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Hindu Terms

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Hindu Terms Moksha Dharma Karma Ahimsa Reincarnation Avatar What word means duty, or obligation, to your caste? Dharma What is the name of the Elephant God, the God ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hindu Terms


1
Hindu Terms
  • Moksha
  • Dharma
  • Karma
  • Ahimsa
  • Reincarnation
  • Avatar

2
Hinduism
  • Main religion today in Indian subcontinent
  • No Founder Ancient Aryans began telling
    parables
  • Main texts the 5,000 year old Vedas
    collections of stories
  • believed in one spiritual entity that made up
    everything called Brahman
  • Brahman showed itself through avatars,
    representations

There are no original pictures of the Vedas
because no one wrote the stories down till
thousands of years later
3
Ganesha
Vishnu
Dancing Shiva
4
Beliefs
priests
  • Believed in Reincarnation
  • - If you live a life according to your dharma
    (duty to your caste), your karma (Brahmans
    consequence for you behavior), will carry you to
    the next level
  • - if you do wrong, you go down
  • Caste System, like a class system, once born into
    a certain level, you could not move up or down
    your entire life
  • After you reach the highest caste level, you
    reincarnate and achieve moksha (oneness with
    Brahman)
  • Also believed in non-violence, Ahimsa

warriors
Merchants/Farmers
Servants
The caste system was created by the Aryans
because they were fierce warriors and imposed it
on people they conquered
5
  • If you were a God, what would your avatar be?

6
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7
Hindu Rituals
  • Daily there is NOT a single ritual that ALL
    Hindus MUST follow
  • Most perform worship in the form of prayer or
    recitation at dawn and dusk
  • Generally, a Hindu must bathe before performing a
    worship or prayer ritual cleanse oneself before
    approaching a god
  • Most rituals are performed at home
  • Rituals at home involve drawing good luck symbols
    on the ground, offering food to an idol in their
    living room
  • Yearly Festival of Ganesha festival for those
    who worship Ganesha God of prosperity

8
Hindu Temples
  • Brahmin in India are responsible for the ritual
    offerings many live in monasteries, dormitories
    for
  • In US they act in a more pastorly role
    organizing corporate worship and services
  • Temples are designed architecturally to reflect
    the levels of the caste system
  • Each temple has many gods depending on the
    avatars that the people of the local region
    believe in
  • Choosing a site of a temple
  • Soil testing - whichever type of soil it is,
    thats the caste it will serve
  • White Brahmin
  • Red Kshatriya
  • Yellow Vaisya
  • Black Sudra

9
Other Hindu Beliefs
10
Buddhism
  • Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BC), the founder of
    Buddhism
  • Mauryan Emperor Asoka (272-231 BC) supported
    Buddhism
  • Sent out missionaries to proselytize
  • Reincarnation the soul comes back after death
  • Sacred Text Tripitaka or three baskets of
    knowledge sayings of Buddha

All Buddhists believe The Four Noble Truths -
all life is full of suffering - the cause of
suffering is the desire for illusions like
riches, power, and long life. -the only cure for
suffering is to overcome desire - the way to
overcome desire is to follow the eightfold path
  • Reincarnation the soul comes back after death

11
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12
The Eightfold Path
Nirvana
  • Right views
  • Right aspirations
  • Right speech
  • Right conduct
  • Right livelihood
  • Right effort
  • Right mindfulness
  • Right contemplation

13
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14
Review
  • What are the two words for achieving oneness with
    Brahman in Hinduism and Buddhism?
  • Who founded each religion?
  • What are the main spiritual texts of each
    religion?
  • What leader is responsible for the spread of
    Buddhism?

15
Deccan Plateau
  • Dravidians lived to the south of the Mauryan
    Empire, in the Northern Deccan

16
Maurya Empire
  • Responsible for the spread of Buddhism
  • 321 185 B.C. Height of Empire
  • Chandragupta conquered part of the Deccan
    Plateau

17
Mauryan Leaders
  • Chandragupta maintained order through
    well-organized bureaucracy
  • Many officials managed every aspect of society
    and trade shipyards, road building, factories
  • Had brutal secret police to report corruption and
    dissent
  • Trained women warriors to guard palace

18
Mauryan Leaders
  • Asoka grandson of Chandragupta conquered the
    rest of the Deccan
  • Converted to Buddhism rejects non-violence
  • Sends missionaries to spread Buddhism around
    India
  • Set up stone pillars proclaiming Buddhist sayings

Read p 84. Asoka Biography and answer question
on piece of paper.
19
Decline of Maurya Empire
  • Asokas death
  • Rivaling kingdoms of the Deccan

20
Silk Road ancient trade route
21
Guptas
  • Golden Age of Indian Empires
  • 500 years after the Mauryans 320 500 A.D.
  • Capital city Patiliputra
  • Relaxed rule much power resided with governors
  • Faxian Chinese Buddhist monk visited and wrote
    about the Gupta rule

22
Advances
  • Education Buddhist Monastery at Nalanda taught
    mathematics, religion, medicine, physics,
    language
  • Mathematics Gupta empire brought concept of
    zero, decimal system, Arabic numerals
  • Literature Kalidasa the most famous poet and
    playwright of the Gupta Empire
  • Medicine small pox vaccinations, plastic
    surgery, surgery
  • Arts Dancing Read page 84

23
Decline of Guptas
  • Weak leaders
  • White Han invaders

24
Assignment
  • Read pp. 86-88 take notes on the lives of
    ancient India

25
Notes Quiz
  1. Who was responsible for spreading Buddhism to
    China through, in part, missionaries?
  2. What is the main way that Buddhism came to China?
  3. What ancient leader united all of India by
    conquering the Deccan Plateau?
  4. Where is the Deccan plateau?
  5. Fill in the blank Moksha is to Hinduism as
    _______ is to Buddhism.
  6. Dharma is your ____ to your caste.
  7. What is Karma? Describe it in your own words.
  8. Hindus believe in reincarnation. Explain in 2
    sentences how that relates to the social caste
    system.
  9. What are the two words for achieving oneness with
    Brahman in Hinduism and Buddhism?
  10. Who founded each religion? Hinduism __________
    Buddhism _________
  11. What are the main spiritual texts of each
    religion?_________, ___________
  12. What leader is responsible for the spread of
    Buddhism?

