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Workshop on Development of Leadership Skills

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Title: Workshop on Development of Leadership Skills


1
Workshop onDevelopment of Leadership Skills
  • Kurt R. RichterIEEE Region 8Educational
    Activities

2
What is covered ?
  • The leadership course deals with
  • interpersonal relations
  • group management
  • team management
  • leadership skills

3
WORKSHOP ISSUES
  • 1. Leadership
  • 2. Leadership versus management
  • 3. Holistic communications the key to leadership
  • 4. Brainstorming
  • 5. Developing a priority list and getting
    consensus
  • 6. Personal interactive skills Jungian types
  • 7. Developing group skills

4
WORKSHOP ISSUES
  • 8. Active listening barriers to communicating
  • 9. Persuasion
  • 10. Conflict styles
  • 11. Conflict Management
  • 12. Teambuilding
  • 13. Negotiating commitment
  • 14. Overcoming resistance
  • 15. Making things happen

5
Credits
  • Portions of this presentation are derived
    primarily from the IEEE Leadership Workshop
    developed by IEEE past president Ray Findlay
  • Additional materials supplied by
  • Charles Rubenstein Vice Chair, IEEE-USA
    PACE Committee and John Reinert Region 5

6
Leadership
The existence of the leader who is wise is
barely known to those he leads. He acts with
unnecessary speech, so that people say, It
happened of its own accord. -Lao Tze (from the
17th Precept)
7
Leadership effectiveness depends on three
thingsawareness, ability and commitment
Peter DeLisle suggests Leadership is the ability
to influence other peoplewith or without
authority
Awareness EFFECTIVENESS
Ability Commitment
8
What Is Leadership?
  • Making the right things happen
  • Inspiring others to achieve a goal
  • Taking risks, willing to fail to achieve
  • and MAKING DECISIONS!

9
Definition
  • Leader n,
  • 1. A person who is followed by others.
  • 2. The horse placed at the front in a team or
    pair.
  • Manager n,
  • 1. A person controlling or administering a
    business or a part of a business.
  • 2. A person regarded in terms of skill in
    household or financial or other management.

10
Leadership Characteristics
  • Creator of Culture
  • Proactive
  • Change agent (positive)
  • Cheerleader
  • Coach
  • Motivator
  • Focus Provider

11
A Leader
  • influences people to follow a course of action
    through persuasion or example
  • forms constructive relation- and partnerships
    with people
  • spearheads useful changes
  • transforms mediocre organizations into excellent
    ones
  • makes decisions

12
You are a Leader if you
  • set direction, give guidance, and motivate people
    to accomplish
  • carry out the will of the group
  • is the champion for the groups cause
  • guide the group during times of storm (otherwise
    the group motivation will collapse and the
    enterprise will fail)
  • delegate well - BUT
  • are not afraid to take the blame

13
What do Leaders do?
  • know what they want, why and how to communicate
    to others what they want
  • recognize and praise good work, give credit to
    others, make everyone feel important
  • communicate well to everyone
  • inspire loyalty
  • support the ideas of others
  • expect the best
  • make coffee

14
TASK 1
  • Write down what you hope to accomplish that will
    be truly great.
  • Write out how you are preparing to accomplish
    your task.
  • Write down the single greatest obstacle that
    might prevent you from accomplishing your
    objectives.
  • You have five (5) minutes to do this

15
Some Attributes of a Leader
  • Guiding vision
  • Goals
  • Passion
  • Integrity
  • Honesty
  • Self Confidence
  • Communication
  • Curiosity
  • Risk
  • Dedication
  • Charisma
  • Listening
  • Thinking

?
16
Attributes of a Leader
  • Guiding visionEffective leaders know what they
    want to do, and have the strength of character to
    pursue their objectives in the face of opposition
    and in spite of failures.
  • GoalsThe effective leader establishes
    achievable goals.

