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SCIENCE EDUCATION IN THE AMERICAS : VIEWS AND CHALLENGES THE IANAS PROGRAM ON SCIENCE EDUCATION

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Title: SCIENCE EDUCATION IN THE AMERICAS : VIEWS AND CHALLENGES THE IANAS PROGRAM ON SCIENCE EDUCATION


1
SCIENCE EDUCATION IN THE AMERICAS VIEWS AND
CHALLENGESTHE IANAS PROGRAM ON SCIENCE EDUCATION
  • José A. LozanoCoordinator
  • ACADEMIA COLOMBIANA DE CIENCIAS
  • EXACTAS, FISICAS Y NATURALES

2
INTER AMERICAN NETWORK OF ACADEMIES OF
SCIENCESIANAShttp//www.ianas.org
  • Founded in the spirit of IAP in May 2004,
  • IANAS is a regional network of Academies of
    Sciences created to support cooperation towards
    the strengthening of science and technology as a
    tool for advancing research and development,
    prosperity and equity in the Americas.

3
CREACION DE IANAS Santiago, Mayo, 2004
4
  • The original proposal for the Science Education
    Program was generated by Jorge Allende, of the
    Chilean Academy of Sciences and the final version
    was approved in the IANAS General Assembly
    meeting held in Santiago May 5-7, 2004 as
    follows

5
Program Objectives
  • The general objective of this programme is to
    improve the level and the relevance of science
    education in the hemisphere through the active
    participation of Science Academies and the most
    prominent scientists in the nations of the
    Americas working together with teachers and
    educational authorities.

6
  • Focus . The initial main focus of the programme
    will be on elementary level science education.
    However worthwhile activities on secondary and
    tertiary science education will be considered.

7
  • Why Science Education?
  • Science education is the most important way
    through which national societies of all countries
    learn about science, its values, concepts and
    objectives, and through which they can understand
    the importance of scientific endeavour for their
    cultural and socioeconomic development.

8
Why IBSE
  • The Academies of the world have recommended to
    use IBSE because
  • Inquiry leads to understanding through learners
    own activity and construction of knowledge
  • IBSE develops scientific literacy i.e.
    appreciation of what science is and does
  • IBSE develops cognitive skills (including
    meta-cognition) needed for life-long learning
  • All these are outcomes needed for citizens of a
    world permeated by science and technology.

Wynne Harlen, PhD Visiting Professor, University
of Bristol
9
Meaning of IBSE
  • Students raising questions and gathering and
    using evidence from investigations of the world
    around to answer them, sharing ideas, advancing
    ideas through dialogue
  • Teachers leading students to develop the skills
    of inquiry and the understanding of science
    concepts through the students own activity and
    reasoning, organising group work, debate and
    access to materials and information sources.

Wynne Harlen, PhD Visiting Professor, University
of Bristol
10
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11
Structure of the IANAS Programme on Science
Education
  • IANAS Academies decide freely to participate in
    this Programme.
  • One Representative or Focal Point from each
    participating Academy will conform the
    Hemispheric Council for the IANAS Science
    Education Programme. This Council will meet
    annually and will decide on the major policies
    and activities of the Programme.

12
  • The council elects a coordinator and a
    vice-coordinator.
  • The coordinator will act as executive secretary
    of the program for a two years period.
  • The vice-coordinator will replace the coordinator
    for the following period. The council most
    confirm the replacement by election.
  • At the end of his period, the coordinator becomes
    past-coordinator.
  • The three of them work together as an executive
    committee.

13
Financing
  • Policy
  • All the activities sponsored by the IANAS
    Programme for Science Education (IANAS-PSE)
    should receive significant funding from the host
    Academy or other national institutions in the
    host country.
  • The IANAS-PSE will provide funds that will
    primarily cover costs for international
    participation. The funds for the support of these
    activities will be obtained from grants and
    direct contributions given to IANAS by national
    or international public or private institutions.
  • The budget of the Programme will depend on the
    financing obtained.

