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REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

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Title: REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY


1
Regional Geography Revision
Ms. V. Redmond, Presentation Wexford, 2011
2
Types of Region
  • CLIMATIC REGIONS
  • PHYSICAL REGIONS
  • ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS
  • CULTURAL REGIONS
  • SOCIO-ECONOMIC REGIONS I.E. CORE/PERIPHERY,
    INDUSTRIALLY DECLINED REGIONS
  • URBAN REGIONS

3
Definition to learn
  • A Region is an area on the earths surface which
    is different to all areas around it. It has
    different characteristics e.g. physical (climate
    soils, rocks, drainage), cultural,
    administrative, economic, human.

4
World Climatic Regions
5
COOL TEMPERATE OCEANIC Climate
  • Where Western Europe - From Northern Norway to
    North West Spain (including Ireland)
  • Temperatures Summer average 15 - 17 (can go to
    23) Degrees, lower averages along coasts, higher
    inland (South WesterliesTrade winds / North
    Atlantic Driftwarm current). Winter average 4 -
    5 Degrees - Moderating influences of S.
    Westerlies / North Atlantic Drift current.
  • Precipitation all year round - Cyclonic and
    Relief Rainfall but with Winter Maximum 750mm
    (Rain Shadow Dublin)- 2,600mm (West)
  • Effects Positive (irrigation) and negative
    (leaching) effects of precipitation on soils

6
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7
PHYSICAL REGIONS CASE STUDY - THE BURREN
  • Upland terraced limestone region with beds of
    rock dipping gently to South and covered by shale
    in some parts - KARST LANDSCAPE
  • Formed when African and European Plates collided
    - Munster mountains were folded at this time also
    (Armorican Foldings)
  • Soil cover eroded by glaciers and early farmers
    and strong coastal winds
  • Large expanses of Limestone Pavements (Clints
    Grikes) containing Swallow Holes, Uvalas, Poljes
    and few surface streams
  • Underground Passages and Caverns
  • Unique Flora and Fauna

8
CARBONATION
  • Underground and Surface features result from the
    process of CARBONATION
  • H2O CO2 ? H2CO3 carbonic acid which
    dissociates to
  • H2CO3 ? H HCO3- and the proton reacts with
    calcite
  • CaCO3 (s) 2H (aq) ? Ca (aq) CO2 (g) H2O

9
ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS CASE STUDIES IRELAND
FRANCE
  • IRELAND - SINGLE TIER SYSTEM
  • Central Government
  • County Councils/City Councils/ Boroughs

10
Administrative Units - Ireland
  • Dates back to Norman times 12th Century
  • By mid 13th Century we had 8 counties
  • 1606 - 1994 26 counties
  • 1994 Dublin subdivided into 3 new counties -
    Dublin,Fingal, Dun Laoghaire - Rathdown
  • Many county boundaries are distinguished by
    natural physical boundaries eg River Slaney/
    Wicklow Mountains

11
Dublin's Administrative Regions
12
Urban Based Administrative Units
  • CITY COUNCILS - 5 - Dublin, Cork, Waterford,
    Galway, Limerick - The suburbs of these areas
    have grown so much that in some cases they are
    spreading into neighbouring councils eg Limerick
    into Clare County Council
  • BOROUGH TOWN COUNCILS
  • BOROUGH COUNCILS -The 5 medium sized towns below
    the city councils eg Wexford Town
  • TOWN COUNCILS - 75 of these eg New Ross
  • REGIONAL ADMINISTRATIONS - Not an effective
    Regional level of admin in Ireland. We have
    Regional Authorities but they really only cater
    for specific elements eg Health and Tourism

13
FRANCE - ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM
  • Multiple Tier System
  • Central Government
  • 22 Regional Governments
  • 92 Departments

14
Departments Regional Govts.
  • System dates back to French Revolution after
    which the pattern of local government based on
    the department was developed. These were all
    approximately the same size in terms of area and
    population and also ensured that all areas within
    them had the same focus on culture
  • Responsible for a number of functions - social
    services/co-ordinating urban and regional
    planning
  • Prefet is the administrative officer and is
    centrally appointed
  • One main town is the focus for each department
  • Aftre World War 2 (1955) 22 Regional Centres
    were formed but had little power
  • 1970 - Policy of Decentralisation to give them
    more power - Regional Assemblies and Direct
    Elections Helped develop cities such as TOULOUSE