17
Attributes of a Leader
  • CuriosityLeaders are learners. They wonder
    about every aspect of their charge. They find out
    what they need to know in order to pursue their
    goals.
  • RiskEffective leaders take calculated risks
    when necessary to achieve their objectives. If a
    mistake is made, the effective leader will learn
    from the mistake and use it as an opportunity to
    explore other avenues.

18
Attributes of a Leader
  • DedicationThe effective leader is dedicated to
    his or her charge, and will work assiduously on
    behalf of those following. The leader gives
    himself or herself entirely to the task when it
    is necessary.
  • Charisma This may be the one attribute that is
    the most difficult to cultivate. It conveys
    maturity, respect for your followers, compassion,
    a fine sense of humor, and a love of humanity.
    The result is that leaders have the capability to
    motivate people to excel. (see next slide)

19
Charisma
  • charisma is recognized as a major leadership
    quality
  • to lead others without charisma puts the leader
    at a disadvantage
  • many of the qualities associated with charisma
    can be developed
  • most effective method of developing or enhancing
    charisma include learning to express the feelings
    more assertively and becoming more enthusiastic,
    optimistic and energetic

20
Attributes of a Leader
  • Listening Leaders Listen! This is the most
    important attribute of all, listen to your
    followers.
  • Passion Effective leaders believe passionately
    in their goals. They have a positive outlook on
    who they are, and they love what they do. Their
    passion for life is a guiding star for others to
    follow, because they radiate promise!
  • There is a difference between emotion and
    passion, lets see where YOU fit in

21
Task 2Emotional Expressiveness
  • Do not write your name on the questionnaire since
    it contains your most personal data.
  • Circle the number you feel appropriate
  • To obtain the total score add the numbers you
    encircled

22
Emotional Expressiveness Scale
  • 90-100 Your level of emotionality could be
    interfering with your charisma. Many others
    interpret your behavior as out of control.
  • 70-89 Your level of emotionality is about
    right for a charismatic individual. You are
    emotionally expressive, yet your level of
    emotion is not so intense as to be bothersome.
  • 10-69 Your level of emotionality is probably
    too low to enhance your charisma. To become
    more charismatic and dynamic, you must work
    hard at expressing your feelings.

23
Emotional Expressiveness Scale
  • From your total score you can judge how much
    development you need to become emotionally
    expressive.
  • People who want to improve their leadership
    effectiveness often need to enhance their
    emotional expressiveness.
  • They might need to learn how to express feelings
    in more constructive way to be truly charismatic.
  • Emotional expressiveness may contribute to
    charisma only 90 percent of the time.
  • Note Bene The principles of leadership are not
    as accurate as those for chemistry or physics.

24
Self-Confidence
  • How can you build up your self-confidence?
  • Think positive thoughts about yourself
  • Write down your good points to boost your
    self-confidence
  • Visualize a more powerful you
  • Follow a few easy victories with bigger
    challenges
  • Deal creatively with the emotional turmoil
    associated with adversity

25
Thinking
  • Leaders
  • pay attention to their intuition
  • recognize the importance of being a big thinker
    for effective leadership
  • ask tough questions
  • enhance their ability to read people whenever
    possible

26
Communication
  • Leaders use
  • heavy-impact, embellishing language
  • metaphors, analogies, and anecdotes for inspiring
    group members
  • skillfully body language
  • power-oriented language style for a comprehensive
    approach
  • avoid detractors such as junk words, vocalized
    pauses, insipid clichés threadbare anecdotes, and
    turning to many nouns into verbs

27
Power
  • In order to increase their power leaders
  • develop a network of people with power
  • work on critical organizational problems
  • perform well on small projects
  • form coalitions as a sophisticated method
  • try to make an outside expert to agree with your
    position

28
Multicultural Leader
  • develops his cultural sensitivity by observing
    and understanding cultural differences
  • appreciates the wide variety of people who fit
    under the diversity umbrella, such as recognizing
    that workers differ from one another
  • recognizes differences in cultural attitudes and
    values in such dimensions as formality versus
    informality and attitude toward time
  • establishes a good strategy for motivating people
    from different cultures including identifying
    their motivation

29
Attributes of a Leader
  • IntegrityBecause they know who they are,
    effective leaders are also aware of their
    weaknesses. They only make promises they can
    follow through on.
  • HonestyLeaders convey an aura of honesty in
    both their professional and their personal lives.
    Effective leaders earn the trust of their
    followers and act on behalf of their followers.

