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Differentiating Instruction with the Implications of Special Education: The What, Why, and How

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What is Differentiated Instruction? ... Making Differentiation a Habit. By Diane Heacox Differentiating Instruction in a Whole Group Setting. By Betty Hollas. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Differentiating Instruction with the Implications of Special Education: The What, Why, and How


1
Differentiating Instruction with the Implications
of Special Education The What, Why,
and How
  • By Pamela Busch
  • SPED Dept Head, CRMS
  • Feb. 5, 2010

2
What is Differentiated Instruction?
  • Providing students with different avenues to
    acquire content to processing, constructing, or
    making sense of ideas and to developing teaching
    materials so that all students within a classroom
    can learn effectively, regardless of differences
    in ability. - Wikipedia
  • Considering students varying background
    knowledge and preferences in lesson development.

3
What is Differentiated Instruction?
  • Even though students may learn in many ways, the
    essential skills and content they learn can
    remain steady. Students can take different roads
    to the same destination.
  • Carol Ann Tomlinson

4
The Science Behind It.
  • Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, proved that
    individuals learn best in accordance with their
    readiness to do so (Allan Tomlinson, 2008).
    This theoretical influence provides a concrete
    foundation for differentiated instruction. The
    readiness of the individual should match what a
    student learns, how they learn it and how the
    student demonstrates what they learned when using
    differentiated instruction.

5
The Philosophy Behind It.
  • The philosophical idea that interest based
    options seize on intrinsic motivation, supports
    the key element of differentiated instruction,
    student interest. According to Jerome Bruner (as
    cited by Allan Tomlinson, 2000), when interest
    is tapped, learning is more likely to be
    rewarding and the student becomes a more
    autonomous learner.
  • An American psychologist, Howard Gardner,
    developed the theory of multiple intelligences.
    His theory states that people have different
    intelligences and learn in many different ways.

6
Differentiated Instruction Looks Like
  • Learning centers yes- even in secondary school.
  • Whole group, small group, facilitating,
    workshops, acting, singing, moving, drawing,
    reading, writing, calculating, etc...
  • Student choices in the types of assignments they
    do.
  • Keeping data on skill mastery and re-teaching
    those who need it, while challenging those who
    dont.
  • Different types of delivery, processing, student
    output, and grading,
  • Students are receiving feedback on a regular
    basis (systematic approaches).
  • Cooperative learning.

7
Differentiated Instruction does not look like.
  • Teaching the same way everyday.
  • Using the same tools everyday.
  • Moving forward and never re-teaching.
  • Only data kept is a grade book.
  • Only feedback students get is the grade on the
    paper.
  • All students are doing the same assignment.

8
Why do we differentiate instruction?
  • Because its whats good for kids!
  • Because its the law and intent behind RTI.
  • RTI came out of SPED law, although a regular
    education function, for the following reasons
  • The wait to fail discrepancy model does not
    take care of the root of a SPED diagnosis.
  • Students have been segregated for far too long.
  • The problem has been placed on the student rather
    than on effective teaching.

9
To the person next to you
  • Tell each other two to three concepts on what
    differentiated instruction is and two to three
    other ideas on what it is not.

10
Why do we differentiate instruction?
  • Because we are here to ensure ALL students excel.
  • Because we are not making AYP.
  • To ensure that RTI implementations are truly
    different than what we have previously been
    doing.

11
Why do we differentiate instruction?
  • To accommodate the BRAIN!
  • Because peoples brains work differently.
  • Balances in active, settling, and passive
    learning.
  • TPR.
  • And on top of having different brains, some of
    those brains also have disabilities.
  • Lets check that out.

12
In groups of three.
  • Assign each person a role
  • Briefer
  • Questioner
  • Connector
  • Briefer Give main ideas of the video.
  • Questioner Pose questions based on your
    reflections or on unclear ideas.
  • Connector (Presenter) Summarize the main ideas,
    reflections, and questions/answers.

13
  • Differentiating is us bending and finding
    different avenues to reach kids. Its not
    expecting kids to have the equal abilities to do
    what we want them to do the way we want them to
    do it.

