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Leadership Leadership: final exam take-home question What is your theory, model, philosophy of leadership? Tell your story: how did you form your view of leadership? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leadership

Leadership final exam take-home question
  • What is your theory, model, philosophy of
  • Tell your story how did you form your view of
    leadership? Who were the good leaders/bad leaders
    that you learned from?
  • What does your model have to say about personal
    traits, task, relationships, the situation?

Leadership vs. Management
  • A manager gets work done (does things right)
    through the efforts of other people.
  • Includes planning, organizing, motivating, and
    controlling cope with complexity
  • A leader creates a vision (does the right thing).
  • Communicates that vision and moves the
    organization toward that vision cope with change

  • Your definition matters!
  • Leadership involves
  • Establishing direction (vision and strategies).
  • Aligning people. Communicating.
  • Motivating and inspiring to overcome barriers.
  • Produces change.
  • Takes place at various levels.
  • Individual, group, organization, society.

Leadership theories
  • Trait
  • Great man, KP, emotional intelligence
  • Behavioral
  • What leaders do task and people
  • Contingency
  • It depends
  • Emerging
  • Transactional, charismatic, servant

Trait theories
  • a leader is
  • Possess certain characteristics
  • (80s research by Kouzes and Posner).
  • honest
  • competent
  • forward looking
  • inspiring
  • intelligent
  • Emotional intelligence (Goleman)
  • Self awareness, self management
  • Social awareness, relationship management

Leadership Behaviors
  • a leader does
  • Leaders arent necessarily born.....
  • Individuals can be trained to be effective
  • leader behaviors differ..
  • Task-related (initiating structure) behaviors
  • Keeping employees on task,
    assigning tasks,

    providing goals.
  • Employee-related (consideration) behaviors
  • Motivating employees through interpersonal
    relationships, consideration, kindness, respect.

Contingency Theories
  • Fiedlers contingency leadership model
  • Match between
  • Leaders style (basic motivation)
  • Relationship Oriented
  • Task-oriented
  • Situation (amount of control and influence in job
  • Leader-member relations level of support,
    loyalty and trust
  • Task Structure level of structure in task
  • Position Power formal power to influence,
    reward, coerce

Path Goal Theory
  • Based on expectancy perceptions
  • Leaders reduce blocks to performance, provide
    guidance and support, tie rewards to
    accomplishments provide path to rewards
  • Four Leader Behaviors (styles)
  • Directive (focus on tasks)
  • Supportive (shows concern, friendly)
  • Participative (consults before decisions)
  • Achievement-oriented (sets challenging
    goals, shows confidence)

Path Goal Theory (continued)
  • Contingency factors
  • Environment/context
  • Task structure
  • Formal authority system
  • Work group
  • Employee attitudes and behaviors
  • Locus of control
  • Experience
  • Perceived ability

Path-Goal Theory
  • Environmental
  • Task structure
  • Formal authority system
  • Work group
  • Leader Behavior
  • Directive
  • Supportive
  • Participative
  • Achievement oriented
  • Outcomes
  • Acceptance of leader
  • Motivation
  • Performance
  • Satisfaction
  • Employee
  • Locus of control
  • Experience, KSAOs
  • Perceived Ability
  • Need for achievement

Situational Leadership
  • Follower readiness
  • ability and willingness to learn and take on
  • Four leadership styles
  • Telling
  • Selling
  • Participating
  • Delegating

Charismatic Leadership
  • Research indicates two leader styles
  • Transactional leader
  • Uses rewards and sanctions to motivate followers.
  • Charismatic or Transformational leader
  • Communicates vision to followers, who internalize
    leaders vision.
  • Followers feel loyalty to leader and commitment
    to leaders vision.

Comparing Transactional and Transformational
  • Transactional
  • Control Strategy
  • Emphasis on compliance behavior
  • Motivate through social exchange of valued
  • Coercive, legitimate, and reward based power
  • Focus on compliance through control, often
    resulting in low self-worth.
  • Transformational
  • Empowerment strategy
  • Changing core attitudes, beliefs, and values
  • Motivate by increasing belief in self-ability and
  • Expert and referent based power
  • Focus on followers self-growth through
    internalization of goals.

Servant- Leader (Greenleaf)
  • Service to others rather than self
  • Listening
  • Empathy
  • Healing
  • Awareness
  • Persuasion
  • Conceptualization
  • Foresight
  • Stewardship
  • Commitment to growth of people
  • Building community

Substitutes for Leadership
  • Contributing characteristics
  • of Subordinates
  • A persons experience, professional orientation,
    or training may make leadership less necessary.
  • of Jobs
  • Jobs that are routine or unambiguous.
  • Jobs with motivation built into job structure.
  • of Organizations
  • When organizations have clear goals and
    unambiguous rules and procedures.

Some Effective Leader Behaviors
  • Effective leaders.....
  • Know and express their values
  • Know their own leadership style
  • Empathize with followers
  • Give people a vision of the future
  • Seek input and feedback from others
  • Communicate with persuasion and passion
  • Provide effective feedback to others
  • Motivate others to do their best
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