30
Task 3Assessing your Ethical Belief
  • Questionnaire
  • 20 Questions (1 to 5 points)
  • Do not write your name on the questionnaire since
    it contains your most personal data.
  • Circle the number you feel appropriate to obtain
    the total score add the numbers you encircled.
  • You have five (5) minutes to do this

31
Ethical Reasoning Inventory
  • Scoring and interpretation
  • 90-100 You are a strongly ethical person
    who may take a little ribbing from coworkers
    for being too straitlaced.
  • 60-89 You show an average degree of
    ethnical awareness and therefore should
    become more sensitive to ethical issues
  • 41-59 Your ethics are underdeveloped, but
    you at least have some awareness
    about ethical issues.
  • 20-40 Your ethics are far below
    contemporary standards in business. Begin a
    serious study of business ethics.

32
The Image of a Leader
33
Image
  • I'mage (noun) 1. form, semblance counterpart
    as regards appearance (That person is the
    image of an engineer.)
  • 2. simile, metaphor mental
    representation idea, conception
    character of thing or person as perceived
    by the public.
  • Image includes everything
  • the way you talk and dress the way you
    act your attitude to others at work and play.

34
What are your personal career objectives?
  • 1. to identify problems and create winning
    solutions to solve them?
  • 2. to lead effectively, with inspiration to
    motivate?
  • 3. to be in control of your world to make things
    happen for you?
  • 4. to manage your personal resources effectively?
  • 5. to be the president of your own company?
  • 6. to be a millionaire, if you aren't already?

35
Who are you?
  • Do you give warm fuzzies?
  • Do you smile a lot?
  • Do you feel dynamic and energized,
  • and show it?
  • Do you feel comfortable in a group?
  • Or do you hand out cold pricklies?
  • Do you frown a lot?
  • Do you feel tired and drained of energy,
  • and show it?
  • Do you feel uncomfortable in a group?

36
Whats your image?
  • When people think about you, do they equate your
    image with a dynamic, interested, competent
    person?
  • Are you the sort of person who makes things
    happen, at home, at work or at play?
  • Or do people think you are merely occupying a
    spot in the universe?
  • That you are waiting for the next millennium?
  • Are you the sort of person who waits for someone
    else to make things happen?

37
The way you stand or sit
  • 1. indicates whether you are an open person,
    easily approachable.
  • 2. says whether you are friendly
  • 3. tells others whether you could be a good team
    player
  • 4. suggests that you are frank and honest
  • 5. tells others what you really think of them
    shows whether you are part of the team

38
The way you dress
  • 1. indicates whether you have conventional ideas
    or whether you are a radical
  • 2. shows how neat you are
  • 3. suggests whether you will fit in with the
    company's image
  • 4. makes a statement about whether or not you
    care enough to find out about the company, its
    image and its objectives
  • 5. shows indirectly whether you are confident,
    whether or not you believe in yourself

39
The way you write conveys
  • 1. whether you are warm and friendly or appear
    cool and reserved
  • 2. whether you are dynamic and energetic or are
    lethargic and procrastinate
  • 3. an image of you as either intuitive in solving
    problems, or logical, solving problems step by
    step
  • 4. whether or not you want to communicate with
    others
  • 5. whether you try to avoid conflict or seek it
  • 6. whether you are materialistic or idealistic

