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Applying Human Factors Principles

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... Wingdings Times New Roman Capsules Applying Human Factors Principles Vision Vision Night Vision Night Vision Aircraft Lighting Aircraft Lighting ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Applying Human Factors Principles


1
Applying Human Factors Principles
  • Chapter 10
  • Section A
  • Aviation Physiology

2
Vision
  • Cones
  • Center of eye
  • Function well in bright light, not in darkness
  • Color
  • Fine detail
  • Rods
  • Outside center of eye
  • Low light, no color
  • Peripheral vision

3
Vision
  • Blind spot
  • Where optic nerve forms on the retina no cones
    or rods

4
Night Vision
  • Dark adaptation
  • Avoid bright white lights at least 30 minutes
    before flight, allow visual purple (rhodopsin) to
    form
  • Most effective method of looking for other
    aircraft at night is to scan small sectors slowly
    and to use off-center viewing.
  • Look 5º to 10º off center

5
Night Vision
  • Night blind spot Cones in center of eye not
    effective at night

6
Aircraft Lighting
  • Red light should be used to help adaptation
  • Low-level white light should be used in the
    cockpit to read charts and instruments

7
Aircraft Lighting
  • Exterior position lights
  • Green light right wingtip
  • Red light left wingtip
  • White light tail
  • Flashing red and/or white anti-collision lights
  • Interpret position lights of other aircraft to
    determine their direction of movement

8
Visual illusions
  • Autokinesis
  • False horizon

9
Visual illusions
  • Landing illusions
  • Sloping runways

10
Visual illusions
  • Flicker vertigo

11
Disorientation
  • Confusion resulting from misleading information
    sent to the brain by sensory organs
  • Incorrect mental image of
  • Position
  • Attitude
  • Movement

12
Disorientation
  • Sources for awareness of body position
  • Vision
  • Vestibular system
  • Kinesthetic sense
  • Esp. at night and in poor weather use and
    believe your instruments

13
Spatial Disorientation
  • Information from central vision conflicts with
    information from peripheral vision.
  • Especially in dark or IFR

14
Vestibular Disorientation
15
Illusions Leading to Disorientation
  • Coriolis illusion
  • Graveyard spiral
  • Leans
  • Somatogravic illusion
  • Inversion illusion

16
Motion Sickness
  • Can result from disorientation
  • You or passengers
  • What to do?
  • Change from turbulent altitude
  • Cool air
  • Relax
  • Focus outside or aircraft horizon
  • Dramamine
  • Limit maneuvers

17
Respiration
18
Hypoxia
  • Tissues of body do not receive enough oxygen

19
Hypoxia
20
Hypoxia
21
Types of Hypoxia
  • Hypoxic hypoxia
  • Decreased partial pressure of oxygen altitude
  • Hypemic hypoxia
  • Blood not able to carry enough oxygen anemia or
    carbon monoxide
  • Stagnant hypoxia
  • Poor circulation Gs, constriction, shock,
    heart
  • Histotoxic hypoxia
  • Cells cant use oxygen alcohol, drugs

22
Types of Hypoxia
23
Prevention of Hypoxia
  • Good diet
  • No smoking or alcohol or drugs
  • Individual tolerance
  • Keep in mind
  • More O2 needed for physical activity
  • More O2 needed for temperature extremes
  • More O2 needed for faster ascent

24
Prevention of Hypoxia
25
Prevention of Hypoxia
  • Pressurization
  • Cabin altitude is kept lower than aircraft
    altitude
  • Decompression

26
Hyperventilation
  • Stress, fear, pain
  • Rapid and deep breathing result in low CO2
  • Unconsciousness until body gets control of
    breathing
  • Slow down breathing rate or breath into paper bag
    or talk out loud

27
Hypoxia or Hyperventilation
  • Many symptoms are the same
  • Differences
  • Cyanosis vs. pale, clammy skin
  • Muscle limpness vs. muscle spasms
  • You can hyperventilate while on oxygen
  • Check oxygen equipment
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