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Anatomy and Physiology for Emergency Care

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Anatomy and Physiology for Emergency Care Chapter 8 Neural Tissue and the Central Nervous System The Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Anatomy and Physiology for Emergency Care


1
Anatomy and Physiology for Emergency Care
  • Chapter 8
  • Neural Tissue and the Central Nervous System

2
The Nervous System
  • Central Nervous System
  • Peripheral Nervous System
  • Afferent division
  • Efferent division
  • Somatic Nervous system
  • Autonomic Nervous System

3
Functional Overview of the Nervous System
4
Anatomy of a Multipolar Neuron
5
Cellular Organization in Neural Tissue
  • Neurons
  • Functional Classification of Neurons
  • Sensory Neurons
  • Motor Neurons
  • Interneurons
  • General Structure of Neurons
  • Structural Classification of Neurons
  • Neuroglia
  • Astrocytes
  • Oligodendrocytes
  • Microglia
  • Ependymal cells
  • Schwann cells

6
Structural Classification of Neurons
7
Neuroglia in the CNS
8
Schwann Cells and Peripheral Axons
9
Neurophysiology
  • The Membrane Potential
  • Factors Responsible for the Membrane Potential
  • Changes in the Membrane Potential
  • Graded Potentials
  • Action Potential
  • The Generation of an Action Potential
  • Conduction of an Action Potential
  • Demyelination

10
The Cell Membrane at the Resting Potential
11
An Action Potential
12
Conduction of Action Potentials over Unmyelinated
and Myelinated
13
Synaptic Communication
  • Structure of a Synapse
  • Presynaptic neurons
  • Postsynaptic neurons
  • Synaptic cleft

14
Synaptic Events and Neurotransmitters
  • Step 1
  • Step 2
  • Step 3
  • Step 4
  • Acetylcholine (Ach)
  • Norepinephrine
  • Dopamine
  • GABA
  • Serotonin

15
Neuronal Pools
  • Divergence
  • Convergence
  • Parallel Processing

16
Introduction to Reflexes
  • The Reflex Arc

17
Anatomical Organization of the Nervous System
18
Anatomy of the Nervous System
  • The Meninges
  • Dura mater
  • Arachnoid
  • Pia mater
  • Blood Brain Barrier

19
The Spinal Cord
  • Gross Anatomy
  • Sectional Anatomy

20
Sectional Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
21
The Brain
  • Major Divisions of the Brain
  • Ventricles of the Brain
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • The Cerebrum
  • Structure of the Cerebral Hemispheres
  • Motor and Sensory Areas of the Cortex
  • Association Areas
  • Cortical Connections
  • Cerebral Processing Centers
  • General interpretive Area
  • Speech Center
  • Prefrontal Cortex
  • Memory
  • Hemispheric Specialization
  • Electroencephalogram

22
The Brain
23
The Brain
  • Ventricles of the Brain

24
The Brain
  • Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

25
The Brain
  • Cerebral Hemisphere

26
The Brain
  • Hemispheric Specialization

27
The Brain
  • Cerebral nuclei
  • Caudate nucleus
  • Amygdaloid body

28
The Brain
  • Limbic System

29
The Brain
  • The Diencephalon
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
  • The Midbrain
  • The Pons
  • The Cerebellum
  • The Medulla Oblongata

30
Aging and the Nervous System
  • Reduction in brain size and weight
  • Reduction in the number of neurons
  • Decrease in blood flow to the brain
  • Changes in synaptic organization of the brain
  • Intracellular and extracellular changes in the
    CNS neurons

31
Summary
32
Emergency Care Applications
  • Chapter 8

33
Medical Disorders of the Nervous System
  • Cerebrovascular Accident (Brain Attack)
  • Transient Ischemic Attacks
  • Seizure Disorders

34
Nervous System Infections
  • Meningitis
  • Viral Meningitis
  • Unusual Forms of Meningitis
  • Parasitic Brain Infections
  • Brain Abscess
  • Encephalitis
  • Prion Disease

35
Headache
  • Migraine Headache
  • Cluster Headache
  • Tension Headache

36
Neurological Trauma
  • Blunt Trauma
  • Diffuse Injuries
  • Focal Injuries
  • Penetrating Trauma
  • Spinal Cord Injuries
  • Cord concussion
  • Cord contusion
  • Cord compression
  • Cord laceration
  • Complete transection
  • Incomplete transection
  • Cord hemorrhage
  • Spinal Cord Syndromes
  • Anterior cord syndrome
  • Central-cord syndrome
  • Brown-Sequard syndrome
  • Spinal shock

37
Neurological Trauma
38
Focal Injuries
39
Penetrating Trauma
40
Spinal Cord Injuries
41
Summary
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