14
Financing
  • Up to 2006 financing came from IAP only.
  • On March 2005 the Coordinator and the Chilean
    Academy of Sciences presented a pre-proposal on
    the Science Education Program to OAS.
  • After several visits and letters and other
    presentation by the Colombian Academy ,
    OAS-FEMCIDI said a final version of the project
    had to be presented and it had to be coordinated
    by the Chilean Academy which originally presented
    it.
  • A final proposal was presented by Jorge Allende
    and the Chilean Academy in January 2007
    requesting USD 330,000 for 3 years project. The
    proposal was approved by OAS-FEMCIDI and USD
    63,000 were allotted for the year 2007. The
    activities for 2007 and a tentative budget for
    2008 were approved during the Focal Points
    meeting in July 2 and 3 USD144,000 were granted
    for year 2008-2009.

15
Financing
  • In November 21/2007, the Academia Mexicana de
    Ciencias signed agreements with the Science
    Academies of seven countries to implement the
    program La Ciencia en tu Escuela. The Academia
    Mexicana is contributing with 400,000 Mexican
    Pesos (Approximately USD35,000) for each country.
    The seven countries are. Guatemala, Costa Rica,
    Panamá, República Dominicana, Colombia, Perú y
    Bolivia.

16
ACTIVITIES 2004 - 2006
  • Activities started in October 2004 when the first
    meeting of the Council took place in Santiago.
    Jorge Allende from the Chilean Academy of
    Sciences, who presented the original proposal of
    the Program to IANAS, was elected as coordinator
    for the period 2004 - 2006. José A. Lozano from
    the Colombian Academy, was elected as
    vice-coordinator.
  • The activities for 2005 were approved.

17
Se definió la estructura de la dirección del
Consejo Directivo del Proyecto
18
Se elaboró el plan de actividades 2005-2006
19
ACTIVITIES 2004 - 2006
  • Through the efforts of the IANAS Co-Chairs and
    also in response to the specific requests of
    several Academies to their respective national
    representatives, the IANAS Science Education
    Program was approved as a Hemispheric Initiative
    by the Science Ministers of the Americas who met
    in Lima on November 11, 2004.

20
ACTIVITIES 2005
Argentina Inter American Course of Molecular Biology and Genetics for Secondary School Teachers . February 14-23, 2005, Buenos Aires
Course on Sustentable Chemistry for Secondary School Teachers, November 13-18, 2005, Mendoza, Argentina
Mexico Third International Conference on Science Education, March 17-18, 2005 Monterrey, N.L. Mexico
Colombia Inter American Course for Leaders among Science Teachers of Latin America (Training the Trainers), May 23-28, 2005, Bogota, Colombia
Trinidad-Tobago Meeting of Caribbean Focal Points for Science Education, May 13, 2005, Tobago
21
ACTIVITIES 2005
Venezuela Launching of the IBSE Project of Venezuela, July 13 to 15 , 2006, Caracas
Canada II Meeting of IANAS Focal Points for Science Education, September 26-27, 2005, Edmonton. The activities for 2006 were approved along with the decision to present a project to the OAS
Jamaica Regional (Caribbean) Conference on Education for Sustainable Development, October 18-20, 2005, Kingston, Jamaica
Chile 5, 2005 Santiago 2nd Strategic Planning Workshop for IBSE Projects October 31-November 4, 2005 and Internamerican Workshop on Evaluation of IBSE projects, November
Peru One semester course on Mathematics for Secondary School Teachers, January 2006, Lima, Peru
22
ACTIVITIES 2006
Argentina 2nd. Latin American course on SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY for High School teachers, Nov 12-17, 2006
Brasil IANAS Meeting on the Evaluation of IBSE May, 2006, Rio de Janeiro
Costa Rica Latin American Course of Molecular Biology and Genetics for Secondary School Teachers. August, 2006, San José, Costa Rica
Caribbean Academy Trinidad and Tobago, The CARICOM Conference on Harnessing Science and Technology for Caribbean Development May 10-13, 2006,
23
ACTIVITIES 2006
Chile 3rd. IANAS Focal Points Meeting, The activities for 2007 were approved. José A. Lozano of the Colombian Academy was confirmed as coordinator of the program, for the period 2006-2008. Norma Nudelman of the Argentine Academy was elected as vicecoordinator. Jorge Allende became past coordinator. IAP-IANAS International Workshop on Evaluation of IBSE projects. Sept. 27, 2006, in Santiago.
Colombia WORKSHOP TRAINERS OF TEACHERS, Cali, October 2 to 5, 2006
Venezuela Comparative analysis of IBSE projects (México, Chile, Brasil, Colombia and Venezuela). Caracas, November 2 and 3.
Bolivia Workshop for Trainers (Monitors). January 30 to February 3 of 2007 Canada
24
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25
ACTIVITIES 2007
México Focal Points Meeting, 2007 Support IANAS/ delegates
Bolivia Training the Trainers Workshop For participation of foreign experts
Argentina Strategic Planning LASER K-8 Workshop in Washington Team of 5 Travel to USA
Panamá Short fellowship for professional the development (in Panama)
26
ACTIVITIES 2007
Brasil National meeting ABC Program in National Science Education, Oct 2007 Support IANAS / Participants
Caribean National meeting of programs of Scientific education CARICOM Support for experts instructors on IBSE from IANAS
Perú Training of Primary School teachers Support for experts instructors on IBSE from IANAS
Chile Venezuela Bolivia IBSE Module Materials exchange Buy and ship materials
Colombia International Expert to evaluate evaluations activities. IndagaLa will begin One international expert
27
ACTIVITIES 2007Financed by oea-femcidi
28
IAP 2008
29
OEA FEMCIDI 2008
30
Relevant activities already performed
  • Several Latin American countries are performing
    IBSE programs in primary school.

