Global Fishing Issues - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Global Fishing Issues PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 463264-MDI3Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Global Fishing Issues

Description:

Global Fishing Issues Organization 1. Introduction 2. Trends in World Fisheries and Their Resources: 1974-1999 3. Fisheries Impact on Ecosystems and Biodiversity 4. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:283
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 61
Provided by: ammannato
Learn more at: http://www.ammannato.it
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Global Fishing Issues


1
Global Fishing Issues
2
Organization
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Trends in World Fisheries and Their Resources
    1974-1999
  • 3. Fisheries Impact on Ecosystems and
    Biodiversity
  • 4. Aquaculture
  • 5. Root Causes of Problem
  • 6. Comprehensive Conservation and Management

3
1. Introduction and Organization
  • Fundamental Global Fisheries Problems of
  • 1. Excess fishing capacity
  • 2. Degraded and overexploited ecosystems
  • 3. Overfished resource stocks
  • Inter-related problems
  • Different disciplines emphasize different aspects
  • But multi-disciplinary and multi-pronged
    approaches required
  • No single magic bullet solution

4
1. Introduction and Organization
  • 1. Introduction and Organization
  • 2. Trends in World Fisheries and Their
  • Resources 1974-1999
  • 3. Fisheries Impact on Ecosystems and
  • Biodiversity
  • 4. Aquaculture
  • 5. Root Causes of Problem
  • 6. Comprehensive Conservation and
  • Management

5
2. Trends in World Fisheries and Their Resources
1974-1999
  • Sources
  • FAO Trends in World Fisheries and Their
    Resources 1974-1999, in The State of World
    Fisheries and Aquaculture, Part 3
  • Pauly et al. Towards Sustainability in World
    Fisheries, Nature, Vol. 418, 8 August, 2002, pp.
    689-695
  • Daniel Pauly, Villy Christensen, Johanne
    Dalsgaard, Rainer Froese, Francisco Torres Jr.,
    Fishing Down Marine Food Webs, Science,Vol.
    279, February 6, 1998, pp. 860-863
  • Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) Meeting on
    Management of Tuna Fishing Capacity Conservation
    and Socio-Economics, Madrid, March 14-18, 2004

6
  • Big increases in effective fishing effort since
    WWII
  • Increases in vessel numbers and sizes
  • Rapid technological advances
  • Industrial-scale fishing
  • Trawling, purse seining, long-lining
  • Small-scale or artisanal
  • Shallow tropical waters for food fish and shrimp
  • Compete with industrial-scale shrimp trawlers

7
How large is the global capture fish market?
  • Current FAO global figures for fiscal 2000
  • 94.8 million tonnes landed globally
  • First-sale value 81billion US

Source FAO SOFIA 2002 report (table 1).
8
Global landings slowly declining since late
1980s, by about 0.7 million tons per year (Pauly
et al.)
9
  • Global consumption of seafood products has
    doubled over the past 30 years, driven by
    population growth and rising income levels.
  • The United States, European Union, and Japan are
    the "Big Three" consumers for 80 of all seafood
    traded internationally.

10
  • In the past 35 years, the number of people
    fishing in the world has doubled and most of the
    growth has taken place in Asia due to the growth
    of aquaculture and poor government enforcement of
    restrictions on over-fishing.

11
  • An annual average of 7.3 million tons of fish is
    thrown back into the sea dead or dying because
    they are damaged, of the wrong species, under the
    legal landing size, or over a vessel's quota of
    fish.
  • This figure is believed to underestimate the
    number of marine mammals, turtles, and seabirds
    also caught as by-catch.

12
  • Aquaculture has become the fastest growing food
    production sector in the world
  • Now accounts for over 30 of all fish consumed.
  • Most of the increase has occurred in Asian
    countries, with China producing 70 of the global
    total of farmed fish.

13
  • It takes up to 3 pounds of wild anchovies or
    mackerel to feed and create 1 pound of farmed
    salmon or shrimp.

14
  • Based on 2000 estimates, ocean-related activities
    directly contribute to more than 117 billion to
    the American economy and support well over 2
    million jobs, including maritime trade, offshore
    oil and gas operations, and the fishing industry.

15
Global trends vis-à-vis MSY since 1974 (FAO)
  • Percentage of stocks at MSY level slightly
    decreased
  • Percentage of stocks exploited below MSY
    decreased steadily
  • Percentage of stocks exploited beyond MSY has
    increased
  • From about 10 in early 1970s to nearly 30 in
    late 1990s
  • Many stocks without information

16
Global trends vis-à-vis MSY since 1974 (FAO)
17
Trends in percentage of stocks exploited beyond
MSY levels in North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
18
Trends in percentage of stocks exploited beyond
MSY levels in North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
  • Increasing proportion of stocks exploited beyond
    MSY until late 1980s or early 1990s
  • In North Atlantic, situation has improved and
    stabilized in 1990s
  • In North Pacific, situation has remained unstable