40
Conclusions Communication
  • 1. communication is a holistic concept every
    thing we do conveys something about ourselves
  • 2. if you want to achieve greatness in your
    chosen objectives you must communicate
    holistically. It is not enough to write well or
    to know a lot of big words. You must be able to
    project an image that will lead to success

41
Conclusions Behavior
  • 3. You can change your behavior pattern by
    changing the way you appear to others
  • 4. If you want to change your behavior pattern,
    you must change everything about yourself

42
What is the bottom line?
  • 1. You are in control of your environment! You
    can make every setback an opportunity for
    success.
  • 2. You can be anything you can be! Whatever you
    want to be is entirely up to you.
  • 3. Become the person you want to be! Dress like
    that person, talk like that person, act like that
    person, write like that person, and that will be
    you.

43
Leader versus Manager
44
Management and Leadership
John Kotter Harvard Business Review, May-June
1990
45
Leadership versus Management
  • How does a leader differ from a manager?
  • Managers, have the following attributes, they
  • develop a vision for the enterprise.
  • consider alternatives to design.
  • estimate costs involved.
  • establish risks to the organization.
  • develop a schedule for the project.
  • include decision steps.

46
Managers
  • perform administrative tasks.
  • report to senior management.
  • money and job security play a major role in
    management effectiveness - they act as deficiency
    motivators.

47
Leaders
  • Manage change in an orderly fashion.
  • Keep the team motivated and informed.
  • Review responsibilities and goals with each team
    player.
  • State clearly the basis for evaluation and where
    each person fits in the organization.

48
A Leader will
  • Monitor progress.
  • Set directionsset expected achievements for each
    individual within the next work period.
  • Show the team members where they fit in achieving
    unit goals.

49
Ask Yourself...
  • Are you satisfied with your career?
  • Do you know what you want to accomplish?
  • Are you accomplishing all you can?
  • Are you an effective leader?
  • Do you want to grow in your career and as a
    person?
  • Do you know what you have to do?
  • Are you happy?

50
Being a Leader, Being a Boss
  • If you want to get ahead, be a leader, be a boss,
    or be a better boss assume
  • That everything that happens to you results in a
    situation that is within your control.
  • That the attitude you convey is what you are
    judged on.
  • That what you think and do in your private life
    is what you will reap in your public or corporate
    life.
  • You are what you think - and believe.
  • If you never meet a challenge you will never find
    out what you are worth.

51
A Recipe for Being the Boss
  • Take control of your life.
  • Assume responsibility for who you are.
  • Convey a positive and dynamic attitude in
    everything you do.
  • Accept blame learn from your own mistakes as
    well as those of others. Take blame for
    everything that happens in your unit.
  • Give credit wherever it is due.

52
A Recipe for Being the Boss
  • Be compassionate when you review your team
    members' progress or lack thereof
  • Think great thoughts. Small thinking is why
    companies go broke.
  • Turn disasters into opportunities. Turn every
    obstacle into a personal triumph.
  • Determine your "real" goals then strive to
    achieve them.
  • When you want to tell someone something
    important, do it personally.

53
Brainstorming
54
Brainstorming The Objectives
  • Identify the issues rapidly
  • Reach consensus on the most important issues
    rapidly
  • Determine possible solutions to issues
  • Select the most promising action to solve the
    problem
  • Agree on who does what
  • Get a commitment
  • Sell the process

55
Brainstorming Your Goals
  • 1. Everyone must be involved
  • 2. Call out ideas to scribe
  • 3. Build on ideas
  • 4. No idea is too trivial or silly
  • 5. Apply no criticism nor judgment on any idea
  • 6. Get as many ideas as possible in the time
  • 7 Objective
  • solve problems and enjoy, doing it!