Extra Credit (1 pt each) 1. What is the Jewish
Holy book? 2. Who is considered the father of the
Jews, or the founder of Judaism?
26
  • Group 1 Family Life, p. 87-88
  • Group 2 Wisdom of Confucius, p. 89
  • Group 3 Legalism, 90-91
  • Group 4 Daoism
  • Group 5 Buddhism in China

27
Groups 1 Family Life, p. 87-88 (this group
can follow the subheadings in your book) 2
Wisdom of Confucius, p. 89 3 Legalism, 90-91 4
Daoism, 90-91 5 Buddhism in China, 92 (use
the section on Indian Buddhism) You will have 2
minutes to make your presentation. Determine who
will speak and when. Take notes while another
group is speaking.
  • Presentation Must Include
  • Founder or how the religion arrived there
  • Give (approx.) dates of founder and religion
  • Mention important vocabulary or facts
  • List sacred text
  • Describe moral teachings, sayings, and philosophy

28
Word Bank
  • Vedas Tripitaka alphabet represents
    sounds represents things no founder
  • Euphrates River code of law
    wedge-shaped used for priests to worship
  • caste system stone pillars monotheistic
    Polytheistic Tigris River Siddartha
    Gautama
  • carriers of civilization pictogram
    nirvana moksha reincarnation
  • silk road Deccan plateau fertile
    crescent judgment Day
    afterlife
  • Yearly floods united the subcontinent
    Sumer, Assyria, Babylon Akhenaton and
    Nefertiti
  • GPS EQ answer the following at the bottom of
    your test
  • Name the two ways in which Buddhism got to China,
    and identify which one is the most important way.
  • Describe how Hindus link the caste system to
    their religious beliefs.

Homework Fill in Qin, Zhou, kung Tzu, Mandate of
Heaven, and Confucianism on your guided notes.
29
What is the vocabulary word that means
non-violence?
  • Ahimsa
  • http//teachersites.schoolworld.com/webpages/AClea
    ry/

30
What word refers to a physical or mental action
or motion that is performed regularly and has
religious or spiritual meaning behind it?
  • ritual

31
What are the Dalits?
  • Untouchables or gods children

32
Who advocated for the Dalits in the 1930s and
1940s?
  • Mohandas Ghandi

33
Which light-skinned, ancient, Indo-European group
came from the Northern part of India and
conquered the Southern darker skinned people
putting them into the caste system?
  • Aryans

34
What word means duty, or obligation, to your
caste?
  • Dharma

35
What is the name of the Elephant God, the God of
prosperity and intelligence?
  • Ganesha

36
What is the word that is the English equivalent
of a worship service?
  • Puja or Pooja

37
What does jalit mean?
  • caste

38
Which ancient book stresses the importance of the
caste system and fulfilling ones duty?
  • The Baghavad Gita

39
Who is the Warrior prince who must kill his
family and friends in order to please the God
Krishna?
  • Arjuna

40
What word means representation of a God, or a
Gods persona?
  • Avatar

41
Why do Hindus believe they are NOT a polytheistic
religion?
  • Because they worship the avatars, or
    representations of the one spirit, Brahman

42
How is racism incorporated into the caste system?
  • Often in India, the darker ones skin, the lower
    one is in the caste levels

43
Why has Southern India largely broken away from
the caste system in politics?
  • It has a strong economic base allowing more
    wealth, so that all levels benefit
  • Technological advances have allowed those of
    lower castes to become rich and move up

44
What is the name for the main religious Hindu
text, an at least 4,000 year old collection of
scriptures that form the basis of Hindu belief?
  • The Vedas

45
What is the goal of the cycle of reincarnation?
  • To achieve Moksha
  • OR
  • To break out of the cycle of suffering through
    life and reincarnation

46
What does it mean to achieve Moksha - what
happens to the persons soul?
  • It becomes one with Brahma/Brahman

47
What are the main gods that are worshipped in
Hinduism?
  • Brahma
  • Shiva
  • Vishnu
  • Ganesh/Ganesha
  • Parvati (Ganeshas mother)

48
How does one get to the next caste level?
  • By fulfilling ones duty to ones caste, even if
    that means collecting cow patties

49
How does a Hindu temple reflect the belief in the
caste system?
  • It has many archictectural levels just like the
    castes

50
Where do most Hindus worship and perform the
rituals?
  • In the home

51
What group of people makes up the highest caste
level before Moksha?
  • Brahmin or Preists

52
Place a Wager
53
Why do you think that the majority of lower caste
people in India followed the strict caste system
for so many years without rebelling against it?
  • Possible answers
  • -many in the lower castes rationalized that if
    they had to endure a life of suffering, that they
    would at least get relief eventually by making it
    to the next level their suffering would last
    forever
  • -the warrior castes oppressed those castes below
    them and the lower castes had no choice but to
    obey them, kind of like American slavery
  • -warrior castes had to explain why certain groups
    of people were left out of financial prosperity
    and were subjugated under them, thus they began
    to believe they were better than other groups of
    people obviously god wanted them in charge
    because they had done something to deserve it
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