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The role of induced mutation using nuclear techniques in crop improvement

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The role of induced mutation using nuclear techniques in crop improvement Prof. Dr. Abdel Shafy Ibrahim Ragab Atomic Energy Authority Nuclear Research Center – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The role of induced mutation using nuclear techniques in crop improvement


1
The role of induced mutation using nuclear
techniques in crop improvement
  • Prof. Dr. Abdel Shafy Ibrahim Ragab
  • Atomic Energy Authority
  • Nuclear Research Center
  • Plant Research Department

2
  • Mutation can be briefly defined as a sudden
    heritable change in the DNA of a living cell, not
    caused by the common phenomena of genetic
    segregation or genetic recombination.
  • Mutations are the ultimate source of the genetic
    variance and development of plant species. They
    provide the new materials upon which other
    factors of evolution act. And therefore all new
    species ultimately arise from mutations. The
    mutagenesis followed by recombination of genes
    and chromosome and by natural selection is the
    fundamental force in evolution. Although, it
    happened at the very low rate (one/million), the
    improvements in different crops are due to
    spontaneous mutations. The rate of spontaneous
    mutations is differed for different species,
    varieties for each species, and traits for each
    verity.
  • Therefore, the breeders used nuclear techniques
    for induced mutations aiming to not completely
    depend on the nature as the only source for
    variation. Mutations are of interest in two
    different ways. They provide us with new starting
    materials (or budding blocks) for the identifying
    new genes for studying the nature of genes and
    their way of controlling biochemical pathway.

3
Mutation breeding Tracer techniques both
Applications of nuclear techniques in plant
breeding
Cross Breeding(using mutants)
Mutation induction
Genetic variation
Genetic Engineering
Tissue culture
Selection
Gene Mapping
Biochemical andDNA Marker
Disease and PestResistance
Nitrogen Fixation
Environmental and Soil Conditions
Yield
4
  • Achievements of mutation breeding made worldwide
  • The use of mutation techniques for generating and
    selecting desired genetic variation in different
    crop species has significantly increased over the
    past fifty years, more than 2600 mutant varieties
    have been officially released (Kang et al 2007)
    of these 60 were released from 1985 onward