31
PROGRAMAS ECBI Establecidos antes de
2004 Canadá, Estados Unidos, México Colombia,
Chile, Argentina y Brasil Panamá, Venezuela,
Perú, Bolivia Costa Rica, Rep. Dominicana,
Guatemala, Caribbean
32
  • The National Academies of Argentina, Brazil,
    Chile, and Colombia the Andes University and the
    Convenio Andrés Bello signed an agreement with
    the Science Academy of France for the
    implementation of the Web Page MapAmerica, now
    IndagaLa, oficially inaugurated in Bogotá on
    May 20, 2008, it works on the platform MapMonde
    donated by the French Academy. Five more
    countries are in the process to sign the
    agreement.
  • This site will maintain a permanent
    discussion platform on education issues,
    scientist will permanently advice teachers and
    educational materials will be available.

33
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34
THANK YOU
  • José A. LozanoCoordinator
  • ACADEMIA COLOMBIANA DE CIENCIAS
  • EXACTAS, FISICAS Y NATURALES

35
ECBI- Chile
Inquiry based Science Education Program 2003 -
2006
  • Ministerio de Educación de Chile
  • Universidades de Chile, Concepción,
  • Playa Ancha, La Frontera,
  • La Serena, Talca.
  • Academia Chilena de Ciencias
  • 94 elementary schools

36
GOAL To ensure that all children receive high
quality science education
  • Wide reach
  • Maximum quality

It is a model program, but it is expected to
influence policy and the education system in Chile
37
Systemic Approach
38
Chilean Academy of Sciences
Ministry of Education
2006 94 schools 35.000 children 400 teachers
Universities
Municipalities
39
COLOMBIAN IBSE PROGRAM
Cristina CARULLA Santiago de Chile, September -
2006
40
Strategy for education in science thinking,
science and citizenship
It is an alliance between
Ministerio de Educación Nacional Fundación
Empresarios por la educación
Universidad Nacional de Colombia Universidad
Pedagógica Nacional Universidad de
Ibagué Universidad Autónoma de Manizales Universid
ad ICESI
Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia Universidad
del Norte Universidad Tecnológica de
Bolivar Universidad del Valle Universidad de los
Andes
41
National organization
  • Structure

Central Nucleus Region Nucleus
School
Enterprises
University
Government
42
Mapa de cobertura
Marzo 2007
Ciudad Niños Maestros Colegios Universidad Líder Entidades Patrocinadoras
BOGOTÁ 21.400 535 34 UniAndes, UPN,UNAL GAS Natural E.S.P.
MANIZALES 1.760 44 12 U. Autónoma de Manizales Fundación Luker, ExE
IBAGUÉ 3.200 80 12 U. De Ibagué ExE- Fundación Génesis
MEDELLÍN 1.840 46 21 EIA Colegios Privados
CALI 4.120 103 11 ICESI, UniValle ComfandiExE
BUCARAMANGA 160 4 1 U. Autónoma de Bucaramanga
CARTAGENA 960 24 4 U. Tecnológica de Bolívar Fundación Mamonal - Dow Química
LETICIA 20 1 1 UNAL Colegios Privados
BARRANQUILLA 0 0 0 UniNorte
YOPAL 1.200 30 4 Unitrópico SED Yopal
TOTAL 34.660 867 100
43
  • The National Academies of Argentina, Brazil,
    Chile, and Colombia the Andes University and the
    Convenio Andrés Bello signed an agreement with
    the Science Academy of France for the
    implementation of the Web Page MapAmerica, now
    IndagaLa, oficially inaugurated in Bogotá on
    May 20, 2008, it works on the platform MapMonde
    donated by the French Academy. Five more
    countries are in the process to sign the
    agreement.
  • This site will maintain a permanent
    discussion platform on education issues,
    scientist will permanently advice teachers and
    educational materials will be available.

