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Violence in Schools: How Can School Violence be Prevented?

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Title: Violence in Schools: How Can School Violence be Prevented?


1
Violence in SchoolsHow Can School Violence be
Prevented?
2
John-Kevin FlynnStudent 200391068 Education
6290Memorial University of NewfoundlandNovember
24, 2005
3
Presentation Outline
  • Introduction
  • The Issue of School Violence
  • Morality in Todays Schools
  • Servant Leadership
  • Conclusion
  • References

4
Violence in SchoolsIntroduction
5
Introduction
  • Violence in schools has increased in recent years
  • How can school violence be prevented?
  • 1) causes of school violence by looking at the
    psychological issues involved and the risk
    factors associated with school violence.
  • 2) Preventative measures such as proactive school
    plans, evacuation procedures, and establishing
    spiritual, psychological, and social anchors for
    these young people are outlined.
  • 3) The roles of families and school principals
    (leaders) are also discussed.

6
Introduction
  • 4) school violence is analyzed from a morality
    perspective.
  • lack of remorse of students who commit violent
    acts in schools, the absence of moral teaching in
    todays curriculum, and the values that students
    form throughout their educational careers are
    presented.
  • 5) resolving these moral issues
  • to increase the amount of moral teaching in
    curriculum, redefine the role of the guidance
    counselor, bring in Forensic Counseling teams,
    possess strong leadership (administration), and
    develop relationships within the community.

7
Introduction
  • 6) Servant leadership is connected to school
    violence prevention. The concepts of building
    community, establishing empowerment, and
    fostering relationships are key components of
    servant leadership. They are also elements that
    are linked to violence prevention. The philosophy
    of servant leadership is debated as school
    violence is examined from a leadership
    perspective.

8
Part IThe Issue of School Violence
9
The Issue of School Violence
  • 23 of students said they had been a victim of an
    act of violence at school. (Bennett-Johnson, 2004)
  • In a 2002 survey of high school students over
    one third of the students admitted they had been
    in a physical fight in school (Boulter, 2004,
    p.27).
  • 21.8 of the young school children between age
    four and nine had committed at least one of three
    serious offences (stealing goods worth more than
    100, entering and stealing, or fighting with a
    weapon). (LeBlanc, McDuff, Charlebois, Gagnon,
    Larrivee, Tremblay, 1991)

10
The Issue of School Violence
  • Between 1994 and 1999, school associated deaths
    increased. In fact, 50 of these deaths occurred
    during school activities and events.
  • Approximately one million students in the United
    States carry guns with them to school (Boulter,
    2004).

11
Part IThe Issue of School ViolenceCauses of
School Violence
12
Causes of School Violence
  • Why do students become involved in violent acts?
  • The reasons havent changed Romantic
    relationships, money, property, rivalry, and
    victimization.
  • Boulter (2004)

13
Causes of School Violence
  • The difference is that students are choosing
    guns and bombs as their premeditated method to
    resolve conflicts and are senselessly attacking
    multiple victims at random to express their
    anger, frustrations, and revenge (p.28).
  • Violence is used to resolve issues.

14
Causes of School Violence
  • The School Violence Resource Center (2002)
    suggests that there are risk factor domains that
    contribute to the high levels of school violence.
  • These factors include

1) individual risk factors
2) family risk factors
3) community risk factors
4) school risk factors
15
Causes of School Violence
  • Bennett-Johnson (2004)
  • high concentration of poverty

1) have more crime,
2) higher incidences of drug and alcohol abuse,
3) teenage pregnancy, and
4) violent crimes.
  • learn behaviours from role models
  • crime becomes a way of life

16
Causes of School Violence
  • Biological and Environmental Factors
  • Garbarino (1999)

Biological Factors Temperament and Resilience
Environmental Factors Child-Rearing Styles and
Connections With Others
17
Causes of School Violence
  • Biological Factor Temperament
  • emotional self-regulation

Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1968) distinguish
between three temperament styles in babies.
1) Easy Babies
2) Slow-to-warm babies
3) Difficult babies
  • Flannery and Williams (1999)

18
Causes of School Violence
  • Biological Factor Temperament
  • emotional self-regulation

Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1968) distinguish
between three temperament styles in babies.
1) Easy Babies
2) Slow-to-warm babies
3) Failure/Deliquency Difficult Babies
  • Flannery and Williams (1999)

19
Causes of School Violence
  • Biological Factor Resilience
  • The ability to recover from a traumatic or
    stressful experience.

