Improving quality in basic education: what makes a difference - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Improving quality in basic education: what makes a difference PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 47f62b-MzUyO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Improving quality in basic education: what makes a difference

Description:

Improving quality in basic education: what makes a difference Mmantsetsa Marope (Ph.D.) Director, Division for Basic to Higher Education and Learning – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:204
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 57
Provided by: Kenne197
Learn more at: http://www.educaid.be
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Improving quality in basic education: what makes a difference


1
Improving quality in basic education what makes
a difference
  • Mmantsetsa Marope (Ph.D.)
  • Director, Division for Basic to Higher Education
    and Learning
  • Brussels, 3 May 2011

2
Presentation outline
  1. Two decades of Education for All
  2. Enduring quality challenge
  3. Evidence of poor quality
  4. Evidence of inequitable quality
  5. Critical causes of poor and inequitable quality
  6. Implications of poor and inequitable quality
  7. Proposed interventions and promising practices
  8. UNESCOs general education quality improvement
    actions
  9. Expected benefits of quality primary education
  10. Potential role of the Belgian development
    cooperation

3
  • Two decades of progress
  • in primary education

4
Two decades of progress in primary education
  • 695 million children enrolled in primary school
    in 2008
  • Equivalent to an additional 121 million children
    since 1990
  • 67 million children of primary school age
    children were out-of-school in 2008
  • 36 million fewer children out-of-school than in
    1990
  • The share of out-of-school girls declined
    slightly from 57 in 1999 to 53 in 2008
  • 116 countries achieved gender parity in primary
    education in 2008
  • Large gaps closing in the Arab States, South and
    West Asia and sub-Saharan Africa
  • In 2008, children will attend school for about 11
    years, on average
  • In 1990, the world average was just 9 years

5
Rapid progress in primary school participation
In sub-Saharan Africa, participation increased by
31 between 1999 and 2008, with an additional 46
million children enrolled in primary school in
that region alone.
Source UNESCO, Global Monitoring Report 2011.
6
Missing the target Out-of-school trends projected
to 2015
7
Enrolment progress is uneven among partner
countries
ANER fell between 1999 and 2009
ANER rose between 1999 and 2009
Source UIS database.
8
  • Enduring quality challenge
  • Quality is poor

9
A global quality picture primary education
survival rates
Source UNESCO, Global Monitoring Report 2008.
10
PISA result Performances in reading 2000-2009
11
Reading skills of students reaching grade 6
12
Learning gaps across countries Grade 8 TIMSS
math test score
Source EFA GMR 2010
13
Quality is poor in many partner
countries Survival rates to last grade of primary
Countries such as Burundi and Mozambique are
struggling with retention, despite increased
primary school enrolment since 1999.
Source UIS database.
14
Low achievement levels are indicative of poor
quality
In South Africa, 78 of students dont reach the
low international benchmark
of students reaching the PIRLS international
benchmark for reading in grade 4
Low benchmark basic reading skills
100
Below low benchmark
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Germany
France
Indonesia
South Africa
Qatar
Morocco
Source UNESCO, Global Monitoring Report 2011.
15
  • Enduring quality challenge
  • Quality is inequitable

16
Quality is inequitable between regions Pupil/teach
er ratios high in poorest regions
401 ratio international benchmark
Source UNESCO, Global Monitoring Report 2011
UIS database.
17
Quality is inequitable between countries
  • Latin American 2006 regional surveys of primary
    mathematics placed 30 percent of Chilean grade 3
    students at level 3 or 4, compared with just 13
    percent in El Salvador
  • About 10 percent of grader 3s in Argentina
    performed below level 1 on the mathematics
    performance scale, while a similar proportion
    performed at the highest level (UNESCO-OREALC,
    2008)
  • Over 50 percent of grade 3s in Cuba performed at
    level 4 more than three times the share in
    Argentina or Chile
  • For the 2009 PISA, the gap between the highest
    and lowest performing OECD countries was more
    than the equivalent of two school years

18
Quality is inequitable between within
countries Patterns of dropout differ across
wealth groups
Children from poor households are more likely to
drop out than children from wealthier homes
Source UNESCO, Global Monitoring Report 2011.
19
In Kenya, wealth differences polarize reading
achievement levels
Source UNESCO, Global Monitoring Report 2011
original source UWEZO (2010).
20
Differences by wealth, location, gender, country
21
  • Critical causes of poor quality