56
TASK 4Case StudyCreative Enterprises
  • You will brainstorm in your groups on possible
    actions Alf might take to revitalize the company
    according to the following guidelines for about
    30 minutes

57
Brainstorming Process Guideline
  • Read the Case Study (5 Minutes).
  • Break into groups of up to 5 or 6 people.
  • Each group appoints a moderator, a scribe and a
    speaker
  • Moderator moves the discussion along,
  • Scribe writes short descriptive phrases to
    describe each idea on a Post-it,
  • Speaker will present the groups results
  • Brainstorm to develop ideas (20 minutes).
  • Arrange the ideas in priority order.
  • Report out the groups results (5 Minutes).

58
Personal Interactive SkillsJungian Type
59
Personality Indicators
  • Carl Jung (1875 - 1961) Formulated ideas about
    personality in terms of types of characteristics.
  • Katherine Briggs Isabel Briggs MyersManual
    A Guide to the Development and Use of the
    Myers-Briggs Type IndicatorConsulting
    Psychologist Press, 1985

60
  • Observing Myers-Briggs Types
  • in a classroom
  • Video Clip

61
Task 5Personality Indicators
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  • Questionnaire

62
The Four Pairs of Types
  • E Extraversion
  • I Introversion
  • N Intuitive
  • S Sensing
  • T Thinking
  • F Feeling
  • J Judging
  • P Perceptive

63
Personality Indicators Preferences
  • Extraversion type E, sociable,
    about 75
  • expends energy
  • interacts with others freely
  • Introversion type I, territorial,
    about 25
  • conserves energy
  • reads, meditates, solves problems

64
What is typical Extrovert behavior?
  • Are you energized around people?
  • Do you like to meet people and seek opportunities
    to do. so?
  • Do you think out loud?
  • Do you talk to plants and discuss problems with
    animals?

65
What is typical Introvert behavior?
  • Alternatively, do you find you would rather work
    alone, without interruption? Does meeting too
    many people tend to tire you out?
  • Would you sooner not answer the phone - let the
    answering machine do it for you?
  • Would you rather have a problem written down for
    you than stated verbally?

66
  • iNtuitive type N, creative,
  • about 25
  • ingenious, future-oriented, fantasizes,
    imaginative
  • Sensing type S, practical,
    about 75
  • experience-oriented, utility, sensible

67
  • Do you see the world in terms of your senses?
  • Do you like to see the facts before starting
    work?
  • Do you like dealing with the details of a project
    rather than the overall plan?
  • You are likely Sensing
  • Or do think in terms of the big picture, in terms
    of concepts and ideas, rather than the
    information involved?
  • Put down iNtuitive

68
  • Thinking type T, impersonal, 50
  • (however, 60 M)
  • objective judgments, logical orientation, rules,
  • laws, justice, firmness
  • Feeling type F, personal, 50
    (however, 60 F)
  • Emotional judgements, value-oriented,
  • persuasion, sympathy, devotion
  • Note
  • Both types can react with the same emotional
    intensity!

69
  • Do you tend to follow the rules regardless of how
    you feel?
  • Do you hide your feelings and get on with the
    job?
  • That is Thinking type behavior
  • Or do you inject a personal note into things you
    do, even let your emotions take over, sometimes.
  • That is Feeling type behavior

70
  • Judging type J,
  • closure, concluding, 50
  • settled, decided, work comes first,
  • plan ahead, urgency, deadline, get-it-done.
  • Perceptive type P,
  • get more data, 50
  • pending, flexible, adaptable, let-it-happen,
  • open-ended, tentative, wait-and-see.
  • Note
  • Both types are equally "judging" and "perceptive.

71
  • Do you like to set up a schedule to meet
    deadlines, make lists, make quick decisions in
    order to get onto the next job?
  • That's Judging behavior
  • Or are you really adaptable you like collecting
    more information so your decision will be really
    informed.
  • That's Perceptive behavior

72
Task 6Case Engineering Solution
  • Read the Handout (5 Minutes)
  • Brainstorming (15 Minutes)
  • Report to the Group (5 Minutes)

73
Type Classification General Population
74
Type Classification Engineering Students
75
The Four TemperamentsIntuitive/Thinking - NT
Types
  • 12 of the population, 21 engineers, 43
    engineering students
  • Objectives to understand, predict and control
    the world, to get power over nature! Want to be
    skilled, intelligent, ingenious, studious,
    competent. Hooked on self-improvement. Terse,
    logical, lives for work. Focuses on the future.
    Visionary leader. Stubborn, stands on
    principles, has difficulty communicating.
    Sceptic. Solves problems.