- Positive Coping Skills
- Sensitive and Vulnerable
(cope with the release of aggression and/or
development of depression)
20
Causes of School Violence
  • Environmental Factors Child-Rearing Styles
  • Different child rearing styles will change how a
    child perceives rules and complies with them
    (Garbarino, 1999).

1) authoritative parent
2) uninvolved parent
  • If the parents do not show a child limits and
    teach them to have self-control, the child will
    grow up unhappy and will often be violent
    (Garbarino, 1999).

21
Causes of School Violence
  • Environmental Factors
  • Connections and Relationships
  • 1) Connected Relationships
  • 2) No Connections

- They often act out violently to deal with
their feelings.
22
Causes of School Violence
  • combination of many factors, experiences, and
    situations
  • the more factors, the greater the probability of
    violent
  • How can we reach these students?

23
Part IThe Issue of School ViolencePreventative
Measures in Dealing with School Violence
24
Preventative Measures in Dealing with School
Violence
  • Preventing school violence involves
  • - planning, preparing, and taking an active
    role in affecting lives
  • metal detectors?
  • planning and preparing

25
Preventative Measures in Dealing with School
Violence
  • All stakeholders should be involved
  • Bennett-Johnson (2004) outlines

1) Evaluate school building plans
2) Evacuation procedures and routes
3) Specific roles for staff members
4) Bennett-Johnson (2004) believes that teachers
must learn and teach conflict resolution and
anger management techniques to their students
(p.201).
26
Preventative Measures in Dealing with School
Violence
  • Boulter (2004) also describes factors associated
    with violence prevention.
  • positive values and relationships
  • connections anchors (cope with negative
    experiences, such as neglect or abuse)

1) Spiritual anchors
2) Psychological anchors
3) Social anchors
  • connections redirect the pain, give a positive
    avenue, and develop self worth

27
Part IThe Issue of School ViolenceThe People
Who Play the Most Important Roles in Violence
Prevention
28
The People Who Play the Most Important Roles in
Violence Prevention
  • 1) Family members and 2) School leaders
  • Family members include parents and any other
    guardians or key influential role models of these
    young people.
  • Leadership can come from any position at the
    school.

29
The People Who Play the Most Important Roles in
Violence Prevention
  • 1) Family
  • Parents, guardians, and leaders of the family
  • Stevens, Lynm, and Glass (2001) give the
    following tips to parents and family members with
    regard to violence prevention

30
The People Who Play the Most Important Roles in
Violence Prevention
  • Stevens, Lynm, and Glass (2001)

1) Give children and adolescents consistent love
and attention.
2) Young people learn by example, so eliminate
violence in the home.
3) Settle arguments without yelling, hitting,
slapping, or spanking.
31
The People Who Play the Most Important Roles in
Violence Prevention
  • Stevens, Lynm, and Glass (2001)

4) Teach nonaggressive ways of problem-solving
by discussing problems and setting rules for
appropriate behaviour.
5) Be aware of what your children watch on TV,
movies, and video games. Watch with them to
discuss or limit violent content.
32
The People Who Play the Most Important Roles in
Violence Prevention
  • Stevens, Lynm, and Glass (2001)

6) Be sure children and adolescents do not have
unsupervised access to weapons such as guns.
(p.2766)
  • positive moments less violent aggressive
    behaviour.

33
The People Who Play the Most Important Roles in
Violence Prevention
  • Parents, however, are not on their own and should
    not be on their own.
  • Leaders of the school community have a very
    important role in influencing good behaviour in
    young school children.