14
How do we differentiate?
  • Three considerations

Content
Process
Product
Based on student Readiness, Interest, and
Learning Profile
15
Content (Standards Benchmarks)
  • Modifications (vs. accommodations)
  • Need to know vs. Nice to know
  • IEP Goals and Objectives
  • Based on reading levels
  • Curriculum/tools

16
Process
  • Curriculum/Tools
  • Auditory/Visual/Kinesthetic
  • Whole group/small group/cooperative learning
  • Re-teaching/ in the moment assessing/ preventing
    misconceptions
  • Questioning
  • Re-wording
  • Pacing
  • Allowing for student processing
  • Practice, and level of support through practice
  • Participation
  • High-Yield Strategies
  • Centers

17
Product
  • Quantity
  • Time allotment
  • Level of difficulty
  • Not letting barriers determine mastery.
  • Student choice in
  • demonstrating mastery of concept.
  • Multi-modal assessing.
  • Based on readiness (at level to remember,
    understand all the way to evaluating and
    creating).

18
Work as a group to match the accommodations to
the component of D.I.- D.I. happens across ALL
areas (content, process, AND product).- It is a
state-of-mind!- How do we help teachers make
this shift?
19
The data of D.I.
  • Use data to find baselines
  • Curriculum/SKILL assessments
  • Short Cycle Assessment
  • MAP
  • NMSBA
  • Track specific skills
  • Ensure mastery of those skills
  • Continue to practice and embed skills within new
    skills

20
Once we define our system requirements, how often
should improvements take place?
Once a year?
Four times a year?
Every week?
21
Special Education and Data
  • If students in SPED are going give us the
    data/test scores we want, we have to ensure they
    are
  • Use those IEPs to guide you!
  • PLOP and Goals/Objectives.
  • Fill in those HOLES!
  • In the reg ed setting as much
  • as possible
  • Successful in the regular
  • education setting

22
Examples of systematic data use to drive
D.I.what does this look like?
23
CHAPTER TEST DATA
How do you align the classroom assessment system
with the Schools Quarterly Assessment System?
10-28
9-4
9-16
10-17
9-18
24
i
GOAL 80
How many did we get right on our math test?
DATA on SCA in math. SCA covers ALL essential
learning standards. Dots represent how
many questions students got correct on the test.
10
25
SCA DATA
2. Example of using an item analysis to
identify student performance gaps
26
Once you know where your kids are and where you
want them to go, decide how you are going to get
them ALL there.What different roadmapswill
you create?
27
Differentiated Instruction in Action
  • Think-Tac-Toes

Create a survey and graph the results. Research a person and present to the class. Create a hypothesis and through research prove/deny.
Write a rap/song and perform to class. Write a letter to the editor. Design a power point.
Make a comparison/contrast poster. Write a skit with two others and act out. Create a test with correct answers.
28
Cooperative Learning
  • Assigning roles to student strength areas
  • Main Idea Finder/Concept Manager
  • Detail Person
  • Question Asker
  • Key Word Finder
  • Designer (of charts, graphs)
  • Resource gatherer

29
Q.A.R.- Questions/Answers/Relationships
  • Level 1- In the book questions are right there.
  • Level 2- In the book questions to think, search,
    and find.
  • Level 3- In my head questions, author and me.
  • Level 4- In my head questions, on my own.

30
Blooms Cube
  • Each side of cube, rolled by students, has a
    task
  • Describe (knowledge level)
  • Explain (comprehension level)
  • Develop (application level)
  • Classify (analysis level)
  • Create a new (synthesis level)
  • In your opinion (evaluation level)

31
Characteristics
  • Think alouds.
  • Modeling
  • Practice, feedback, practice again.
  • Homework
  • Setting specific objectives and students self-
    charting success.
  • Graphic organizers
  • Cues and questions
  • Allowing for processing time
  • Student PDSAs

32
Pair/Share Find someone new
  • What new strategies/approaches can you implement
    in your school (or to support schools) to ensure
    ALL teachers are trained on differentiating
    instruction?
  • How does Tier 3 in your school truly differ from
    Tiers 1 and 2 in the regular education classroom?

33
How do we be EVEN MORE EFFECTIVE?
  • Build relationships with students.
  • Make them feel safe taking risks.
  • The more students are engaged and busy, feeling
    important, the less negative behaviors.
  • Set them up to experience successes so that they
    want more!
  • Recognize achievements.
  • Have students repeat back directions, concepts,
    to assist with processing delays.
  • Give immediate and corrected feedback to
    students!

34
Resources
  • http//www.uhseport.net/published/k/sh/kshaw/colle
    ction/1/
  • www.studentprogress.org
  • www.k8accesscenter.org
  • www.disciplinehelp.com
  • How to Differentiate in the Mixed Ability
    Classroom. By Carol Ann Tomlinson.
  • Making Differentiation a Habit. By Diane Heacox
  • Differentiating Instruction in a Whole Group
    Setting. By Betty Hollas.
  • Teaching with the Brain in Mind. By Eric Jensen.

35
Questions? Comments?
  • THANK YOU!
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