76
The Four Temperaments Intuitive/Feeling - NF
Types
  • Include 12 of the population, 7.5 engineers,
    22 engineering students
  • They are the romantics of literature,
    sympathetic, tender, good with language, poetic,
    and love music, but long term relationships may
    prove a strain they are charming, warm and
    caring, but not long term. As managers, they
    focus on people, not the organization. A
    democratic leader.
  • ENFJ's are natural-born leaders. Good at PR.
  • Often outspoken. (36 of teachers are NF's)

77
The Four TemperamentsSensing/Judging - SJ Types
  • 38 of the population, 39 engineers, 27
    engineering students
  • A belonger, a giver, a parent. Bound and
    obligated, work ethic, needs rules, pessimistic,
    the typical Boy Scout, always prepared! Murphy's
    Laws were made up by SJ's. Traditionalist.
    Stabilizes and consolidates. Establishes rules,
    contracts, policies and procedures. Wants solid
    facts. Likes stable, sensible, reliable people.
  • (56 of teachers are SJ's)

78
The Four Temperaments Sensing/Perceptive - SP
Types
  • 38 of the population, 11 of engineers, 14
    engineering students
  • Objectives "feel free to do as I want. But let's
    do it right now." "Let's go somewhere."
    Impulsive, active, cheerful, light-hearted, full
    of fun. Makes decisions now. Impatient with
    theories. Flexible, observant, adaptable. As a
    manager, a good negotiator, realistic,
    troubleshooter, unsnarls messes, diplomatic.
    Easy to get along with.

79
Meeting ManagementConflict resolution
80
  • Teams solve problems

81
Agenda
  • Seating arrangements at meetings
  • Problems at meetings?
  • Types of difficult people
  • Dealing with difficult people
  • Conflict styles
  • What solver should be chosen when?

82
Three Seating Strategies for Two person meetings
e
Person 1
?
Person 2
a
a
d
Supporting
c
b
Collaborating
Confronting
83
Seating Strategies for collaboration
e
e
Person 1
?
Person 2
d
a
Supporting
c
b
Collaborating
Confronting
84
Seating Strategies for power meetings
e
Person 1
?
Person 2
d
a
Supporting
b
c
b
Collaborating
Confronting
85
Seating Groups Chairman Seating
Confrontational seating
86
Confrontational Seating A Tactical Analysis
Eye contact with other supporters
sees and hears all points of view
puts case to undecided
?
eye contact with most
large partin discussion
balances the table
looks to chair for leadership
influences opinionof the opposites
87
Hierarchical Seating Concept An Observers View
?
88
Managing difficult people - I
  • Type
  • No enthusiasm, sighs, shrugs, never say what is
    wrong
  • Offloading tasks, especially the worst tasks
  • ) see Christina Osborne, Dealing with Difficult
    People, Essential Managers, DK Publishing, Inc.
  • How to manage
  • Encourage to reflect on their achievements as
    they progress to goals
  • Set clear objectives, milestones, draw action
    plan and show that most of their initials are
    against most of the action

89
Managing difficult people - II
  • Type
  • No scruples, takes credit for others work
  • Complaining constantly about everything, is
    impossible to please
  • How to manage
  • One-to-one meeting asking questions to pinpoint
    specific problems ask them to prioritize their
    workload and set goals for achieving objectives
  • When responsible for a project make sure that
    people deliver their feedback themselves define
    responsibilities clearly and give credit