15
Cultural Regions
  • Mostly defined by distinctive Language/Religion
  • Language Regions - Gaeltacht (Ireland)/ Belgium
  • GAELTACHT -
  • 1.6 Million claim to speak Gaeilge!
  • Only used everyday in Fior Gaeltacht
  • 1925 ( Commission for Irish Speaking Districts) -
    Broken into Fior Gaeltacht and Breac Gaeltacht
  • Gaeltacht Regions reducing in size (2002 Census
    - 86,500 people) Why?
  • Government system of Positive Discrimination in
    Gaeltacht Region - Grants/Incentives

16
Language Regions - Belgium (Independence
1830) Flanders (North) - Wallonia (South) -
German Enclave
  • Flanders
  • Flemish speaking, culturally linked to
    Netherlands
  • Historically poor - Prospered since 1960s
    attracting growth industries to places such as
    Antwerp
  • Brussels is the capital of Belgium and located
    here but is Bilingual
  • Wallonia
  • Mainly French speaking
  • During 1800s became prosperous based on coal
    steel in Sambre-Meuse Valley
  • Collapse of these industries in 1950s led to
    massive decline - (Maladjusted Region)
  • German Enclave
  • Territory received from Germany after WW 1

17
Tensions Caused by Cultural Differences in Belgium
  • Flanders has received much industrial investment
    but still feels under threat from the more
    dominant French language in the south
  • Possible break up of Belgium has been averted
    many times
  • This led to fundamental governmental reforms and
    the creation of a Federal Government which
    recognises all three regions - each has a certain
    amount of Autonomy
  • Flemish display a defensive attitude over the
    spread of French and have created a new Pro
    Flemish political party - Vlaams Belang

18
REGIONS IN IRELAND
cCCC
19
CORE - PERIPHERY MODEL
  • A model that helps explain differences in
    economic development
  • Economic development does not affect all areas in
    the same way.
  • Some regions develop strongly because of a number
    or factors eg. Raw materials/strategic location
    for trade
  • Other areas may not develop to the same extent
    because of poor resources/unfavourable
    environments/poor access to trade routes

20
  • Regions shown on maps depends on scale
  • Large scale shows a large area but little detail
    e.g. world map 1 1,000,000cm
  • Small scale shows a small area but a lot of
    detail e.g. street map of Dublin 116000

21
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22
CHARACTERISTICS OF A REGION
  • All regions have different chacteristics but some
    characteristics are the same.
  • AREA Regions occupy an area of the earths
    surface that is different from all other areas
    around it.
  • BOUNDARIES Regions are seperated by boundaries
    from surrounding regions. Some boundaries are
    clear e.g. mountain ranges, rivers. Some
    boundaries are not clear e.g. local government
    boundaries e.g. Mayo co. council v Castlebar Town
    Council.
  • IMAGE By naming a region people can conjure up
    an idea of a place e.g. France Eiffel Tower,
    Garlic , USA McDonalds, Disneyland, Gaeltacht
    Aran sweaters, Thatched cottages.
  • CHANGE Regions change over time e.g. Dublin
    Why? Transport, Industry. Urban Sprawl,
    Satellite Towns, Suburbs, Commutor Belts.

23
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24
REGIONAL DEFINITIONS
  • CORE REGIONS - A core region is the wealthiest
    part of an area of land. It is the centre of
    economic,political and administrative life in a
    region e.g. Dublin, Paris Basin,
    Manchester-Milan-Berlin axis core of EU.
  • Usually the capital of a country is in the core
    region.

25
PERIPHERAL REGIONS
  • A peripheral region is a region which is distant
    from the core and lacks economic, political and
    administrative investment e.g. BMW, Mezzogiorno,
    Greece, Scottish Highlands
  • Usually the poorest part of the country.
  • Usually will have negative aspects to its
    physical geography eg drought, boggy soils

26
MALADJUSTED REGIONS
REGIONS OF INDUSTRIAL DECLINE These are
regions which were once dependent on an industry
or natural resource which is now in decline or
has declined e.g. Sambre - Meuse (coal), Greater
Cork Area
27
Core - Periphery Model Ireland
  • CORE - South East
  • Study under these headings
  • Physical Processes
  • Economic Processes
  • Human Processes
  • Periphery - BMW
  • Study under these headings
  • Physical Processes
  • Economic Processes
  • Human Processes