34
The People Who Play the Most Important Roles in
Violence Prevention
  • 2) Leadership
  • Leadership within the school community must come
    from everyone.
  • The school administrator is only one person
  • The principal facilitate and guide
  • One of these ways is through the development of a
    leadership team (Leone, et al, 2000).

35
The People Who Play the Most Important Roles in
Violence Prevention
  • 2) Leadership
  • any school plan must have support
  • The leadership team could consist of

regular and special education teachers,
assistant teachers, guidance counselors,
parents, students, and community members
36
The People Who Play the Most Important Roles in
Violence Prevention
  • 2) Leadership
  • Relates to the Risk Factors
  • Thus, the leadership team could also work in
    collaboration with mental health, social
    service, law enforcement, and other community
    agencies (p.12).
  • team effort

37
The People Who Play the Most Important Roles in
Violence Prevention
  • Brunner and Lewis (2005)
  • A Safe Schools Top Ten Needs
  • Brunner, a high school principal
  • Lewis, a director of school public safety and the
    president of the National Association of School
    Safety and Law Enforcement Officers

38
The People Who Play the Most Important Roles in
Violence Prevention
  • The school administrator, the leader of the
    school

10) anonymous reporting system
9) monitor the school for safety deficiencies
8) should not assume that parents believe the
school is safe
7) review the schools emergency response plan
with all staff members
39
The People Who Play the Most Important Roles in
Violence Prevention
  • The school administrator, the leader of the
    school

6) should not assume that students will bring
safety information forward
5) school emergency response plan reviewed by
many
4) should not assume that local emergency
service providers will arrive immediately during
a school crisis
40
The People Who Play the Most Important Roles in
Violence Prevention
  • The school administrator, the leader of the
    school

3) Should not assume present or in charge
during a school emergency
2) documentation and records and
1) strategic supervision planning can prevent
serious emergencies from happening (p.22).
  • Overall, Preparation and Communication

41
Part IIMorality in Todays Schools
42
Morality in Todays Schools
  • Lack of morality?
  • Isolated events, or major societal issue?
  • moral leadership perspective with possible
    solutions

43
Part IIMorality in Todays SchoolsIs a Lack of
Morality Contributing to Violence in Schools?
44
Is a Lack of Morality Contributing to Violence in
Schools?
  • Dr. Carole Rayburn (2004) found that youth with
    violent behaviour have an undeveloped or
    seriously damaged moral conscience and spiritual
    emptiness (p.356).
  • C. Bradley Thompson (1999) looked at the killing
    that has occurred in schools.

45
Is a Lack of Morality Contributing to Violence in
Schools?
  • C. Bradley Thompson (1999)

Extremely violent murderers know nothing, feel
nothing, and care about nothing they are
emotionally and morally impotent (p.51).
  • Safe and caring environment?
  • Contributing factors resulting in violence

46
Is a Lack of Morality Contributing to Violence in
Schools?
  • Thompson (1999), the author of the article Our
    Killing Schools, is a college professor in the
    United States.
  • Recently graduated students entering his college
    classroom

47
Is a Lack of Morality Contributing to Violence in
Schools?
  • Thompson (1999)

1) students are unwilling to make moral
judgements
2) students think highly of themselves and do
not take criticism well
3) they are poorly educated and
4) they hated their high school experience
(p.52)
  • He sees our public schools today as intellectual
    and moral wastelands (p.51).

48
Is a Lack of Morality Contributing to Violence in
Schools?
  • Students are taught that all lifestyles are equal
    and should not be judged.
  • Everything and anything is acceptable.
  • What they do is the law.
  • Eric Harris, one of the Littleton killers
    (Columbine),My belief is that if I say
    something, it goes. I am the law.
  • Their Own Moral System (Thompson, 1999)

49
Is a Lack of Morality Contributing to Violence in
Schools?
  • feedback positive reinforcement
  • feel good regardless of whether their ideas or
    actions are praiseworthy or not.
  • high opinions of themselves,
  • criticism from others aggressive and violent
    behaviour

