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Explicit Instruction: Effective and Efficient Instruction

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Explicit Instruction: Effective and Efficient Instruction Webinar Series Session 2 Anita L. Archer, Ph.D. Author and Consultant archerteach_at_aol.com – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Explicit Instruction: Effective and Efficient Instruction


1
Explicit Instruction Effective and Efficient
Instruction
  • Webinar Series Session 2
  • Anita L. Archer, Ph.D.
  • Author and Consultant
  • archerteach_at_aol.com

2
  • Archer, A., Hughes, C. (2011). Explicit
    Instruction Effective and Efficient Teaching.
    NY Guilford Publications.
  • www.explicitinstruction.org

3
Webinar Participation
  • Choral Responses
  • If the answer is short and the same, you will
    say an answer together.
  • 2. Partner Responses
  • If you are viewing this with fellow educators,
    divide into partners and give each partner a
    number (either 1 or 2).
  • Written Responses
  • Record written responses on the handout or on
    plain paper.
  • Recorder Select one person in your group to be
    the recorder of best answers when asked. Type
    into Chat Box.
  • Best Practices On a separate piece of paper,
    maintain a list of best practices.

4
Questions
  • If you have a question, type it into the Chat
    Box. At intervals during the session, I will
    respond to the questions.
  • OR
  • Email the question to me and I will address it
    within our next session. archerteach_at_aol.com

5
Schedule
  • February 8
  • Topic Delivery of Instruction- Part 1
  • Chapter 6
  • February 22
  • Topic Delivery of Instruction- Part 2
  • Chapter 6 and 7
  • March 7
  • Topic Design of Instruction
  • Teaching Skills and Strategies
  • Chapter 2
  • March 21
  • Topic Design of Instruction
  • Concepts and Vocabulary
  • Chapter 3
  • April 4
  • Topic Judicious Practice
  • Chapter 8
  • Note Those taking the course for university
    credit are required to read the corresponding
    chapters.

6
Delivery of Instruction
  • Frequent responses are elicited.
  • Student performance is carefully monitored.
  • Immediate affirmative and corrective feedback is
    provided.
  • The lesson is delivered at a brisk pace.

7
Review - Choral Responses
  • Choral responses can be used when the response is
    short and the same.
  • Students are looking at the teacher.
  • Ask a question.
  • Put up your hands to indicate silence.
  • Give thinking time.
  • Lower your hands as you say, Everyone.

8
Review - Partners
  • Partners are useful when the requested responses
    are long and/or different.
  • Partners
  • Teacher assigns partners.
  • Pair lower performing students with middle
    performing students.
  • Give partners a number (1 or 2).
  • Sit partners next to each other.
  • Give partners a sentence starter.
  • Change partners every three to six weeks.

9
Review - Individual Turns
  • Volunteers
  • Call on volunteers only when the answer comes
    from personal experience.
  • Calling on inattentive students.
  • Avoid calling on inattentive students.

10
Review - Individual Turns
  • Option 1 - Partner First
  • 1. Ask a question.
  • 2. Give students thinking time.
  • 3. Have students share answers with their
    partners. Provide a sentence starter (stem).
  • 4. Call on a student to give an answer.
  • 5. Engage students in discussion.

11
Share with your partner.
  • Tell your partner one practice that you used in
    your classroom based on our last session.

12
Feedback
13
Written Responses
  • Written response
  • Gauge the length of the written response to avoid
    voids.
  • Make the response fairly short OR
  • Make the response eternal.
  • To keep students from sneaking ahead.
  • Expose limited items on the screen. OR
  • Have students put their pencils down to indicate
    completion OR have them turn their paper over.

14
Written Responses
  • Written response
  • Paper Notes on paper
  • Graph paper Computer
  • Journal Electronic Tablet
  • Vocabulary Log Smartboard
  • Post - it Whiteboard
  • Poster Paper Response Slate

15
Written Responses
  • Response Slates
  • Give a directive.
  • Have students write their answers on individual
    whiteboards, slates, or chalkboards.
  • When adequate response time has been given, have
    students display their slates.
  • Give feedback to students.

16
Benefits of Response Slates
  • Discuss with your partner the benefits of using
    response slates (White Boards).

17
Feedback
  • The students will feel more accountable.
  • If you cant hold them accountable, they
    believe it is optional.
  • 2. The teacher can monitor the responses of all
    students. As a result, of this formative
    assessment, the teacher can better adjust the
    lesson.

18
Written Responses
  • Response cards
  • Have students write possible responses on cards
    or paper or provide them with prepared cards.
  • Examples
  • Simple responses Yes, No Agree, Disagree
  • Content specific responses
  • Graphemes sh, wh, ch, th
  • Punctuation Marks . ? ! ,
  • Math Operations - X
  • Types of Rocks Igneous, metamorphic,
    sedimentary
  • Vocabulary Terms perimeter, area
  • Ask a question.
  • Have students select best response and hold it
    under their chin.
  • Ask students to hold up response card.
  • Carefully monitor responses and provide feedback.
  • NOTE Electronic clickers are the high tech
    version of response cards.