28
Regional Contrasts in Ireland BMW - SOUTH EAST
29
Human Processes Topics to Include in an Answer
  • Migration Causes and Consequences
  • Birth Rates/Death Rates
  • Rural Depopulation
  • Urbanisation Positives/Negatives
  • Openess to Change
  • Education Opportunities
  • Employment Opportunities

30
BMW Human Processes
  • Population Decline since Famine Times Migration
  • Aprx. 50 of total area but 27 of population
  • Few large urban areas Galway biggest _at_ 50,000
    (Dominant Urban Area)
  • Lack of Education Facilities One of the seven
    Universities Most young students leave for
    education and do not come back
  • Low rates of natural increase due to low birth
    rates due to so few young people left Ageing
    Population
  • Gaeltacht areas find it very difficult to attract
    FDI (Foreign Direct Investment)
  • Some In migration during 1996-2006 due to Celtic
    Tiger Economy
  • Population decrease Decpletion of
    Infrastructure
  • Tradition Extensive Agriculture Poor
    Development

31
CORE REGION - PARIS BASIN
32
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33
PARIS BASIN Human Processes
  • Population of the City of Paris (Ile de France)
    doubled between 1921-2004 to aprx. 12 Million but
    the Greater Urban area has a population of 22
    Million- 1/3 of French population (Huge suburbs
    and New Towns Evry/Marne-lá-Valée)
  • Ile de France High density/Birth Rate 15 per
    1,000 Death Rate 7 per 1,000- Natural Increase
    of 0.8 means an increase in population before
    migration is taken into account
  • Contrast with France in general- Birth Rate 12
    per 1,000 and death rate of 9 per 1,000
  • Outskirts of the Paris Basin are experiencing net
    Emmigration while Ile de France is experiencing
    net Immigration
  • 40 of all foreign migrants in France live in
    Paris Region
  • 13 of the region's population are migrants
    mostly from North and West Africa (Former
    Colonies) and Portugal

34
PARIS BASIN Human Processes cntd.
  • Lack of jobs and stricter migration control has
    slowed migration into the region in past ten
    years
  • Many French people have left parts of the Ile
    deFrance and some of these areas have been
    replaced by migrant ghettos
  • Unemployment has led to ethnic instability and
    Paris riots in early 2000's
  • Rise of Islamic Fundamentalism Dress codes in
    schools
  • Overcrowding/High Cost of living/Inner city
    decline/deindustrialisation Major Human
    problems
  • Urban Renewal projects have tried to improve
    parts of the city Develipment of 8 Nodes
    (centres) in the greater Paris region (modern
    housing/employment opportunities/improved
    services) Example of one is Lá Defense
  • Also New Towns built outside the Ile de France
    with populations of over 100,000/good range of
    services and employment eg. Evry/Marne-le-Vallée)

35
REGIONS OF INDUSTRIAL DECLINE
  • Ireland - Greater Cork Area
  • Belgium - Sambre-Meuse Valley
  • United Kingdom - South Wales

36
Case Study 1. Sambre - Meuse Valley
  • Core Region of Belgium has changed from Wallonia
    - Flanders
  • 1750 - 1950s major coal and steel/associated
    industries base around major coalfields of the
    area - Kampen/Liege/Sambre- Meuse
  • Engineering/chemicals/iron and steel
  • Decline due to new cheaper imports/decline in
    coal and steel/new cheaper sources of energy
    (oil/gas)/ new technologies DEINDUSTRIALISATION
  • Flow of people to North/Loss of industry to North
    led to Flanders becoming the new core of Belgium
  • Wallonia became an Objective 2 Region - Attempts
    by government and EU to REINDUSTRIALISE the
    region eg. Charleroi Airport/Caterpillar
  • Since 1960 Flanders has experienced significant
    economic growth - Antwerp/Zelzate

37
Sambre-Meuse Valley - A Response to Industrial
Decline?
  • EU designated the area Objective 2 (Convergence
    Region) Structural Funds from The Common
    Regional Policy
  • Investment in transport network -motorways to
    Randstad/Rhur/Paris
  • Development of new Industrial Estates near
    citiies such as Charleroi/La Louviere
  • Upgrading of airports to International standard
    eg. Charleroi (Ryanair Hub)
  • Cleaning up of derelict landscape to make it more
    attractive for investment

