages
  • Public Turmoil Personal Piety

  • England is at war with France
  • Many men claim papacy at one time
  • Renaissance begins
  • Black Death

Disaster for Europe and the Church
  • 1347 arrival of the Bubonic Plague
  • 1/3 of Europes population was wiped out
  • Priest
  • Fled
  • Or ministered
  • Quickly ordained more
  • Peoples reaction
  • Devoutly turned to God
  • Desperate wickedness
  • Superstition
  • Scapegoats in Jews

  • As you enter the outskirts of town you see
  • What problems would your group face? What fears
    do you have to live with?
  • Presuming that you manage to survive, how would
    this experience affect your view of life?

Hundred Years War
  • France and England are at war over territory
  • National identity grows

Be Ready for Death
  • The Imitation of Christ
  • Thomas à Kempis
  • Emphasizes unexpected death
  • Relationship with Jesus and love for Jesus are
    most important
  • We should be ready for death at any moment

Trouble for the Papacy
  • 1303 pope arrested
  • Nationalism
  • 1305 Frenchman elected
  • Clement V
  • 1309 moved papacy to Avignon, France
  • Appointed French cardinals
  • Suit French kings
  • 1309-1377 7 French Popes

Why not Avignon?
  • Lavish corrupt lifestyles
  • Peter was bishop of Rome-
  • Aligned with the French cause
  • Plague as a sign of Gods displeasure with the

Bringing the Papacy Home
  • Gregory XI
  • Spent much time thinking about returning to Rome
  • Catherine of Siena
  • 1376 visited the pope
  • While in prayer, perceived God wanted pope back
    in Rome
  • Wrote letters
  • Strong forceful personality
  • Helped mediate for nobles and generals
  • 1377 Pope returned to Rome

Important because
  • People in Europe needed to be reassured by popes
    presence in Rome
  • Only in Rome could the pope bring peace between
    England and France and the warring Italian cities

  • Make a list of your fears or things that cause
    you stress
  • What are the top 6 fears or sources of stress for
  • What difference does a personal relationship with
    Jesus make in responding to those fears and
    causes of stress?

  • Catherines personal relationship with Jesus gave
    her the courage to speak frankly with the Pope.
  • The language of fear is not the voice of God.
    God is love and perfect love casts out all fear.
    The language of God is always the language of
    love and courage.

Let us pray together
  • Lord our God, you gave Saint Catherine of Siena
    the courage to speak the truth. Give us your
    Holy Spirit. May your Holy Spirit help us in
    times of fear and stress to always do what is
    right, speak what is true, and do what is loving.
    We ask this through your Son, Jesus the Lord.

Do Later
  • Catherine wrote letters to Gregory to try to
    convince him to overcome his fears and listen to
    the will of God.
  • Write a letter to yourself. In your letter write
    about how you think that God wants you to respond
    to each of you fears.
  • Orpretend you are Catherine write a letter to
    Gregory XI encouraging him to return to Rome

The Great Papal Schism
  • Urban VI selected as pope
  • Compromise candidate
  • Rome rioted for Italian pope
  • French Cardinals respond
  • He is not real pope because they only elected him
    out of fear
  • Elected another pope, Clement VII
  • Avignon, France
  • Urban excommunicates Clement
  • Clement returns the favor
  • Church and papacy in turmoil

  • Church council
  • Elect a new pope
  • No one else wants to give up papacy
  • Now three popes
  • Martin V, Roman
  • Elected in 1417 and the schism ended
  • Developed Conciliarism
  • General church councils have the authority over
    the Church and the Pope

National and monarchical power continued to grow
  • Ferdinand and Isabella
  • Spain
  • Spanish Inquisition begins
  • Targeted Jews and Muslims
  • Pope protested cruelty
  • Papal power was weak in the face of strong

Renaissance- Rebirth
  • Popes as patrons of the Arts
  • Paid artists to do projects
  • Michelangelo and Botticelli
  • Vatican Library
  • St. Peters Bascillica
  • The Printing Press
  • Johannes Gutenberg
  • 1456 first large book produced
  • Literacy increased

Pre-Renaissance Art
Renaissance Art
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  • Humanism
  • The emphasis on the importance of this world and
    on making human life more fulfilling by way of
    the classical arts and literature and through
    scientific inventions
  • Distorted humanism
  • Popes with double lives
  • Led lives with excessive pleasure
  • Alexander VI-6 children
  • Leadership of the church was teetering on crisis

Worship of Everyday People
  • Countryside
  • Bells at noon and 600 pm
  • Mass every Sunday
  • Towns
  • Developing merchants and craftsman
  • Put on religious plays
  • Took part in liturgies

  • Eucharist
  • Transubstantiation real presence of Christ in
    the Eucharist
  • Great sense of reverence, rarely received
  • Benediction, gazing at the host
  • Never allowed to drink from the cup
  • Church council mandated receiving the Eucharist
    and going to confession once a year

  • Laity separated from priest by a screen during
  • Priest said mass with his back to the people
  • Empty Masses
  • Said in Latin

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  • Devotion to Mary, saints and relics
  • Indulgences
  • Revival of meditation and prayer

Call for Church Reform
  • John Wycliffe
  • 1370s-priest in England
  • All church property should be confiscated
  • Bible is the sold source of belief
  • Denied doctrine of Transubstantiation

  • John Hus
  • Czech priest and reader of Wycliffes writings
  • People should receive under both forms
  • Czech people looked up to him
  • Defended beliefs at chruch council
  • Same council that ended the Great Papal Schism
  • He refused to recant his beliefs
  • 1415 burned at the stake

Discovering a New World
  • 1400s Explorations
  • 1484 Franciscans began preaching in Africa
  • 1492 Christopher Columbus sails to a New World
  • Nationalism
  • Smaller independent states

People and Accomplishments Calls for Reform Everyday People Renaissance Papal Problems
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