19
Uses of Response Cards
  • Share with your partner specific times that you
    could use response cards.

20
Feedback
  • quick answers - short answers
  • write
  • letters for dictated sound
  • spelling words
  • math problem/equation to be solved
  • answer to mental math
  • needed punctuation mark
  • type of genre
  • vocabulary word

21
Action Responses
  • Touch stimulus.
  • Ask students to Put their finger on stimulus.
  • Increases attention given to stimulus.
  • Allows monitoring to determine if students are
    looking at the desired stimulus.
  • Act out.
  • Students act out story, concept, or process.

22
Action Responses
  • Gestures
  • Students use gestures to indicate answer or to
    facilitate recall of process.
  • Facial Expressions
  • Students indicate answer by changing facial
    expression. (Show me glum. Show me not
    glum.)

23
Action Responses
  • Hand signals.
  • Use thumbs up/thumbs down to indicate yes/no or
    agree/disagree.
  • Level of understanding. Students place their
    hand to indicate level of understanding
    (high-forehead, OK-neck, low-abdomen).
  • a. Write items on the board/overhead and number
    them.
  • 1. concentrate 2. absurd 3. enemy 4.
    disgusting
  • 1. shield volcano 2. composite volcano 3.
    cinder cone volcano
  • b. Carefully introduce and model hand signals.
  • c. Ask a question. Have students form answers on
    their desk.
  • d. When adequate thinking time has been given,
    have students hold up their hands showing
    responses.

24
Passage Reading Procedures
  • Discuss this question with your partner.
  • What are some disadvantages of round-robin
    reading when the group size is large?

25
Feedback
  • BIG DISADVANTAGE - Reduces amount of practice
    given to each student.
  • Disadvantages to reader
  • Poor reading since it is a cold read with no
    rehearsal
  • Anxious students
  • Embarrassing for struggling readers
  • Disadvantages to listeners
  • Inattentive
  • Not following along
  • A void resulting in management problems
  • Anticipating the section they might read
  • Boring

26
Active Participation - Passage Reading
  • Choral Reading
  • Read selection with your students.
  • Read at a moderate rate
  • Tell your students, Keep your voice with
    mine. (Students may silently read material
    before choral reading.)

27
Active Participation - Passage Reading
  • Cloze Reading
  • Read selection.
  • Pause on meaningful words.
  • Have students read the deleted words. (Excellent
    practice when you need to read something
    quickly.)

28
Active Participation - Passage Reading
  • Individual Turns
  • Use with small groups.
  • Call on an individual student.
  • Call on students in random order.
  • Vary the amount of material read.
  • If you select to call on individuals in a large
    group, use one of these procedures.
  • Assign each student a section of the selection to
    rehearse.
  • Give students the option of saying ME (I will
    read the material.) or WE (Please read with me
    class.).

29
Active Participation - Passage Reading
  • Silent Reading
  • Pose pre reading question.
  • Tell students to read a certain amount.
  • Ask them to reread material if they finish early.
  • Monitor students reading. Have them
    whisper-read to you.
  • Pose post reading question.

30
Active Participation - Passage Reading
  • Partner Reading
  • Assign each student a partner.
  • Reader whisper reads to partner. If the material
    is narrative, have students alternate by
    sentence, page, or time. If the material is
    expository, have the students alternate by the
    paragraph (Read - Stop - Respond).
  • Coach corrects errors. Ask - Can you figure out
    this word? Tell - This word is _____. What
    word? Reread the sentence.
  • Alternatives to support lowest readers
  • Lowest readers placed on a triad and read with
    another student.
  • First reader (better reader) reads material.
    Second reader reads the SAME material.
  • Students read the material together.
  • Partners allowed to say me or we.

31
Active Participation - Passage Reading
  • Tell your partner which procedure you could use
    to support the struggling readers during partner
    reading.

32
Delivery of Instruction - Passage Reading - Echo
Reading
  • Echo Reading
  • Teacher reads a word, phrase or sentence.
  • Students echo read the word, phrase or
    sentence.
  • Useful for building fluency and expression.
  • Needs to be faded as students grow in reading
    skills.

33
Delivery of Instruction - Passage Reading -
Choral Reading
  • Choral Reading
  • Read selection with your students.
  • Read at a moderate rate.
  • Tell your students, Keep your voice with
    mine. (You may wish to have the students
    pre-read the material silently before choral
    reading.)

34
Delivery of Instruction - Passage Reading -
Cloze Reading
  • Cloze Reading
  • Read selection.
  • Pause on meaningful words.
  • Have students read the deleted words. (Excellent
    practice for reading initial part of a chapter or
    when you need to read something quickly.)