90
Managing difficult people - III
  • Type
  • Takes the kudos and blames mistakes to others
  • Has to have the first and last word and be one
    step ahead
  • Bullies and intimidates others and gets its own
    way by being aggressive
  • How to manage
  • State responsibility clearly set stretching
    targetsmeet regularly to review progress
    against objectives
  • Confirm in writing whatever has been agreed
    anticipate the objections
  • Stand your ground by being assertivestate your
    case calmly and ask questions to encourage to
    consider consequences of their actions

91
Difficult Members / Dealing with
  • Talks to be heard
  • Conducts side conversations
  • Challenges attempt to move group toward decision
  • Interpreting criticism of ideas as personal
    attack
  • Waving off or negating all suggestions or new
    ideas from others
  • Urging the group to take action before a problem
    is clearly defined.
  • Listen, do not debate.
  • Talk privately with members who continuously
    exhibit disruptive behavior.
  • Turn negative behaviors into positive
    contributions.
  • Encourage the group to share the responsibility
    of handling difficult members.

92
Conflict Control
  • Use avoidance to ignore the issue
  • Use accommodating style to allow the other person
    to resolve the issue
  • Structure the interaction so that a triggering
    event is unlikely to occur
  • Strengthen the barriers that inhibit the
    expression of conflict
  • Avoid dealing with the person with whom you are
    in conflict

93
Steps for Confronting Conflict I
  • Explain the situation as you see it
  • Describe how it is affecting your performance or
    the performance of others
  • Ask for the other viewpoint to be explained, and
    listen to the response
  • Agree on the issues independent of personalities
  • Explore and discuss the issues, without reference
    to the problem

94
Steps for Confronting Conflict II
  • Agree on what each person will do to resolve the
    issues
  • Try to agree on the problem. If there is no
    agreement, discuss issues some more
  • Explore possible solutions
  • Agree on what each person will do to solve the
    problem

95
Conflict Management
96
Conflict Cycle
97
Task 7Conflict Management Style
  • Questionnaire

98
Thomas-Kilmann 5 Conflict Styles
  • 1. Avoiding (Uncooperative and unassertive)
    Neglects own concerns as well as those of other
    parties does not raise or address conflict
    issues
  • 2. Accommodating (Cooperative and unassertive)
    Seeks to satisfy other person's concerns at the
    expense of own
  • 3. Competing (Uncooperative and assertive)
    Opposite of accommodating. Uses whatever seems
    appropriate to win

99
Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Styles
  • 4. Collaborating (Cooperative and assertive)
    Opposite of avoiding. Works with other party to
    find a solution that satisfies both own and other
    party's concerns
  • 5. Compromising (Middle ground)
    Seeks to find a middle ground to partially
    satisfy both parties

100
Conflict Styles
101
When to Avoid
  • When an issue is trivial
  • When there is no chance of getting what you want
  • When the potential damage of confrontation is
    greater than the benefits if resolution
  • When you need to gather more information
  • When others can resolve the conflict more
    effectively
  • When you need to cool down, reduce tension, and
    regain perspective or composure

102
When to Accommodate
  • When you realize you are wrong
  • When the issue is much more important to the
    other person than you
  • When you need a future favor (credit)
  • When continuing the competition would damage the
    cause
  • When subordinates need to develop - to learn from
    mistakes

103
When to Compete
  • When quick, decisive action is necessary
  • On important issues for which unpopular courses
    of action need implementing
  • On issues vital to the group welfare, when you
    know you are right
  • When protection is needed against people who take
    advantage of noncompetitive behavior

104
When to Collaborate
  • When both sets of concerns are too important to
    be compromised
  • When it is necessary to test your assumptions or
    better to understand the viewpoint of the other
    party
  • When there is a need to combine ideas from people
    with different perspectives
  • When commitment can - be increased by
    incorporating the concerns of everyone into the
    proposal
  • When there is a history of bad feeling