38
Case Study 2 Greater Cork Area
  • 1973 - Ireland joined EEC - Began process of
    INDUSTRIALISATION
  • Verholme Shipyard/Oil Refinery/Ford/Dunlop/Irish
    Steel/Sunbeam Textiles added to traditional
    industries eg processing - Cork became a Growth
    Centre for the National Economy
  • 1980s Recession - Industrial decline hit the
    Cork area. Long established industries closed
    down. MNCs eg. Ford Dunlop closed the branch
    plants in Cork - DEINDUSTRIALISATION - Massive
    unemployment
  • 1990S - REINDUSTRIALISATION - due to booming
    world economy
  • Lots of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) led by
    IDA
  • PFIZER/JOHNSONJOHNSON/WYETH/APPLE/BOSTON
    SCIENTIFIC
  • Unlike Wallonia Cork has recovered

39
Urban Regions - Case Study Dublin
  • 60 of Irish people live in cities and towns -
    Dublin has by far the largest proportion -
    Primate City
  • Ireland - One of least urbanised in Europe
    (European Average - 80)
  • Dublins development traced back to Vikings -
    Site-Woodquay,Christchurch/ Lowest bridging point
    -Further developed by Nornans and Plantations
  • Situation - Deep sheltered bay on East Coast
    development of infrastructure focused here/Liffey
    Valley providing access to central lowlands/
  • Agricultural Hinterland - Market City
  • Large population - led to development of
    Industries and Services eg Guinness/Intel -
    IFSC/Transport system centralised in Dublin
  • Urban Sprawl - Eastwards and Northwards and along
    coast but restricted by Irish Sea and
    Dublin/Wicklow mountains

40
PERIPHERAL REGION MEZZOGIORNO
41
Mezzogiorno/Gulf of Metapontino/Tarranto
  • 2 Drainage Features Agri/Sinni Rivers flowing
    into Gulf of Metapontino

42
MEZZOGIORNO- Land of Midday Sun
  • 40 of Italy's territory
  • 36 of population
  • 25 of GDP
  • 50 of
  • agricultural employment

43
THE MEZZOGIORNO Primary Activities
  • Post 1950 land reform/Casa per il Mezzogiorno
  • Land redistribution larger holdings 5-50 hectares
  • Retraining more Intensive farming-new
    machinery/new crops-citrus and olives/vines(cash
    crops) for large EU market- 2 seasons
  • Irrigation eg Gulf of Metapontino(was malaria
    swamp)-5 rivers (coastal lowlans now the most
    successful area)
  • Pre 1950's most employed in Farming/Fishing
  • Very Low incomes 50 of average
  • Latifundia Extensive Farming-Hiltops
  • Only1/4 owned own land
  • 70 of holdings smaller than 3 Hectares of poor
    land
  • Minifundia overgrazing/overcultivation soil
    erosion

44
THE MEZZOGIORNO Primary Activities
  • Post 1950 land reform/Casa per il Mezzogiorno
  • Land redistribution larger holdings 5-50 hectares
  • Retraining more Intensive farming-new
    machinery/new crops-citrus and olives/vines(cash
    crops) for large EU market- 2 seasons
  • Irrigation eg Gulf of Metapontino(was malaria
    swamp)-5 rivers (coastal lowlans now the most
    successful area)
  • Pre 1950's most employed in Farming/Fishing
  • Very Low incomes 50 of average
  • Latifundia Extensive Farming-Hiltops
  • Only1/4 owned own land
  • 70 of holdings smaller than 3 Hectares of poor
    land
  • Minifundia overgrazing/overcultivation soil
    erosion

45
Mezzogiorno-Secondary Sector
  • Between 1960-2000 workforce almost tripled to
    1.4ml/reduction on Primary sector dependance
  • 75 0f new jobs in Steel
  • /Chemicals/Engineering located on
    coast
  • Inland areas remain depressed
  • Most successful area Bari/Brindisi/Taranto
  • Deep water port_at_ TarantoOil Refining/SteelMill
  • Car Assembly_at_ Latina-Fronsione 16,000 workers
  • Oil Refining/Potash_at_Siracusa
  • By 1950's only 17 of Italian workforce in
    Mezzogiorno
  • Government help-Casa per ilMezzogiorno/Grants/TaxR
    elief
  • Infrastructure developed-Autostrada/Ports/Airports
  • State companies 80 of new investment
  • Development of Industrial Zones-Brindisi/Palermo/B
    ari/
  • Naples