50
Is a Lack of Morality Contributing to Violence in
Schools?
  • Through all the praise, these students have
    learned that criticism is wrong.
  • The moral system right feel good and wrong
    feel bad (Thompson, 1999)
  • good, or right, is linked directly to the
    pleasure or happiness for these children (Strike
    Soltis, 2004, p. 12)

51
Is a Lack of Morality Contributing to Violence in
Schools?
  • Issues connected to the education system, a whole
    new problem...
  • Pritchard (2001) finds that

1) Students find high schools boring and
unchallenging
2) Teachers dont know subject matter
3) academic excellence vs other forms of
learning.
52
Is a Lack of Morality Contributing to Violence in
Schools?
  • Teachers are prevented from devoting significant
    energy to pursuing any other goals (such as moral
    education) through education (p.105).
  • Can any changes be made?
  • Is there hope for the students of tomorrows
    education system?

53
Part IIMorality in Todays SchoolsResolving
The Issues What Is the Next Move?
54
Resolving The Issues What Is the Next Move?
  • Solutions from a morality perspective
  • five researchers

1) Curriculum
2) Guidance Counselors
3) Forensic Counseling
4) Educational Leader
5) The Community
55
Resolving The Issues What Is the Next Move?
  • 1) Curriculum
  • Thompson (1999) does not see gun-packing teachers
    and band-aides like anger management classes as
    the solution.

56
Resolving The Issues What Is the Next Move?
  • 1) Curriculum
  • Thompson believes that they should abandon their
    deadly experiment of Progressive education and
    restore a curriculum that emphasizes reason over
    emotions, knowledge over feelings, moral
    judgement over moral agnosticism, and
    self-control over self-expression (p.54).

57
Resolving The Issues What Is the Next Move?
  • 2) Guidance Counselors
  • For Rayburn (2004) Train our guidance counselors
  • She believes that morality involves an awareness
    and appreciation of what is acceptable and
    morally valued by both society and the truth- and
    goodness-seeking self (p.356).

58
Resolving The Issues What Is the Next Move?
  • 2) Guidance Counselors
  • Bullies and their patterns
  • inventory testing to assess spirituality and
    morality in students
  • pin-point children that need moral guidance

59
Resolving The Issues What Is the Next Move?
  • 2) Guidance Counselors
  • Needs entire school community, time, energy, and
    resources
  • Even then, how many children must be reached in
    order to regain a moral balance in the entire
    school community?

60
Resolving The Issues What Is the Next Move?
  • 3) Forensic Counseling
  • Dr. E. Scott Ryan (2003)
  • morality should not be taught in schools
  • The problem of violence in schools is one of
    criminal rationality.
  • moral education should be left to religious
    communities

61
Resolving The Issues What Is the Next Move?
  • 3) Forensic Counseling
  • An educator is not a moral guru and should not
    pretend to be one (p.220).
  • Forensic Counseling teams three or more
    individuals

- criminal rationality dynamics associated
with criminal behaviour
62
Resolving The Issues What Is the Next Move?
  • 3) Forensic Counseling
  • Psychological, medical, and moral education
    cannot help these delinquents
  • Ryans solution may attempt to fix the problem,
    but it does not look at how to prevent it from
    happening.
  • Does moral education?

63
Resolving The Issues What Is the Next Move?
  • 4) Educational Leader
  • Quick and Normore (2004)
  • moral leadership begins with the educational
    leader
  • Educational leaders need to be moral role models
    to youth and demonstrate that it is possible to
    live ones values and advocate for a more just
    and responsible society by role-modeling
    (p.337).

64
Resolving The Issues What Is the Next Move?
  • 4) Educational Leader
  • Create a culture, climate, and community that
    celebrates each person in the community
  • Balance between justice and care
  • Integrity and authentic relationships bring the
    school community together

65
Resolving The Issues What Is the Next Move?
  • 5) The Community
  • Cichucki (2005)
  • all community members must act together to be
    role models
  • create policies and curricula that support
    ethical and moral development
  • responsibility

66
Resolving The Issues What Is the Next Move?
  • 5) The Community
  • Through role modeling, curricula that emphasize
    principle-centered decision making and peaceful
    conflict resolution, and consistent ethical
    behavioural expectations, we can send a strong
    message to our students (p.12).
  • Morals are important. Violence is not a solution
    to conflict. Moral education is the means to the
    end.

