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The Renaissance in Italy

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The Renaissance in Italy The Italian City-states Italy conduit for travel and commerce between Europe and East Cities independent from kings and popes Merchant ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Renaissance in Italy


1
The Renaissance in Italy
2
The Italian City-states
  • Italy conduit for travel and commerce between
    Europe and East
  • Cities independent from kings and popes
  • Merchant princes
  • Medici family--powerful banking family
  • Charitable to arts
  • Civic humanism

3
Renaissance Humanism
  • Humans God greatest creation
  • Humanist student of classical ideas
  • Glorified beauty and order in nature
  • Picos Oration man had choice of goodness or
    evil in himself
  • Great reformers, artists, writers, inventors.

4
Lorenzo The Magnificent
  • 1462-92. Patron of the arts
  • Praised Plato civic leader poet
  • Wrote songs in Italian
  • Gave money and support to artists in Florence
  • Had many libraries, museums and palaces built for
    Florence

5
Ghibertis Baptistery Doors
  • Competition for Baptistery Doors--1401
  • Ghiberti and Bunelleschi--Abraham and Isaac
  • Ghiberti won-- Classical style48 years!
  • Michelangelo Gates of Paradise
  • Story of Jacob Esau optical perspective

6
Brunelleschis Domes
  • Florences greatest Renaissance architect
  • Studied Romes ancient buildings
  • Domed roof over cathedral altar
  • Simplicity and reason
  • Pazzi Chapel--Roman architecture
  • Attempt by Pazzi on Lorenzos life in chapel

7
Florentine Painting A Refined Classicism
  • Life-like figures, volume and perspective.
  • Fresco technique
  • Masaccio-- depth through modeling and atmospheric
    effects
  • The Tribute Money--chiaroscuro
  • Atmospheric and linear perspective

8
Sandro Botticelli
  • La Primavera blending of mythology and
    Christianity
  • Adoration of the Magi honored the Medici patrons.
    Includes himself in painting
  • Classical ruins anachronistic

9
Italian Renaissance Music
  • The Mass
  • Sacred motets in Latin
  • secular song
  • Guillaume Dufay--monody
  • Heinrich Isaac
  • Polyphonic songs frottola and madrigal
  • Maddalena Casulana

10
Donatello
  • Brought back the free-standing nude David
  • Used contrapposto
  • Biblical description of David adolescent
  • Tuscan hat
  • Pagan (classical) rather than Christian

11
Michelangelo in Florence
  • By age 22 already rival to Donatello
  • In Rome Pieta
  • Florences David classical values with a
    biblical theme
  • Captured his spirit/ hero in stone

12
The Decline of Florence
  • Savonarola
  • Appealed to poor and working people
  • Condemned Churchs corruption and excesses of
    wealth
  • Bonfire of the Vanities
  • Defeated and burned at the stake
  • Message affected artists

13
Machiavellis The Prince
  • Florentine diplomat--described realities of
    political philosophy and power
  • The Prince masterpiece of political philosophy.
    Realistic
  • Describes the ideal prince or ruler only
    strong, ruthless leaders keep country safe from
    foreign domination
  • Machiavellian end justifies means

14
The Genius of Leonardo
  • Arts, sciences, engineering, mathematics
  • Not true to only one patron/ruler
  • Restless, inquisitive
  • True genius

15
Leonardo as Scientist
  • Notebooks Mirror writing
  • Tanks, submarines, airplane
  • Lacked propulsion
  • Unpublished

16
Leonardo as Painter
  • The Last Supper
  • Madonna of the Rocks
  • Classical triangle composition Renaissance
  • Mona Lisa
  • sfumato
  • Painting the highest art

17
The Renaissance Manand Woman
  • Leonardo Renaissance man
  • Baldassare Castiglione Universal man
  • Isabella dEste Educated, cultured, refined
    tastes. Patroness of the arts
  • Ruled her city in husbands absence
  • Multi-talented

18
Patronage of the Renaissance
  • Wealthy church officials and families employed
    artists for beauty and entertainment contracts
  • Popes and princes Julius II and Leo X
  • Sometimes there were problems between patrons and
    artists

19
Josquin des Prez Composer High Renaissance
  • Leo X meditated in the Sistine Chapel listening
    to the choir of cappella music.
  • Male musicians girls had to have private lessons
    or attend a convent
  • Greatest composer of High Renaissance
  • Match between words and music, complex polyphony
    word painting and imitation

20
Raphael
  • Julius II apartments in the Vatican stanze
  • Known for his Madonnas
  • School of Athens
  • Aristotle and Plato in center
  • Portraits of contemporary figures
  • Michelangelo front center figure
  • Raphael buried in Pantheon. Only artist to be
    buried there.

21
Michelangelo in Rome
  • 1505 Pope Julius II ordered Michelangelo to Rome
    to build his tomb
  • Captives soul striving to break free from sin
  • Tomb unfinished. Moses embodies Michelangelos
    temper terribilita
  • Mature man

22
Sistine Chapel Ceiling
  • 1508 Julius asked M. to paint ceiling
  • Used Old Testament as prophecy of Christs coming
  • Combines classical and Christian ideas, tension
    between spirit and flesh
  • Muscular energy
  • Confident colors

23
The New St. Peters
  • Last years devoted to architecture
  • Old basilica demolished and modernized
  • 150 years to complete
  • Greek Cross floorplan M.s design seen only from
    the rear
  • Conflict between 12 architects and 22 popes
  • Limited funds in Vatican

24
An Age of Giants
  • Why such concentration of talent in Italy?
  • Cultural center of beauty and learning
  • Triumph of the human spirit
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