19
Trends in percentage of stocks exploited beyond
MSY levels in tropical (Central and Southern)
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
20
Trends in percentage of stocks exploited beyond
MSY levels in tropical (Central and Southern)
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
  • Growing percentage of stocks exploited beyond MSY
    in both tropical oceans
  • Deteriorating situation, with possible exception
    of tropical Atlantic, where stabilization might
    have started

21
Status of Stocks in 1999 (FAO)
22
Status of Stocks in 1999 (FAO)
  • In 1999, vis-à-vis MSY
  • 4 of stocks underexploited
  • 21 moderately exploited
  • 47 fully exploited
  • 18 overexploited
  • 9 depleted
  • 1 recovering
  • In sum, 72 of stocks at or above MSY level

23
Myers and Worm (Nature 2003) claim that the
worlds oceans have lost over 90 of large
predatory fish as compared to their pre-1970s
levels.
FAO takes a much more conservative view, but
agrees that an increasing number of fisheries
are either fully exploited or over-exploited.
24
Fishing Down Food Webs
  • The mean trophic level of the species groups
    reported in Food and Agricultural Organization
    global fisheries statistics declined from 1950 to
    1994. 
  • Globally, trophic levels of fisheries landings
    appear to have declined in recent decades at a
    rate of about 0.1 per decade,
  • This reflects a gradual transition in landings
    from long-lived, high trophic level, piscivorous
    bottom fish toward short-lived, low trophic level
    invertebrates and planktivorous pelagic fish.

25
Fishing Down Food Webs
  • This effect, also found to be occurring in inland
    fisheries, is most pronounced in the Northern
    Hemisphere.
  • Fishing down food webs (that is, at lower trophic
    levels) leads at first to increasing catches,
    then to a phase transition associated with
    stagnating or declining catches.
  • These results indicate that present exploitation
    patterns are unsustainable.

26
Status of Tuna Stocks (FAO)
27
(No Transcript)
28
Trends in the catch of the principal market
species of tunas by ocean
29
Trends in the world catch of tunas by species
30
Trends in the catch of tunas from the Pacific
Ocean
31
Abundance of Pacific Tunas
32
Trends in the catch of tunas from the Atlantic
Ocean
33
Trends in the world catch of bluefin tunas
34
Organization
  • 1. Introduction and Organization
  • 2. Trends in World Fisheries and Their Resources
    1974-1999
  • 3. Fisheries Impact on Ecosystems and
    Biodiversity
  • 4. Aquaculture
  • 5. Root Causes of Problem
  • 6. Comprehensive Conservation and Management

35
3. Fisheries Impact on Ecosystems and Biodiversity
  • Source Pauly et al.

36
Organization
  • 1. Introduction and Organization
  • 2. Trends in World Fisheries and Their Resources
    1974-1999
  • 3. Fisheries Impact on Ecosystems and
    Biodiversity
  • 4. Aquaculture
  • 5. Root Causes of Problem
  • 6. Comprehensive Conservation and Management

37
4. Aquaculture
38
Organization
  • 1. Introduction and Organization
  • 2. Trends in World Fisheries and Their Resources
    1974-1999
  • 3. Fisheries Impact on Ecosystems and
    Biodiversity
  • 4. Aquaculture
  • 5. Root Causes of Problem
  • 6. Comprehensive Conservation and Management

39
5. Root Causes of Problem
  • 1. Expanding derived demand for resources and
    increased productivity of exploitation
  • Ultimately, excessive population, advanced state
    of technology for resource exploitation, and
    demand for high standard of living
  • Until tackle these ultimate sources of high
    derived demand for resources, will have
    terrestrial and oceanic environmental problems
  • Are addressing symptoms in some sense

40
  • 2. Ill-structured and incomplete property rights
  • Open access
  • Incomplete international institutions
  • External costs and market failure
  • Dont pay full economic costs of resource
    exploitation
  • Including user cost of resource stocks
  • Including ecosystem services
  • Leads to excess capacity, ecosystem degradation,
    overfishing

41
  • Economic concepts of opportunity costs,
    trade-offs, and all costs and benefits
  • Trade-offs between between oceanic and
    terrestrial ecosystems for level of resource
    exploitation and ecosystem health
  • No free lunch
  • Opportunity cost to preserving oceans lies on
    greater reliance on terrestrial ecosystems

42
  • Monoculture, simplistic terrestrial food webs,
    genetically modified foods, pesticides,
    herbicides, chemical fertilizers to raise yields
  • Great grain-growing areas of world, like Great
    Plains, have devastated ecosystems as bad
    anything facing oceans
  • Human diets comprised more of plants and less of
    animals
  • Eating lower on the terrestrial food chain to
    reduce derived demands for resources

43
Organization
  • 1. Introduction and Organization
  • 2. Trends in World Fisheries and Their Resources
    1974-1999
  • 3. Fisheries Impact on Ecosystems and
    Biodiversity
  • 4. Aquaculture
  • 5. Root Causes of Problem
  • 6. Comprehensive Conservation and Management

44
6. Comprehensive Conservation and Management
  • No single answer for multi-faceted problem of
    excess fishing capacity, ecosystem degradation,
    and overfishing
  • Also case-by-case