46
Mezzogiorno Tertiary Sector
  • Traditionally very poorly developed Fascist
    regime of Mussolini and Mafia influence didn't
    help
  • Under Casa major investment in transport system
    Autostrada del Sol running from Swiss Border to
    toe of Calabria. Also other large motorway
    connecting West to East of Mezzogiorno. Both help
    to connect it to the Core
  • Port developments in South West have improved
    accessibility Taranto/Bari/Brindisi
  • Long hot dry summers thanks to anticyclone
    settling over the South has helped develop
    tourist numbers
  • Also the historical Roman sites, expansive
    underdeveloped beaches and coastal scenery have
    helped develop the tourist sector
  • Cheaper than other Italian holiday areas eg. The
    Northern Lakes and Amalfi coast

47
Mezzogiorno Tertiary Sector cntd.
  • Over 12 Million tourists now visit the
    Mezzogiorno annually
  • 9 Million come from other parts of Italy Need
    to further develop foreign tourists to help bring
    in further revenue
  • Geomorphological sites are very popular eg. Mt
    Vesuvius near Naples and Mt. Etna in Sicily
  • Herculaneum and Pompeii and the Isle of Capri are
    hugely popular with tourists and bring valuable
    revenue to this area
  • The area is not overly commercialised unlike high
    profile tourist areas of Spain, Portugal and
    France so still has a natural feel to it
  • The tourist season in the Mezzogiorno should be
    able to overcome seasonality which is a problem
    in other areas. This is due to warm weather for
    large parts of the year particularly in the East
    which also receives less rainfall due to the rain
    shadow of the Apennines

48
Subcontinental Region - India
49
India A Sub Continental Region
50
India A Subcontinental Region - Physical
51
INDIA - BASIC STATISTICS Geographical Location
Between latitudes 804 and 3706 North and
longitudes 6807 and 97025 East. Land Area
3.29 Million Square Kilometers. Climate Mainly
tropical with temperatures ranging from 100C
400C in most parts of the country. Capital New
Delhi. Population 1.147 Billion (estimated as
at March 2008). Population growth rate 1.606
per annum. Population density 348 persons /
square kilometer. (Population / land area in
sqkm) Life expectancy at birth 66.28 years,
male 71.17 years, female. Literacy rate
65.47 (as per 2001 Census). Languages spoken
Eighteen principal languages majority speak
Hindi business language English. Major
religions Hinduism, Islam, Christianity,
Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism. International
Airports Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Bangalore,
Chennai, Dabolim, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kochi,
Kolkata, Mumbai, Nagpur, New Delhi, Shrinagar and
Thiruvananthapuram. Major Seaports Chennai,
Ennore, Haldia, Kandla, Kochi, Kolkata, Marmagao,
Mumbai, New Mangalore, Paradip, Tuticorin and
Vishakhapatnam.
52
India Physical Processes
  • 3 Main Regions Northern Mountains/Indus-Ganges
    Plain/ Southern Plateau
  • NORTHERN MOUNTAINS
  • Extremely high and separate India from neighbours
  • Extend from Hindu Kush in North West to Himalayas
    in North East containing Mt Everest and next 23
    highest peaks in world
  • Formed by tectonic collision of Eurasian Plate
    (Continental) and Indian Plate (Oceanic)
  • Collision caused uplifting at the convergent
    boundary and formed fold mts approx. 35 Million
    years ago (Alpine Fold System)

53
India Physical Processes cntd.
  • Indus-Ganges Plain
  • A huge depression formed south of the fold mts..
    Follows the Indus river valley from Pakistan
    through Ganges valley and ends in Bangladesh as a
    double Delta Ganges/Brahmaputra
  • Covered in thousands of metres of rich Alluvial
    soils washed down by Indus Ganges and Brahmaputra
    which are swollen by summer meltwater from these
    rivers causing flooding of their floodplains
  • Flooding is positive from soil formation point of
    view but negative as valuable land can be
    destroyed