44
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45
Abertura do Seminário Nacional 2007Programa ABC
na Educação Científica Mão na Massa
  • Ernst W. Hamburger, Universidade de São Paulo
  • Coordenador do Programa,
  • pela Academia Brasileira de Ciências
  • 8 nov 2007, Espaço Ciência, SECTMA, Recife, PE

45
Semin. Nac. ABCEC MnM - Recife, 8 Nov 2007
46
IBSE in Brazil
  • Groups exist in about 15 cities, south to
    northeast. Some just starting oldest 2001.
  • Very loose coordination by Academy
  • Cooperation with France Lamap.
  • Largest group S.Paulo city 90 schools
  • Was larger govt change? disappeared
  • Meaning was not internalised in schools

47
Cidade/UF Instituição Responsável Ingresso no Programa Total Alunos na Rede Pública Alunos no programa atendidos em 2006
São Paulo/SP Estação Ciência - USP 2001 1.296.901 10.000 (100 escolas)
São Carlos/SP Centro de Divulgação Científica e Cultural - CDCC - USP 2001 21.478 6.355
Rio de Janeiro/RJ Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz 2001 633.742 8.130
Jaraguá do Sul/SC Centro Universitário de Jaraguá do Sul - UNERJ 2003 17.215 550
Petrolina/PE Juazeiro/BA Espaço de Ciência e Cultura Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco - UNIVASF 2003 77.314 34.450 3.723
Campina Grande/PB Secretaria de Educação do Município de Campina Grande 2003 62.244 175
Juiz de Fora/MG Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora - UFJF 2004 69.562 60
Salvador/BA Organização de Auxílio Fraterno - OAF Universidade da Criança e do Adolescente - UNICA 2004 21.478 886
Viçosa/MG Centro Referência do Professor - UFV 2004 9.885 1.000
Recife/PE Espaço Ciência SECTMA/PE 2005 201.472 1.440
Semin. Nac. ABCEC MnM - Recife, 8 Nov 2007
47
48
Project implementation strategy
  • Political support
  • Funding
  • Participants training

Important intersectorial partnerships Brazilian
Academy of Sciences (research institutions and
universities), Education Government Agencies,
French Embassy and Consulates.
49
  • Conselho de Coordenação do Programa na ABC -
    Nomeado em outubro 2007
  • Hernan Chaimovich (IQ/USP vice-presidente ABC)
  • Diógenes Arruda Campos (DNPM ABC)
  • Simon Schwartzman (IETS ABC)
  • Wilson Teixeira (IG e EC/USP ABC)
  • Danielle Grynszpan (IOC/FIOCRUZ)
  • A. Aprígio S. Curvelo (CDCC/USP)
  • Ernst W. Hamburger (coordenador do programa
    Brasil., IF/USP ABC)
  • Coordenação Executiva
  • Ernst W. Hamburger, Coordenador
  • Dietrich Schiel, Vice-Coordenador
  • Danielle Grynszpan, Vice-Coordenadora

50
Scientific Literacy ProjectStages of programme
implementation and evaluation
  • Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
  • Argentina
  • IAP Workshop on the Evaluation of IBSE Programs
  • Santiago, Chile, September 25-26, 2006

51
Scientific Literacy Project Schools and
jurisdictions involved2004-2007
  • 2004 2006
  • Schools in Corrientes, Chaco y Misiones
  • 49 in Corrientes
  • 17 in Chaco
  • 4 in Misiones
  • 3 billingual schools (spanish - portuguese)
  • 2006 2007
  • 12 Schools in Buenos Aires, Chubut, Salta

52
Mexican Academy of Sciences Programa La
Ciencia en tu Escuela
Impact evaluation Alejandra González Dávila
53
  • The Academia Mexicana de Ciencias has established
    the program La Ciencia en tu Escuela
  • (http//www.amc.unam.mx/lacienciaentuescuela.htm)
    which was conceived, structured and coordinated
    by scientists from the Academy.
  • The program has been supported by the Secretaria
    de Educación Pública in the Federal District and
    the Consejo Nacional de Fomento Educativo in 5
    states. The program seeks for methods that will
    awake the interest in science of children and
    youngsters through a better
  • interaction with teachers and the active
    participation in simple experiments.