22
Varied access to programmes for children under
age 3
  • Countries in region with at least one formal
    programme including children under 3 in 2005 ()

Source UNESCO, EFA Global Monitoring Report 2007.
23
Wide variation in pre-primary participation
across regions
Pre-primary gross enrolment ratio () in 2008
Source UNESCO, EFA Global Monitoring Report 2011.
24
Vulnerable children excluded from ECCE programmes
3-to 5-year olds from urban areas or with
educated mothers are more likely to participate
in early learning programmes
Source UNICEF, Multiple Indicator Cluster
Surveys (MICS3).
25
Early inequity leads to lifelong inequity in
learning outcomes and educational opportunities
In Ecuador, a study of 3- to 5-year-olds marks a
clear association between a childs cognitive
score and the familys socioeconomic status. The
gap begins early and widens over time.
Source UNESCO, Global Monitoring Report 2010,
from Paxson and Schady (2005).
26
Poorly qualified teacher force
  • Teacher shortage (GMR 2011)
  • Difficulties allocating teachers to marginalized
    areas (Monk 2007)
  • Limited teaching in local languages (Canagarajah
    2004)
  • Female teachers are particularly needed (Lloyd
    and Young 2009)
  • Insufficient teacher training (Cheung 2008)
  • Increasingly poor and differential pay scales
    (Davidsson 2007)
  • High absenteeism and attrition (Chapman 2007)

27
Trained teachers are rare in some countries
Countries with large pupil/ teacher ratios also
have small shares of trained teachers
Source UNESCO, Global Monitoring Report 2011.
28
Inadequate learning environments (1)
  • What do inadequate learning environment look
    like?
  • School and classroom shortages (Cambodia,
    occupied Palestinian territory, United Republic
    of Tanzania)
  • Poor management of school facilities (Cambodia,
    India, Uganda)
  • Insufficient teaching materials (Ecuador, Kenya,
    Mozambique, Peru, Uganda, the United Republic of
    Tanzania)
  • Lack of proper sanitation facilities (Cambodia)
  • Dangerous and long travelling routes to school
    (occupied Palestinian territory, Uganda)

29
Inadequate learning environments (2)
  • Inadequate learning environments contribute to
  • irregular attendance
  • students dropping out
  • teacher fatigue and the deterioration of work
    patterns
  • disappointing learning achievements
  • annoyance and reduced attention span
  • negative attitudes towards school
  • decrease learners ability to engage in teaching
    and learning process
  • (Source The National Policy for an Equitable
    Provision of an Enabling School Physical Teaching
    and Learning Environment, Department of Basic
    Education, South Africa, May 2010)

30
  • Implications of poor and
  • inequitable quality

31
Implications of poor and inequitable quality (1)
  • At an individual level
  • Disengagement loss of confidence failure to
    acquire requisite skills, competencies, affects
    and values
  • High repetition and drop-out rates
  • Reduced chances of meaningful employment /
    productive work
  • Reduced potential to earn
  • Increased chances of social deviance associated
    consequences
  • Reduced quality of life

32
Implications of poor and inequitable quality (2)
  • At a country level
  • Low internal efficiency of education systems
  • High costs of poor or lack of education (e.g.
    poor health, spending on social safety nets and
    remedial programmes)
  • Wasted human resource potential
  • Shortage of skilled labour, associated low
    productivity, low growth and low competitiveness
  • Lost opportunity for redistributive effects of
    broad-based quality education
  • Social inequalities and the associated risk of
    social instability and fracture
  • At the global level
  • Sustained global inequalities and associated
    costs on both rich and poor countries

33
  • Proposed interventions and
  • promising practices

34
What contributes to improving quality? (1)
  • Early Childhood Care and Education providing for
    holistic attention that include health,
    nutrition, early stimulation and protection,
    resulting in
  • Better school readiness, attendance, learning,
    internal efficiency
  • Improved early brain development
  • Improved cognitive development and primary school
    achievement
  • Higher school enrolment
  • Reduced drop out rates
  • Improved delivery of nutrition and health
    services
  • Reduced risks of social delinquency
  • Gender parity

