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Introduction to Verbal Behavior

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Title: Introduction to Verbal Behavior


1
Introduction to Verbal Behavior
  • By
  • Tracy Vail,MS,CCC/SLP
  • Speech/Language Pathologist
  • Lets Talk Speech and Language Services, Inc.

2
Contingencies
Antecedent/Stimulus Response Consequence
  • (Function Alt.) Evocative Function Altering
  • Reinforcement
  • Soc. Med
  • Soc. Med
  • Auto
  • R Auto
  • (s-delta) Extinction
  • CSS MO SD
  • Punishment
  • Positive Punishment
  • Negative Punishment

3
Self-Stimulatory Behavior
High stereotypy
Continued absence of alternative behaviors
Impaired learning
Fewer skills acquired
4
Build Motivation (MO)
  • Establish Reinforcers- everyone wants something!
  • Start with non-verbal connection then add verbal
  • How does the child respond to the environment?
  • Be playful- play as children play
  • Build anticipation
  • Do the unexpected
  • Create routines
  • Gradually change the routines
  • Stay connected to find reinforcers
  • Be animated
  • Pair yourself and talking with reinforcement

5
BE the Reinforcer!
6
DO Dont
  • follow negative behavior with reinforcement
  • Remove a child from a reinforcing activity to
    begin teaching
  • Give directions to do things you cant prompt
  • Give directions without getting compliance
  • Kill reinforcers by placing too many demands
  • Teach errorlessly
  • Fade in demands
  • Teach to Fluency
  • Prompt Quickly
  • Fade prompts
  • Make sure all questions have answers
  • Find numerous reinforcers
  • Correct errors
  • Have fun!

7
Pair Sounds/Talking with Fun!
8
Pairing Sounds with Fun!
9
Imitate All Sounds Produced
10
Reinforce all vocal attempts
11
Pairing with favorite activities
12
Transfer Procedures/Prompting
  • Teach a new behavior by starting with a behavior
    that you know the child can already do.
  • The child is more likely to repeat the same
    behavior under a different condition
  • Once the behavior is taught under the new
    condition, gradually fade the prompt
  • New learning is build on old learning
  • The learning remains errorless

13
Teaching Procedure for Transfers
  • Transfer trial- Use the mastered skill to evoke
    the desired behavior then present the new SD to
    get the same behavior.
  • Disractor trial(s)- Present a mastered task or
    two
  • Independent trial- Re-present the new SD to evoke
    the behavior and reinforce correct response
    heavily

14
Correction Procedure
  • Use whenever the child responds incorrectly
  • Give the SD the response
  • Wait for the echoic
  • Repeat the SD
  • Wait for the response
  • Run a distractor trial (something the child can
    do easily)
  • Repeat the SD

15
Verbal Operants
What purpose does the communication serve to the
speaker and listener?
  • Mands- I talk, I get
  • Tacts- I can label things in the environment
    under a variety of conditions
  • Receptives- I can follow directions, do what
    others tell me to do
  • Imitation/Echoics- I can do/say what others
    do/say
  • Intraverbal- What I say is dependent upon what
    others say but is not the same

16
Manding
  • The basis of all other verbal behavior
  • Teach by transferring from echoics or fill-ins
  • Giving up the things we want
  • With and without items present
  • With and without someone asking What do you
    want?
  • Teach a variety of sentence forms
  • Manding from peers
  • Expand sentence length and teach concepts through
    mands
  • Teach manding for information
  • Manding for attention

17
Choosing Response Forms
  • If child is non-vocal, must use an
    alternative/augmentative system
  • Augmentative communication encourages rather than
    discourages vocal productions
  • Experiment to determine how the child responds to
    various forms
  • Picture/object exchange
  • Signs
  • Communication Boards
  • Vocal
  • Voice output devices

18
Manding with PECS
19
Manding with Signs
20
Be sure not to fade signs too quickly
21
Watch for Sign/Vocal Inconsistencies
22
Shaping Vocals through Mands
23
Gradually Build Syllables
24
NET Manding/Mands for Info
25
Begin Teaching in scripted play
26
Generalize in less structured format
27
Teaching Concepts through Mands
28
Imitation
  • Teach through physical prompting or anticipating
    actions
  • Important for independent learning and play
  • Teach child to do multiple actions in response to
    Do this
  • Gradually increase difficulty and complexity

29
Mix NVIs with other Operants
30
Echoics- Vocal Imitation
  • Teach by transferring from mand, motor imitation,
    songs, sound play and pairing with
    reinforcement
  • Use visual and/or physical prompting as necessary
  • Gradually increase length and complexity
  • Shape through the mand

31
Teaching Isolated Sounds
32
Receptive
  • Teach by transferring from imitation or with
    physical prompts
  • Teach the child to respond to a variety of SDs
    (touch, find, show, wheres the etc.)
  • Start with items the child can mand for as well
    as simple instructions (i.e. come, sit, clap)
  • Gradually increase complexity. Closely monitor
    conditional discriminations

33
Add receptives to reinforcing activities
34
Tacts
  • Teach by transferring from receptive (if child
    tacts), mand, fill-in, intraverbal or echoic.
  • Labeling objects, actions, parts, features,
    classes, functions
  • Be sure to vary SDs
  • Verbal modules- teach the child to discriminate
    between question forms
  • Build them up and break them down

35
Receptive Objects
36
Fill-in to Tact Transfers
37
Intraverbal
  • Talking about things not present
  • Transfer from fill-in, tact, or echoic
  • Create intraverbal links
  • Begin with songs, rhymes, stories and daily
    activities
  • Gradually increase complexity
  • Teach reversal fill-ins early
  • Mands for information intraverbals
    conversation

38
Fill-ins with Books
39
Fill-ins with Songs
40
Intensive Teaching
  • Use to practice skills taught in the natural
    environment
  • Make sure instructors have mastered transfer and
    correction procedures to fluency
  • Mix and vary to make sure the child is responding
    to the correct SD

41
Intraverbal FFCs/Categories in Intensive Teaching
42
Use Available Reinforcers
43
Dealing with Negative Behaviors
  • New Behavior (talking) wont be used if the old
    behavior (hitting) still works
  • Must determine function of the behavior before
    determining how to respond
  • Look at what happened right before and right
    after the behavior
  • Put time between negative behavior and prompting
    appropriate communication
  • The child never gets anything for negative
    behavior
  • Dont live your life trying to avoid negative
    behaviors
  • Get a functional analysis by a behavior analyst
    if problems persist

44
Suggested Readings
  • Educate Towards Recovery by Robert Schramm
  • The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning
    Skills (The ABLLS) by Partington and Sundberg
  • The Mariposa School Training Manual by Tracy Vail
  • Handouts available at letstalksls.com (Answers
    Database)

45
Thanks for who you are for children!
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