5
Fig.2 Cumulative number of officially released
mutant varieties
1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991
1996 2001 2006
6
Fig. 3 Mutant varieties
7
Fig.4 Mutant varietiesCrops-1700 of total 2252
accessions (2000)
8
Fig.5 Mutant varietiesCrops-1700 of total 2252
accessions (2000)
9
Fig.6 Mutant varietiesCereals-1072 of 1700
accessions (2000)
10
Fig.7 Mutant varietiesTotal -2252 accessions
11
Fig.9 Mutant varietiesTotal-1589 direct mutant
varieties
12
Fig. 10 Mutant varieties Total- 1589 direct
mutant varietiesMutagens- radiation
13
Table .1 Characters induced by mutations
Rice-434 of 1700 accessions
No. of mutant varieties Character
165 earliness
165 Semidwarfness
145 yield
98 blast/disease tolerance
79 grain/cooking quality
49 tillering
25 tallness
23 cold tolerance
22 adaptability
17 glutinous endosperm
10 salinity tolerance
14
Table 2.Improved quality characters
Crop Mutant cultivars Quality character
lupin, white lupin 7 alkaloid content
rice, millet 12 amylose content
sweet pepper 1 beta carotene cont.
barley 8 brewing and malting q.
buck wheat, cassava, millet, rice 6 cooking quality
jute 1 fiber yield
apple, grapefruit, green pepper, ind. Jujmbe, loqust, pench, pepper, sweet cherry, tomato 12 fruit (colour, quality, morphology, ripening
barley, black gram, millet, pea, rice, sorghum, wheat 37 grain (colour, morpholgy., quality, weight)
barley, subterranean d. 2 favovonids cont.
sugareane 1 juice quality
bermuda grass, tobacco 6 leaf (colour, quality)
cowpea 1 nutritional value
15
Table 3. Improved quality characters
Crop Mutant cultivars Quality character
caster bean, citronella, flax/linseed, mustard, rage seed, soybean, sunflower 16 oil content
flax, hop, peppermint, rapeseed, sesame 6 oil quality
fababean, maize, sesame, wheat 6 protein content
common bean, groundnut, lentil, mungbean, oriental mustard, pea, pigeon pea, sesame, soybean, wheat 38 seed (colour, quality, size)
Pea 1 seed skin quality
orange/mandarin, grapefruit 3 seedless
maize, wheat 2 silage quality
Potato 2 skin colour
sweet potato 2 starch content
  170 TOTAL
16
Table 4.Drought tolerance induced by mutations (6
of 1700 accessions
Number Crop Number Crops
1 alfalfa 25 Wheat
1 Eggplant 9 Soybean
1 Grass pea 9 Millet
1 Groundnut 4 Barley
1 Mungbean 4 Rice
1 Pea 2 Cotton
1 Pigonpea 1 Amaranth
17
Table 5. Economic impact of mutant varieties
    Country Crops
      Cereals
US 16.9 billion Total crop value at farm gate for the period 1989-98 Thailand Rice
10.6 million ha Cumulative planted area between 1986-1994 China
US 937 million Total crop value 1997 Japan
US 1.748 million Annual crop value India  
US 87.1 million Additional income to farmers during 1991-99 Pakistan Bread wheat
US 1.8 billion Additional income to farmers during 1983-93 Italy Durum wheat
US 417 million Crop value (1977-2001) UK-Scotland Barely
2.86 billion ha Area planted in 1972 Numerous European countries
    Numerous European countries  
      Legumes
US 9.6 million Additional annual income to the growers Pakistan Chickpea
US 258 million Value of increased production in season 1998-1999 India, Black gram (urdbean)
      Oil and industrial crops
US 3 billion Total value of crop from 1983-1993 Pakistan Cotton
50.000 ha Grown USA Sunflower
      Fruit tree
US 50 million Additional annual income to the growers Japan Japanese pear
7.300 ha(75 of total area Grown area (year 2000) USA, Taxas Grapefruit
18
ACHIEVEMTNS MADE IN EGYPT
  • Realizing the potential of induced mutations
    using nuclear techniques for the improvement of
    crop plants, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority,
    initiated crop mutation breeding programs in the
    early 1970s.
  • The objective to increase seed yield and economic
    value by incorporating disease and insect
    resistance, better quality traits, shorter growth
    duration, resistant to drought and salinity, less
    water requirements.
  • Significant achievements were obtained more than
    10 mutant varieties were developed.
  • In sesame, three mutant varieties were released
    as commercial varieties named Taka1, Taka2 and
    Taka3 since 2000 year.
  • These varieties characterized with high seed
    production, early maturity, lower water
    requirement, maturity homogenous suitable for
    mechanical harvesting, better seed quality.

19
ACHIEVEMTNS MADE IN EGYPT
  • In chickpea, one mutant variety named Inshas10
    was released as commercial variety since 2004 and
    characterized with high seed production, large
    seed, resistant to wilt disease.
  • In rice, two mutant varieties were developed and
    submitted to General preeminent committee for
    registration belong to the ministry of
    Agriculture since 2005. These mutants
    characterized with high seed yield, tolerance to
    drought.
  • In safflower, two mutant varieties were developed
    and submitted to General preeminent committee for
    registration belong to the ministry of
    Agriculture since 2005. These mutants
    characterized with high seed yield, spinless,
    high oil content and quality.
  • In flax, two mutant varieties were developed and
    submitted to the General preeminent committee for
    registration belong to the ministry of
    Agriculture since 2005. These mutants
    characterized with high seed yield, tall fiber.
  • In addition to some promising mutants in wheat
    are still under evaluation

20
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