35
What contributes to improving quality? (2)
  • Studies point to significant relationships
    between cognitive achievement and school
    expenditure, teachers and practitioners
    educational training and adequate play and
    learning facilities
  • School performance (as measured by test scores)
    is significantly improved by textbook provision,
    smaller class sizes, adequate instructional time
    and sound teaching practices, including an age
    appropriate curricula
  • Policy development should target disadvantaged
    and vulnerable groups and aim towards gender
    equality and inclusive education

36
Human Brain Development Synapse
Formation Early childhood is an optimal moment to
support sensory, cognitive, social language
development
Language
Sensing
Pathways
Higher
Cognitive Function
(vision, hearing)
9
0
1
4
8
12
16
3
6
-3
-6
Months
Years
Conception
AGE
C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000
37
Heckmans curve - rates of return to human
capital investments across all ages
Heckman, 2008 Schools, Skills, and Synapses
38
Examples of successful quality interventions
(1) - in ECCE -
  • Health sector-based intervention
  • e.g. Posyandu (health service post) in
    Indonesia combining basic health services with
    parenting education
  • Welfare sector-based intervention
  • e.g. Conditional cash transfer in Mexico,
    Nicaragua
  • Education sector-based intervention
  • e.g. Community-based ECD centres in disadvantaged
    areas in Nepal Madrasa Preschool Programme in
    East African countries
  • e.g. Non-formal education programme for parents
    to promote better parenting in rural Tanzania
  • Multi-sectoral intervention
  • e.g. Parenting education for parents with
    children 0-6 Educate Your Child of Cuba and
    Better Early Childhood of Brazil

39
Examples of successful quality interventions
(2) - in primary education -
  • Focusing resources on early primary grades (Mali)
  • Providing adequate and relevant textbooks (Kenya)
  • Bilingual education (Mali, Viet Nam)
  • Building schools closer to marginalized
    communities (India)
  • Temporary schools in the face of armed conflict
    (DRC)
  • Successful teacher training (Kenya)
  • The introduction of teacher benefits (Mozambique)

40
Providing enabling learning environments
  • Good lightning
  • Improves students ability to perceive visual
    stimuli and their ability to concentrate and take
    instructions
  • A colorful environment
  • Improves learners attitudes and behavior,
    attention span and feelings about school and
    reduces absenteeism
  • Good acoustics
  • Improves learner hearing and concentration (15
    percent of learners in an average classroom
    supper from some hearing impairment)
  • Outdoor facilities
  • Improves learner formal and informal learning
    systems, social development, team work, and
    school-community relationship
  • (Source The National Policy for an Equitable
    Provision of an Enabling School Physical Teaching
    and Learning Environment, Department of Basic
    Education, South Africa, May 2010)

41
Access does not have to be at the expense of
quality!
  • Swaziland on the other hand increased test scores
    by 5 percent with a 12 percentage point growth in
    NER from 71 to 83 percent
  • Namibia had a phenomenal 9 percent increase in
    test scoresthe highest in 7 years and among the
    14 countrieswhile holding its NER sturdy with
    only a 1 percentage point increase in NER from 90
    to 91 percent
  • Botswana increased its test scores almost held
    sturdy, with only a 2 percent increase while the
    NER modestly increased by 5 percentage points
    from 84 to 90 percent

42
Increasing access AND quality The case of U. R.
Tanzania
  • Participation in primary school increased by 43
    between 2000 and 2007
  • Many students from low-income households
  • Student mathematics scores increased by 6 during
    the same period
  • Percentage of students reaching numeracy
    competency increased by 13
  • Total education spending increased by 22
  • Growth of education spending outpaced economic
    growth
  • Long-term development planning with the National
    Vision 2025

Source UNESCO, Global Monitoring Report 2011
The Tanzania Development Vision 2025.
43
  • UNESCOs general education quality improvement
    actions