35
Delivery of Instruction - Passage Reading -
Individual Turns
  • Individual Turns
  • Use with small groups.
  • Call on an individual student.
  • Call on students in random order.
  • Vary the amount of material read.
  • If used with large group,
  • Assign paragraphs for preview and practice. OR
  • Utilize the me or we strategy. When called on,
    student has the option of saying we and asking
    everyone to join in reading.

36
Delivery of Instruction - Passage Reading -
Silent Reading
  • Augmented Silent Reading
  • Pose pre- reading question.
  • Tell students to read a certain amount and to
    reread material if they finish early.
  • Monitor students reading. Have individuals
    whisper-read to you.
  • Pose post- reading question.

37
Delivery of Instruction - Passage Reading -
Partner Reading
  • Assign each student a partner.
  • Reader whisper reads to partner. Students
    alternate by sentence, paragraph, page, or
    time.
  • Coach corrects errors. Ask - Can you figure out
    this word? Tell - This word is _____. What
    word? Reread the sentence.
  • Alternatives to support lowest readers
  • Lowest readers placed on a triad.
  • First reader (better reader) reads
    material.Second reader reads the SAME material.
  • Students read the material together.
  • Before reading, students can say ME (I will
    read.) OR WE (Please read with me.)

38
Passage Reading Procedures
Discuss this question with your partner. Which
of these passage reading procedures will you use
in your classroom?
39
Delivery of Instruction
  • Frequent responses are elicited.
  • Student performance is carefully monitored.
  • Immediate affirmative and corrective feedback is
    provided.
  • The lesson is delivered at a brisk pace.

40
Delivery of Instruction - Monitor Students
Responses
  • Walk around.
  • Look around.
  • Talk around.
  • Correct incorrect responses.
  • Acknowledge correct responses.
  • Encourage effort.

41
Delivery of Instruction - Monitor Students
Responses
  • With your partner, list the benefits of
    circulating and monitoring.
  • _____________________________________________
  • _____________________________________________
  • _____________________________________________
  • _____________________________________________
  • _____________________________________________

42
Feedback
  • Benefits of circulating and monitoring.
  • Promotes on-task.
  • Promotes appropriate behavior.
  • Feedback to the teacher
  • Do they understand the directions?
  • Do they understand the task?
  • Do they understand the skill or concept?
  • How do I need to adjust the lesson?
  • Feedback to the student
  • Corrections
  • Affirmations (praise)
  • Encouragement
  • Individual instruction
  • Connection to students
  • Positive individual interactions
  • Conveys that the work is important

43
Delivery of Instruction - Provide Immediate
Feedback
  • Acknowledge/Praise
  • Encourage/Support
  • Correct errors
  • Correct errors with the individual or the group.
  • Correct with a neutral affect.
  • Use I do it. We do it. You do it.

44
Monitor and Provide Feedback
Correct and quick response Acknowledge and move on. Correct Yes, thats right.
Correct but hesitant response Acknowledge and add brief firm-up explanation. Correct. Since this is a telling sentence, we would end the sentence with a period.
45
Monitor and Provide Feedback Students should
ALWAYS practice correct response.
Incorrect response when fact requested. 1. Model the correct answer.(I do it.) 2. Check understanding. (You do it.) 3. Check again. (Student says /o/ for /a/.) This sound is /a/? What sound? /a/ What sound? /e/ What sound? /o/ What sound? /a/
Incorrect response when strategy or rule used. 1. Guide student(s) to the correct answer by asking questions on the steps of the strategy or rule. (We do it.) 2. Check understanding. (You do it.) 3. Check again. (Students spell siting for sitting.) Does sit end with a CVC? yes Does the ending begin with a vowel? yes So do we double the final consonant? yes Everyone, write sitting on your slate. Show me.
46
Delivery of Instruction - Immediate Feedback
  • Corrective Feedback is
  • Provided
  • Immediate
  • Specific and informative
  • Focused on the correct versus incorrect response
  • Delivered with appropriate tone
  • Ended with students giving correct response

47
Delivery of Instruction - Provide Immediate
feedback
  • Praise is
  • contingent (IF THEN)
  • specific
  • provided for noteworthy performance
  • focused on achievement and effort rather than
    personality attributes
  • comparing students to themselves rather than to
    other
  • positive, credible, genuine

48
Delivery of Instruction - Pace
  • The lesson is delivered at a brisk pace.
  • Prepare for the lesson.
  • Use instructional routines.
  • After a response is given, move on.
  • Avoid digressions

49
Best Practice List
Share your best practice list with your partner.
Tell your partner two practices that you intend
to implement in your classroom.
50
Thank You
  • In the next two weeks,
  • Implement at least two of the procedures we
    discussed.
  • Read Chapter 2.
  • View some of the video clips on the website.
  • If you have additional questions, send the
    question to me. archerteach_at_aol.com
  • Teach with passion.
  • Manage with compassion.
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