54
India Physical Processes cntd.
  • Southern Plateaux
  • The south is made up of a number of plateaux
  • Largest is Deccan Plateau which tilts from West
    to East
  • 2 mountain ranges Western Ghats/Eastern Ghats,
    border narrow coastal ranges
  • Both mountain ranges have an effect on onshore
    winds and the amount of rainfall falling on the
    peninsula area of India

55
INDIA - Climate
56
India Physical Processes cntd.
  • CLIMATE
  • Tropical Continental Monsoon most of India is
    in the Tropics
  • Frost only happens in mountains of North and
    North West
  • Temperatures are generally high all year round
    but summer maximum inland can reach 40c
  • 2 Seasons Dry Monsoon/Wet Monsoon
  • DRY MONSOON
  • October-February cool winds blow outwards from
    area of high pressure in centre of Asia. Dry
    winds bringing freezing temperatures and snow to
    North
  • March-June these winds become warmer and can
    bring temperatures up to 49c to Ganges Valley

57
India Physical Processes cntd.
  • WET MONSOON
  • Mid June-September warm ocean winds are sucked in
    to a low pressure area 2 winds
  • First wind is a South-West monsoon from Arabian
    Sea. Air rises to come in over Western Ghats and
    falls as intense relief rain
  • Second wind blows from Bay of Bengal and goes
    northwards along Brahmaputra and Ganges river
    valleys Can give up to 10,000mm over a six week
    period
  • The further west along the Ganges valley they go
    the lighter the rains become. By the time they
    get to extreme North West they have become dry
    and lead to Desert conditions
  • Monsoons bring essential water supplies to India
    and if they are late or do not arrive at all can
    bring widespread famine to the country as crops
    fail

58
PRIMARY ACTIVITIES - Agriculture
  • India has the same amount of cultivated land as
    in the whole of the EU
  • Cereal production is the main type of farming
  • Holdings are small aprx. 0.5 Hectares some have
    no land at all
  • 2/3 of India's population depend directly on the
    land
  • ¼ of agricultural land owned by less than 5
  • Intensive subsistence
  • Rice is main crop also wheat and millet in
    drier Northern areas
  • Very labour intensive most done by hand
  • Double-Cropping is widespread. Rice grown in wet
    season and other cereals grown in dry season

59
PRIMARY ACTIVITIES Agriculture cntd.
  • The population is ever increasing which means
    output also needs to increase huge demand
  • Genetically Modified varieties of rice/wheat
    giving high yields and resistant to disease/pests
    have been introduced - This is the 'Green
    Revolution' and has led India to become a net
    exporter of some foods
  • Largest livestock numbers in the world but of
    poor quality. Slaughter of cows is outlawed in
    many states of India due to religious beliefs
    (Hindu)
  • Most beef comes from malnourished cattle who have
    died of old age and is not very nutritious
  • Agriculture totally dependent on the arrival of
    the 2 Monsoon periods

60
PRIMARY ACTIVITIES - Mining
  • Large reserves of Iron Ore and Copper
  • Also Bauxite which makes Aluminium,
    Zinc/Gold/Silver
  • Oil reserves in the Arabian Sea and brought to
    shore in Mumbai
  • Coal produced in West Bengal and Bihar

61
SECONDARY ACTIVITIES
  • Independence achieved in 1947 and only 2 of
    labour force was employed in Industry at that
    time
  • Most industry concentrated on main cities
    (colonial legacy) Kolkata/Mumbai/Chennai due to
    large cheap labour force/large home market and
    natural resources(coal iron)
  • New Indian govt focused on
  • 1. Agri-Industry Food Processing/Fertilisers
  • 2. Craft Industries employing large amounts
    of people with traditional skills
  • 3. Rural Community based projects to reduce
    migration from rural areas to cities
  • 4. High tech industries Computers/Engineerin
    g located mostly in Kolkata/Mumbai/Chennai/Banga
    lore

62
INDIA Secondary Sector
  • New growth sectors include call centres in cities
    such as Mumbai and Bangalore

63
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64
SECONDARY ACTIVITIES cntd.
  • New Capital City set up after independence New
    Delhi- a new urban centre to attract economic
    development
  • Major growth areas were also developed in the
    established cities shift focus from Industries
    developed during British occupation
  • MUMBAI Electronics/Pharmaceuticals (to add to
    traditional industries such as food processing
    and textiles)
  • CHENNAI Computer Software (to add to textiles
    and light engineering)
  • KOLKATA Cotton /Clothing/Jute/Heavy engineering
    had always been here(British) but it became
    enhanced with the development of the Indian owned
    TATA IRON AND STEEL COMPANY