45
  • 1. Property rights when appropriate
  • Individual or effective common property
  • On catches, resource stocks, fishing effort, or
    areas
  • Catches flows from resource stocks
  • Areas TURFs in most developed form
  • Largely developed countries
  • More difficult with complex multispecies
    fisheries
  • Critically difficult to apply in developing
    countries
  • Enforcement and monitoring key problems

46
2. Strengthen international environmental
agreements for high seas and straddling stocks
  • Problems derive from common stocks, which migrate
    over expansive areas of the worlds seas
  • Strengthen the authority for regional tuna and
    other international organizations
  • Give authority to deal with economic and social
    issues
  • Including the authority to assume and assign
    property rights in the fisheries
  • Establish permanent global body to coordinate
    regional commissions

47
  • Start management with limited entry
  • Moratorium on fleet growth
  • Must deal with new entrants (allowed under intl
    law)
  • Strengthen management with annual vessel-level
    catch limits
  • Assigned to individual vessels rather than to
    flag states
  • Better if catch quotas are transferable property
    right
  • Their purchase addresses new entrant issue
  • Esp. coastal developing country nations
  • Trade restrictions for compliance and enforcement
  • Vessel decommissioning scheme

48
3. Limited access (entry) programs everywhere
there isnt effective property rights regime
  • Highly attenuated property right
  • Particularly exclusive use
  • Especially developing countries
  • Difficult to apply property rights approach
  • Complex multispecies fisheries in tropics where
    output controls and rights ineffective
  • Typically, combine with limits on one or more
    inputs (e.g. vessel length)

49
4. Judicious use of vessel decomissioning and
buy-back programs
  • In developed countries, more short- to
    medium-term measure to restore profitability
  • People behave very differently when fishery is
    profitable.
  • Rights-based systems are not possible (e.g.
    number of players is too high)
  • When fishery (at industry level) is not
    profitable due to excess capacity
  • Good supplement to marine protected areas
  • In developing countries, more difficult to
    implement

50
5. Taxes on fisheries to raise cost of fishing
and decrease input usage, fund management, vessel
buy-backs, etc.
  • Opposite of subsidy
  • Substitute for property rights solution in some
    instances
  • Especially high seas, complex multispecies
    fisheries, international trade

51
6. Eliminate external costs to make consumers and
producers bear full costs of consuming seafood
  • Eliminate subsidies
  • Taxes on both producers and consumers
  • Incidence depends on elasticities (relative
    strengths)

52
7. Comanagement
  • Comanagement reshapes, the state interventions
    so as to institutionalize collaboration between
    administration and resource users and end those
    unproductive situations where they are pitted
    against one another as antagonistic actors in the
    process of resource regulation. (Baland and
    Platteau, p. 347)
  • Artisanal fisheries in developing countries

53
8. Judicious use of marine protected areas and
marine reserves
  • Especially in critical habitats like spawning
    areas, rookeries, nursery and pupping grounds,
    coral reefs, beaches and nearshore for turtles,
    etc.
  • Provide insurance scheme for resource stocks and
    biodiversity
  • MPAs dont address ill-structured property rights
    and excess capacity

54
8. Judicious use of marine protected areas and
marine reserves
  • By themselves, MPAS tend to actually aggravate
    excess capacity problem in remaining open areas
  • Have to couple with programs to reduce fishing
    capacity
  • Controversy whether MPAs increase resource stock
    sizes outside and by how much and which species

55
9. Technology standards
  • Improved gear
  • Reduce incidental mortalities and bycatch
  • (e.g. TEDs and circle vs. J hooks for sea
    turtles)
  • Reduce ecosystem degradation (e.g. trawl)
  • Mesh sizes and designs for escapement

56
10. Eco-labeling, certified fisheries, trade
restrictions
  • Useful in some instances
  • More case-by-case basis

57
11. Small-Scale / Artisanal Fisheries
  • Eliminate harmful harvesting practices
  • Dynamite, cyanide
  • Reserve nearshore fishing grounds and keep out
    larger-scale
  • Less destructive gear (e.g. mesh sizes)
  • Create employment opportunities outside of sector

58
11. Small-Scale / Artisanal Fisheries
  • Create employment opportunities outside of sector
  • Enhance value-added from post-harvesting
    activities
  • Stop increasing investment and technological
    change through aid programs, etc.
  • Increases fishing effort on resource stocks
    already over-exploited

59
12. Judicious reliance on aquaculture
  • Not panacea
  • Primarily only economically feasible for
    high-valued species
  • Derived demand for fish meal from fish species
    lower down on food web
  • E.g. anchovies, sardines

60
  • Recognize true opportunity costs, trade-offs, and
    costs and benefits
  • Full costs include
  • Ecosystem degradation for coastal shrimp
    aquaculture in mangrove swamps
  • Genetic mixing with wild species (salmon)
  • Diseases
  • Seed stock and feed still primarily from wild
  • Dont substitute aquacultured for wild species
  • Even feeding salmon soybean meal simply shifts
    problem to monoculture agriculture in degraded
    terrestrial ecosystems
About PowerShow.com