54
  • The program is directed to teachers and students
    of primary
  • and secondary level. Both the scientists and the
    teachers participate on a voluntary basis. The
    program initiated in year 2002 is currently
  • present in 14 states and has instructed 2666
    teachers of 983 schools. It has been evaluated
    comparing the attitudes and the performance of
  • teachers and children from 5th and 7th grades
    non-participants teachers and students

55
Certified teachers in LCEE program
Primaria Secundaria TOTAL
02-03 70 84/132 82/105 1105
03-04 81.2 105/138 155/182 1105
04-05 92.3 78/81 121/136 1105
05-06 88.2 87/92 157/162 1105
D.F. 66 66 1105
Conafe (rural) 145 27 1105
Edomex, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Querétaro, Tlaxcala, Morelos. Edomex, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Querétaro, Tlaxcala, Morelos. Edomex, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Querétaro, Tlaxcala, Morelos. Edomex, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Querétaro, Tlaxcala, Morelos.
56
  • In Mexico, the Fundación Mexico-Estados Unidos
    para la Ciencia (www.fumec.org.mx) and
    Innovación en la Enseñanza de la Ciencia
    (www.innovec.org.mx) have applied IBSE
    methodology in 11 states since 1995. They have
    always had a strong and permanent support from
    NSRC. Currently, those Mexican institutions have
    the financial support of very well known private
    enterprises and the education public offices of
    the 11 Mexican states.

57
THIRD MEETING OF FOCAL POINTS OF THE PROGRAM OF
EDUCATION IN SCIENCES
  • BOLIVIAN EXPERIENCES IN PROGRAMS OF EDUCATION IN
    SCIENCES
  • Elsa Quiroga
  • National Coordinator of the Program The Science
    goes to the School"
  • President of the Bolivian Organization of Women
    in Science
  • Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Bolivia

58
Bolivia This is a project just beginning with
workshops for monitors and teachers.
Application of the Inquire Methodology in two
public schools.
59
IAP Workshop on a Proposal for International
Collaboration in the Evaluation of IBSE
Programs Programa de Educación en Ciencias
Basada en la Indagación -ECBI- Una nueva
experiencia en Venezuela Academia de Ciencias
Físicas, Matemáticas y Naturales. Fundación
Empresas Polar. Con el apoyo de la Academia de
Ciencias de América Latina (ACAL) y la
Universidad Pedagógica Experimental
Libertador Santiago de Chile, septiembre 2006
60
  • It is starting pilot Project which began in 2006
    in five schools in Caracas.
  • 1 coordinator
  • 11 monitors
  • 19 teachers (5th and 6th grades)
  • 5 Schools (5th grade)
  • 738 Students
  • One module Properties of mater
  • 2 new schools were added in 2007

61
PROGRAMA DE EDUCACION EN CIENCIAS BASADO EN LA
INDAGACIÓN - ECBI
  • CÉSAR CARRANZA
  • ACADEMIA NACIONAL DE CIENCIAS DEL PERÚ
  • PUNTO FOCAL DE IANAS
  • MEXICO - 2007

62
  • January,2006. Workshop on Experimental Chemistry
    for teachers of Natural Sciences.
  • February, 2006. Mathematics for Secondary School
    Teachers.
  • March 2007. Workshop on IBSE Methodologie for
    Science Teachers of elementary and and secondary
    level from Miguel Grau School.
  • Implementation of the first pilot IBSE project in
    elementary school at Miguel Grau school in second
    and fourth grades.
  • IBSE methodology is applied in courses of
    mathematics in four different grades at Miguel
    Grau secondary school.
  • International Workshop for IBSE trainers

63
CHALLENGES
  • The biggest challenge is to bring IBSE
    methodology for the teaching of science to every
    teacher and every child in America. This is a
    tremendous work that will take many years of
    continuous and dedicated effort. As it is said in
    the STATEMENT ISSUED AFTER THE WORKSHOP HELD AT
    THE PONTIFICAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ON19-20-21
    NOVEMBER 2001
  • 4. Such a challenge cannot be met without the
    deepest commitment on the part of the various
    members of the worlds scientific and
    technological community. Meeting this challenge
    must be viewed as a new moral obligation.
  • 5. Every means should be used to convey the
    urgency of the situation to governments. They
    alone have the capacity to deal with the
    magnitude of the problem, to provide the
    necessary resources, and to implement suitable
    policies. Non-governmental organizations and
    financial institutions should also participate in
    such an initiative.