44
UNESCOs actions (1)
  • I. Support equitable access to quality ECCE
  • Heightening advocacy and support for ECCE
  • First World Conference on ECCE (Moscow, 2010) and
    the implementation of the Moscow Framework for
    Action and Cooperation
  • Strengthening the analytical and knowledge base
    for ECCE policy development
  • Handbook on ECCE
  • Strengthening national capacities to deliver ECCE
  • ECCE subsector analysis (e.g. Mongolia)
  • Thematic policy review on ECCE integration in
    Rep. of Korea
  • Strengthening global and national capacity for
    monitoring Goal 1
  • Holistic Child Development Index
  • Intensifying resource mobilisation
  • Establishment of UNESCO ECCE Fund

45
UNESCOs actions (2)
  • II. Develop and implement a General Education
    Quality Diagnostic/Analysis and Monitoring
    Framework
  • (diagram in next slide)
  • To develop a comprehensive and systematic
    instrument - in the form of toolkits - for
    diagnosing/analyzing, monitoring and sustaining
    the quality of general education systems - from
    ECCE to secondary
  • To provide technical support to Member States for
    applying the instrument and for undertaking
    improvement efforts
  • To strengthen Member States capacity in
    diagnosing/analyzing, monitoring and sustaining
    the quality of general education systems
  • III. Articulate with the post-secondary quality
    improvement efforts

46
(No Transcript)
47
  • Expected benefits of
  • quality primary education

48
Expected benefits of quality primary education
  • Individual
  • Confident and competent individuals with better
    educational and social outcomes
  • Increased chance of obtaining meaningful
    employment opportunity and higher earnings
  • Family
  • Healthy and well-functioning family, esp. through
    better educated mothers
  • Country
  • Improved internal efficiency of the system
    through reduced repetition and drop-out Enhanced
    social equity through redistributive effects, and
    resultant effect on reduced incidence of violence
    and costs of inequities
  • Greater social inclusion and cohesion
  • Efficient use of resources through minimizing
    wastage
  • More optimal human earning potential through
    nurturing a productive labour force required to
    lead knowledge- and technology-driven growth and
    global competitiveness
  • World
  • More equal, peaceful and productive world

49
  • Potential role of the Belgian development
    cooperation

50
Recommendation 1 Preconditioning on quality
  • Precondition the Belgian Development Cooperation
    on quality measures
  • ECCE related quality measures
  • Primaryeducation related quality measures
  • Enhance the role of the Belgian Development
    Cooperation - e.g. within FIT - as quality
    watchdog
  • Strengthen cooperation between the Belgian
    Development Cooperation and UNESCO

51
Recommendation 2 Leveraging resources (i)
  • Mobilize national resources for primary
    education and ECCE
  • - public and private -
  • and use them more effectively

52
Recommendation 2 Leveraging resources (ii)
  • Increase the levels of donor resources for
    primary education and ECCE - and use them more
    effectively
  • Disbursements of aid to basic education stopped
    increasing in 2008

Source UNESCO, EFA Global Monitoring Report 2011.
53
Recommendation 2 Leveraging resources (iii)
  • At best, ECCE investment by donors is negligible

Source UNESCO presentation, OECD Network for
ECCE (2010).
  • Effective investment means
  • Pooled funds
  • Fast Track Initiative
  • National budget support (general or sector-based)

54
Recommendation 3 Partnering with UNESCO
  • UN specialized agency for education, with the
    mandate to lead EFA
  • 5 functions - laboratory of ideas,
    standard-setting, clearing house, capacity
    builder, catalyst for international cooperation
  • A strong network of units, offices and
    specialized institutes that enable effective
    delivery in the field
  • Existing partnership mechanisms with external
    partners and networks (e.g. ADEA WGECD, ARNEC)
    for greater impact

55
Good development practice Rwanda case study
  • Long-term commitments for general budget support
  • Increased from 4 to 26 between 2000 and 2004
  • Increased aid predictability for education sector
    plans
  • Education sector budget support from pooled funds
  • Ongoing technical support by UNESCO coordinating
    with other agencies
  • RESULTS
  • Since 2002-2003 Total aid to education has
    increased, and aid to basic education has nearly
    tripled
  • In 2007-2008 financing gap is closing up faster
    than in other conflict-affected countries
  • Access in primary school is high, gender parity
    in primary education has been reached
  • But ECCE and quality still a concern

56
  • Thank you!
  • www.unesco.org
About PowerShow.com