105
When to Compromise
  • When goals are important but not worth the effort
    of potential disruption from more aggressive
    players
  • When two opponents with equal power are strongly
    committed to mutually exclusive goals
  • When temporary settlements are needed on complex
    issues
  • When expedient solutions are needed under time
    pressures
  • As backup when collaboration or competition fail

106
Negative Consequences of Competing
  • Eventually being surrounded by "yes people
  • Fear of admitting error, ignorance or uncertainty
  • Reduced communication
  • Damaged relationships
  • Lack of commitment from others
  • More effort during implementation to sell the
    solution

107
Negative Consequences of Collaboration
  • Too much time spent on insignificant issues
  • Ineffective decisions can be made by people with
    limited knowledge of the situation
  • Unfounded assumptions about trust

108
Negative Consequences of Compromising
  • No one is completely satisfied
  • Solutions tend to be short-lived
  • Cynical climate perception by both parties that
    it is a "sellout
  • Larger issues, principles, long-term values and
    the welfare of the company can be lost by
    focussing on trivia or the practicality of
    implementation

109
Negative Consequences of Avoiding
  • Decisions made by default
  • Unresolved issues
  • Self-doubt created through lack of esteem
  • Creative input lost
  • Lack of credibility
  • Anger and hostility generated in subsequent
    discussions

110
Negative Consequences of Accommodating
  • Decreased influence, respect or recognition by
    too much deference
  • Laxity in discipline
  • Frustration as own needs are not met
  • Self-esteem undermined
  • Best solution may be lost

111
Conflict Control
  • Use avoidance to ignore the issue
  • Use accommodating style to allow the other person
    to resolve the issue
  • Structure the interaction so that a triggering
    event is unlikely to occur
  • Strengthen the barriers that inhibit the
    expression of conflict
  • Avoid dealing with the person with whom you are
    in conflict

112
Steps for Confronting Conflict
  • Explain the situation as you see it
  • Describe how it is affecting your performance or
    the performance of others
  • Ask for the other viewpoint to be explained, and
    listen to the response
  • Agree on the issues independent of personalities
  • Explore and discuss the issues, without reference
    to the problem

113
Steps for Confronting Conflict
  • Agree on what each person will do to resolve the
    issues
  • Try to agree on the problem. If there is no
    agreement, discuss issues some more
  • Explore possible solutions
  • Agree on what each person will do to solve the
    problem

114
Task 8Fast and Robust
  • Handout

115
Resources Books
  • Katherine Briggs, Isabel Briggs Myers A Guide
    to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs
    Type Indicator, Consulting Psychologist Press
    1985
  • Andrew J. DuBrin The Complete Idiots Guide to
    Leadership, alpha books, CWL Publishing
    Enterprises 1998
  • Essential Managers, DK Publishing, Inc.
  • Robert Heller Communicate Clearly How to
    Delegate Managing Teams Managing
    Changes Learn to Lead Tim Hinle Managing
    Meetings Terrance Brake Managing
    Globally Christina Osborne Dealing with
    Difficult People
  • O. Kroeger J. M. Thuessen TypeTalk
    1989
  • O. Kroeger, J. M. Thuessen, H. Rutledge
    TypeTalk at Work 1993 Tilden Press

116
Resources Some Internet Links
  • IEEE Leadership Training ewh.ieee.org/cmte/leader
    ship/
  • Free Library for Profit and Nonprofit
    Organizations www.mapnp.org/library/
  • Canadian Association of Student Activity
    Advisorswww.casaa-resources.net/
    resources/sourcebook/acquiring-leadership-skills/
  • University of California www.cnr.berkley.edu/ucce
    50/ag-labor/7labor/
  • ACM Association for Computing Machines www.acm.or
    g/chapters/leadership_skills.html
  • Law Library Resource Xchange - Marie Wallace
    Column
  • www.llrx.com/columns/guide54.htm

117
  • Thank you!
  • k.richter_at_ieee.org
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