64
CHALLENGES
  • In the United States the National Academy of
    Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution created
    the National Sciences Resources Center (NSRC) in
    1985.
  • The mission of this unique organization is to
    improve the K12 learning and teaching of science
    for all students in the United States and
    throughout the world.
  • After 22 years of continuous an dedicated efforts
    with facilities and funds many times those
    available in Latin American and Caribbean
    countries, (NSRC) claims to have reached 25 of
    the National school districts .

65
CHALLENGES
  • In Colombia, Pequeños Cientificos was created on
    year 2,000 and is covering about 30,000 children
    representing only 0,6 of a total of 5,200,000
    children in grades
  • 0 to 5th.
  • Actually, we only have IBSE projects in 11
    countries.
  • 16 Academies are participating in the IANAS-PSE.
  • The OAS has 35 registered countries. Many of
    these countries dont even have and Academy of
    Science.

66
CHALLENGES
  • The individual projects face continuous and
    difficult challenges to survive and grow
  • Funding
  • Few projects have considerable and stable
    governmental funding. Maybe Chile and Panama are
    the best examples of national government support.
  • Brazil, Mexico, Argentina have government support
    but in a limited and restricted way.


67
CHALLENGES
  • Colombia receives limited funds from some
    regional educational authorities and survives
    thanks to support from private enterprises.
  • Clearly we have to convince governments that the
    best inversion they can make for future
    development of our countries is in education and
    we have to demonstrate that IBSE methodology is
    the best for learning science.

68
CHALLENGES
  • Scaling up.
  • Going from a small or pilot project to a large
    one brings new difficulties in organization and
    quality. Specially, problems are encountered in
    the distributions of materials and the control of
    quality in the teaching and learning process
  • Of course, as the project grows more funds are
    needed for sustainability.

69
CHALLENGES
  • Evaluation
  • IBSE projects require constant evaluation of all
    the processes involved to control and improve the
    quality of those processes (formative
    evaluation) and it is also necessary to evaluate
    the results obtained after the processes have
    been operating for a certain amount of time.
    (Summative evaluation). We also have to prove, to
    convince governments, that results using IBSE
    methodology are better that those obtained by
    other methods.

70
Evaluation
  • IAP has implemented a scheme that will help
    countries to develop their own evaluation
    instruments, that will not necessarily be
    identical to those in other countries to allow
    comparisons to be made.

71
Evaluation
  • Not only the learning processes of children has
    to be evaluated but all the other processes which
    must develop at the same time during the
    implementation of an IBSE project.

72
Systemic Approach
73
Professional development
  • There are two different challenges in
    Professional development
  • to convince universities with pedagogical
    programs to prepare teachers in these new
    methodologies

74
Professional development
  • to instruct acting teachers with little or non
    formation in science and IBSE methodology
  • In every new educational project an internal
    program of professional development should be
    implemented to allow teachers to grow
    continuously in scientific knowledge and capacity
    to guide children to learn science.

75
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77
Modules
  • Up to 2007, most of the modules that were
    being used in Latin America had been originally
    produced in the United States or France. There
    are topics which have to be produced locally to
    reflect local conditions. This effort has already
    began mainly in Chile and Brazil.
  • Some of the children instructed by IBSE projects
    are going already into middle and high school.
    There is a great pressure for appropriated
    modules and laboratory materials that will allow
    schools to continue using the same methodology in
    middle and high school.
  • Some efforts are being made but the problem has
    not been solved.

78
  • All the Academies of the world have the dream
    of giving every child in our planet an education
    in science of high quality, the challenge is to
    make this dream become true.

79
THANK YOU
  • José A. LozanoCoordinator
  • ACADEMIA COLOMBIANA DE CIENCIAS
  • EXACTAS, FISICAS Y NATURALES
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