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Biofuels

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1991 2011: A 20 Year History of Biofuels policy and the impact on the Recreational Marine Industry Jeff R. Wasil BRP U.S Inc. * Biofuels * * * * * * We need to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biofuels


1
1991 2011 A 20 Year History of Biofuels policy
and the impact on the Recreational Marine
Industry Jeff R. Wasil BRP U.S Inc.
Biofuels
2
Gasoline plus ethanol consumption
1991 - 2001
Fuel Ethanol Consumption
Ethanol in Gasoline Pool
2
Source Energy Information Administration
J.Wasil
3
Clean Air Act 1990 Mandated the use of oxygenates
(MTBE) for reformulated fuels in non-attainment
areas starting in 1995
1995
MTBE Production
3
J.Wasil
4
MTBE Phase-out begins
1995 - 2001
MTBE Production
4
J.Wasil
5
2001 - 2005
5
J.Wasil
6
Energy Policy Act 2005 (RFS-I)
2005
RFS-I Ethanol Quantity
6
J.Wasil
7
In 2006 ethanol production exceeded RFS quantity
2006
Production exceeded the mandate
RFS-I Ethanol Quantity
7
J.Wasil
8
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
(RFS-II)
2007
8
J.Wasil
9
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
(RFS-II)
2007
RFS-II Biofuels Quantity
9
J.Wasil
10
Global Financial Crisis
2007 2011
10
J.Wasil
11
Global Financial Crisis
2007 - 2011
Ethanol in Gasoline Pool 10
11
J.Wasil
12
Global Financial Crisis
2007 - 2011
Ethanol in Gasoline Pool 10
12
J.Wasil
13
The US Market was saturated with ethanol in 2010.
The industry cannot continue to grow beyond that
of exports.
  • Solutions
  • Quickly start consuming more gasoline
    (ridiculous)
  • Realign the RFS to match the new fuel demand
    reality (unlikely - does nothing to address the
    growth of the ethanol industry)
  • Raise the amount of ethanol allowed in gasoline
    (E15 waiver request granted source of much
    debate, will cause issues)
  • Explore other alternative fuels that can better
    satisfy the RFS volumes without affecting
    millions of existing engines

5. Solutions
13
J.Wasil
14
Isobutanol Testing Update Jeff R. Wasil BRP U.S
Inc.
Isobutanol Testing Update
14
15
Table 2 Engine Specifications
Figure 2. 24 SeaDoo Challenger boat with 215 HP
Rotax engine
NMMA/ABYC Butanol Study
Evaluate isobutanol-extended fuel over summer
boating season (50 hrs)
Figure 1. 18 Mako boat with 175 HP Evinrude
Direct Fuel Injection Outboard
15
J.Wasil
16
  • A formal and rigorous test program has been
    established with Argonne National Laboratory with
    over sight from the U.S. Department of Energy
  • Expanded field testing
  • Laboratory emissions and performance evaluations
  • Engine durability assessments
  • Oil tribology investigation

Products from several marine engine and boat
manufacturers included in the test program
Argonne / DOE Marine Testing
16
Portable Emissions Equipment Installed in Boat
J.Wasil
17
Volvo-Penta 5.7 Closed-loop catalyst Almar Boat
1999 OMC Johnson Conventional Carbureted 2-stroke
(AKA, Old Smokey) Intruder Boat
Field Emissions Testing
Boats baseline tested in May, operated for 50
hours on butanol and tested again in September
Indmar 6.0L Closed-loop catalyst Malibu Ski
Boat
17
J.Wasil
18
  • Boats accumulated 50 hours operating on B16 fuel
  • Pre and post season emissions evaluated on three
    fuels on each boat E0, E10 and B16
  • No engine runability, startability or durability
    issues reported during the 50 hour evaluation
    period.
  • For each boat tested, emissions between E10 and
    B16 were virtually the same

Field Testing
18
J.Wasil
19
  • Example Boat 1 Normalized Data

Similar emissions between E10 and B16
Field Testing Emissions
19
J.Wasil
20
  • Laboratory emissions testing and full-life
    durability testing

At the end of the testing, the engines will be
torn down and inspected
Lab emissions and durabity
350 Hours on E10 (Control)
350 Hours on B16 (Test)
20
J.Wasil
21
  • Example Laboratory Baseline Emissions Data
    (normalized)

Similar emissions between E10 and B16
Lab engine emissions
21
J.Wasil
22
  • Engine Undergoing 350 hour durability testing on
    16 isobutanol-extended fuel

Durability Barge Testing
22
J.Wasil
23
  • Oil Tribology refers to the study of friction,
    wear, lubrication and contact mechanics

Oil Tribology
23
J.Wasil
24
  • Damaged rod bearing at 235 hours operated on E15.
  • Gasoline (E15) and oil is mixed in two-stroke
    engine. Impact of E15 on solvency and lubricity
    of oil is unknown.

E15 NREL Report
Damaged rod and bearing from E15 engine
Undamaged rod and bearing
24
J.Wasil
25
  • Oil Tribology Tests
  • Unidirectional sliding (connecting rods, crank)
  • Reciprocating sliding (Pistons, rings)
  • Four ball (Bearings)
  • Three fuels tested E0, E10, B16 at increasing
    fuel/oil dilution ratios
  • Yamaha 150HP four stroke engine used to develop
    oil dilution test methodology

Oil Tribology Tests
25
J.Wasil
26
  • Preliminary Oil Tribology Data indicates similar
    friction and wear with fuel dilution from E0, E10
    and B16

Tribology Results
26
J.Wasil
27
  • Conclusion
  • Largest and most comprehensive recreational
    marine study using an advanced biofuel other than
    ethanol
  • Cooperation and participation from across the
    industry
  • Program is going very well to date more testing
    to be conducted, but results so far indicate that
    butanol is a much better fuel with properties
    more similar to that of gasoline.
  • Opportunity to influence National biofuels policy

Conclusion
27
J.Wasil
28
Thank You
Questions?
28
J.Wasil
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