65
INDIA Tertiary Activities
  • Very poorly developed and typical of a poor
    population with little money to spend on services
  • 2 Types of Services
  • 1. Regular Services for Wealthy members of
    society (5 of population)
  • 2. The Informal Sector (Black Market?)
    Unlicensed vendors/street traders/organised
    begging rackets/prostitution/drug dealing
  • Transport
  • Very poor road infrastructure most of rural
    India does not have access to tarred roads
    suitable for cars and other vehicles
  • Many rural communities depend on dirt-tracks and
    cattle-drawn carts

66
INDIA Tertiary Sector cntd.
  • Tourism
  • India has such a vast and diverse landscape that
    it could offer much for potential tourists
  • Mountain Climbing/Trekking Himalayas/Ghats
  • Religious temples Hindu/Buddhist/Sikh/Muslim
  • Rivers Transport/Adventure/Spirituality-
    Ganges/Brahmaputra/Indus
  • Wide variety of wildlife
  • The problem is that the poor development of the
    country's infrastructure and safety issues in
    cities along with racial/religious tensions in
    areas such as Kashmir restrict the potential of
    tourism
  • Poverty and disease can be off putting for
    potential tourists

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INDIA Human Processes
  • Population

Population 1.2 billion (1/4 of everyone on
planet) Only a quarter of them have access to
clean water Half are illiterate
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INDIA Human Processes Population cntd.
  • Natural Increase 1.6 per year -ie its
    population increases by aprx. 16 Million per
    year! This will continue as a trend as India's
    population is very young
  • Estimates suggest the Indian population could
    reach 2 Billion by 2040
  • Death Rates are quite high despite improvements
    in healthcare
  • Large rural families due to social reasons
    (looking after parents)/religious/cultural
    beliefs
  • Food supply is becoming a major challenge
  • Insufficient jobs for this population growth
    further poverty
  • Rural-Urban migration is almost out of control
  • India has only recently entered the third stage
    of the 'POPULATION CYCLE'
  • Population distribution is uneven. High
    population densities in the Ganges river
    valley/coastal lowlands but low population
    densities in the interior regions areas such as
    Thar Desert/Mountainous regions

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INDIA Human Processes - Culture
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INDIA - Culture
  • India's culture has been influenced by
  • Migration of Indo-Europeans
  • Spread of Islam
  • British Colonialism
  • India has over 1,600 languages and dialects
    (Disunity)
  • Schools teach 58 different languages
  • National newspapers printed in 87 different
    languages
  • These languages/dialects can be arranged into
    2Main Groups
  • 1. Indo-European
  • 2. Dravidian
  • Hindi is the official state language resented
    by other language groups

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INDIA Human Processes Religion
  • HINDUISM
  • Multi-layered CASTE system Highest ranked such
    as priests (Brahmins) at the top. The bottom are
    the unclean (Untouchables)
  • It is frowned upon to socialise or marry outside
    your own caste happening somewhat now in large
    urban centres
  • Hindus regard cow as sacred
  • The dominant religion
  • ISLAM
  • Introduced by traders
  • 200 Million muslims in India
  • Most common in Indus/Ganges river basins
  • Not common in peninsular India
  • A growing religion accepts converts
    disillusioned with other religions

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INDIA Human Processes Religion cntd.
  • Sikhism
  • Founded in 15th century
  • No caste system
  • Powerful cultural group
  • Focal area is the Punjab region
  • Buddhism
  • A minority religion in India
  • Christianity
  • A minority religion in India

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Conflict In Kashmir
  • 1947 Creation of the two countries
  • Secular, mostly Hindu India
  • Muslim nation of Pakistan
  • Conflict between Hindus and Muslims in Kashmir
    dates back to British rule before partition.
  • India and Pakistan are technically still waiting
    for a UN decision on where the final border
    between the two countries will be.
  • Civil war has erupted repeatedly and sporadic
    fighting continues along the boundary line. Both
    India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons.
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