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Water Underground S6E3 Students will recognize the significant role of water in Earth processes.

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S6E3.a Explain that a large portion of the Earth s surface is water, consisting of oceans, rivers, lakes, underground water, and ice. iRespond Question Master A ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Water Underground S6E3 Students will recognize the significant role of water in Earth processes.


1
Water Underground S6E3 Students will recognize
the significant role of water in Earth processes.
  • S6E3.a Explain that a large portion of the
    Earths surface is water, consisting of oceans,
    rivers, lakes, underground water, and ice.

2
What you will learn in the section
  • Identify and describe the location of the water
    table.
  • Describe an aquifer.
  • Explain the difference between a spring and a
    well.
  • Explain how caves and sinkholes form as a result
    of erosion and deposition.

3
A family lives 50 km from the nearest stream or
lake and gets water from a well. Where does the
water in the well come from?
  • It comes from water stored underground.

4
  • Groundwater is water located within the rocks
    below the Earths surface.
  • FYI (do not write)
  • Millions of people get their water from
    groundwater.
  • Groundwater not only is an important resource but
    also plays an important role in erosion and
    deposition.

5
Location of Groundwater
  • Water is found underground in an area between two
    zones. Rainwater passes through the upper zone,
    called the zone of aeration. Farther down, the
    water collects in an area called the zone of
    saturation. In this zone, the spaces between the
    rock particles are filled with water.
  • The two zones meet at a boundary known as the
    water table.
  • Rises during wet seasons and falls during dry
    seasons

6
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7
Aquifers
  • The rock layer that stores groundwater and allows
    the flow of groundwater is called an aquifer.
  • The more open spaces, or pores, between particles
    in an aquifer, the more water the aquifer can
    hold.
  • The percentage of open space between individual
    rock particles in a rock layer is called
    porosity.

8
  • If the pores of a rock layer are connected,
    groundwater can flow through the rock layer. A
    rocks ability to let water pass through is
    called permeability. A rock that stops the flow
    of water is impermeable.

9
  • The best aquifers usually form in permeable
    materials, such as sandstone, limestone, or
    layers of sand and gravel.
  • Some aquifers cover very large areas.
  • They are important source of water for cities and
    agriculture.
  • The ground surface where water enters an aquifer
    is called the recharge zone.
  • The size of the recharge zone depends on how
    permeable rock is at the surface.

10
Aquifer in the United States
11
Aquifers in Georgia
12
Springs and Wells
  • Groundwater movement is determined by the slope
    of the water table. Moves down slope.
  • If the water table reaches the Earths surface,
    water will flow out from the ground and will form
    a spring.
  • Springs are an important source of drinking
    water.
  • Where the water table is higher than the Earths
    surface, lakes will form.

13
  • Wells are human-made holes that are deeper than
    the level of the water table.
  • If it is not deep enough, it will dry up when the
    water table falls below the bottom of the well.
  • If an area has too many wells, groundwater can be
    removed too rapidly which can cause the wells to
    run dry.

14
Artesian Springs
  • A sloping layer of permeable rock sandwiched
    between two layers of impermeable rock is called
    an artesian formation.
  • The permeable rock is an aquifer and the top
    layer of impermeable rock is called a cap rock.
  • Artesian spring is a spring whose water flows
    from a crack in the cap rock of the aquifer.
  • These are sometimes found in deserts, where they
    are the only source of water.
  • Most have cool water but some springs have hot
    water.

15
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16
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17
Formation of Caves
  • Water erosion creates most caves found along
    coastal areas.
  • Waves crashing against the rock over years wears
    away part of the rock forming a cave.
  • Inland caves are also formed by water erosion-in
    particular, groundwater eroding limestone.
  • As the limestone dissolves, underground
    passageways and caverns are formed.

18
The Caves of Belize Caves Branch Cave
The Caves at Norman Island
19
Sinkholes
  • Sinkholes are common where the rock below the
    land surface is limestone, carbonate rock, salt
    beds, or rocks that can naturally be dissolved by
    ground water circulating through them.
  • As the rock dissolves, spaces and caverns
    develop underground.
  • Sinkholes are dramatic because the land usually
    stays intact for a while until the underground
    spaces just get too big.
  • If there is not enough support for the land above
    the spaces then a sudden collapse of the land
    surface can occur.
  • The most damage from sinkholes tends to occur in
    Florida, Texas, Alabama, Missouri, Kentucky,
    Tennessee, and Pennsylvania.

20
Nixa, Missouri 60 feet in diameter and 75 feet
deep
Sinkhole - Guatemala 330 ft deep
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