67
Part IIMorality in Todays SchoolsEstablishing
a Social Covenant - Breaking the Trend of Violence
68
Establishing a Social Covenant - Breaking the
Trend of Violence
  • Sergiovanni (2006) agrees with Cichucki (2005)
  • The answer is COMMUNITY.
  • communitys shared ideas and values
  • moral ownership to the entire community

69
Establishing a Social Covenant - Breaking the
Trend of Violence
  • social covenant
  • This social covenant is maintained by loyalty,
    fidelity, kinship, sense of identity, obligation,
    duty, responsibility, and reciprocity
    (Sergiovanni, 2006, p.76).

70
Establishing a Social Covenant - Breaking the
Trend of Violence
  • ethical decisions
  • Teachers and students will make moral decisions
    on a daily basis
  • The values of the members of the community would
    be invested so deeply into the covenant that the
    principal would be able to make decisions and
    know how the community would respond to them.

71
Establishing a Social Covenant - Breaking the
Trend of Violence
  • The social covenant relationship within the
    community would offer two major benefits

1) Any principal would have to become part of
the social covenant, or leave. For the
community, this would ensure that its moral
values and beliefs would be a part of the school
that teaches its children.
72
Establishing a Social Covenant - Breaking the
Trend of Violence
  • The social covenant relationship within the
    community would offer two major benefits

2) Society as a whole would benefit from
communities which hold a social covenant. It
would spread and be the moral foundation,
bedrock, and wellspring that provides cultural
purposes, unity, and strength (Sergiovanni,
2006, p.76).
73
Establishing a Social Covenant - Breaking the
Trend of Violence
  • Establishing values, relationships, covenants,
    community involvement, and positive leadership
    through role modeling
  • reach troubled students and reduce violence
  • Is there a philosophy of leadership that does all
    of these things?

74
Establishing a Social Covenant - Breaking the
Trend of Violence
  • Can todays schools hold a vision that
    encompasses all the tools necessary to bring
    communities together?

75
Part IIIServant Leadership
76
Servant Leadership
  • Northouse (2004) Moral/Ethical Leadership is
  • Sound ethical leadership is rooted in respect,
    service, justice, honesty, and community. It is
    the duty of leaders to treat others with respect
    - to listen to them closely and be tolerant of
    opposing points of view. Ethical leaders serve
    others by being altruistic, placing others
    welfare ahead of their own in an effort to
    contribute to the common good. Justice requires
    that leaders place fairness at the center of
    their decision making, including the challenging
    task of being fair to the individual while
    simultaneously being fair to the common interests
    of the community. Good leaders are honest. They
    do not lie nor do they present truth to others in
    ways that are destructive or counterproductive.
    Finally, ethical leaders are committed to
    building community, which includes searching for
    goals that are compatible with the goals of
    followers and society as a whole. (p.326)

77
Servant Leadership
  • With the rise in school violence, and the
    responsibility of school administrators to keep
    schools safe, it is clear that administrators
    must place their followers welfare foremost in
    their plans and be altruistic leaders (p.311).

78
Servant Leadership
  • Administrators can use such concepts as Servant
    Leadership and covenantal communities to help
    them develop a system for guiding students to
    become ethical and moral members of society
    (Witcher, 2003, p.27).

79
Servant Leadership
  • Robert K. Greenleaf published an essay in 1971
    titled The Servant as Leader.
  • The Robert K. Greenleaf Center, published The
    Servant as Leader (1991 Edition) for a second
    time.
  • servant leadership emphasizes increased service
    to others a holistic approach to work promoting
    a sense of community and, the sharing of power
    in decision-making (Greenleaf, 1991, p. ii).

80
Servant Leadership
  • the institution-as-servant (the
    community-as-servant)
  • In the area of organizational behaviour, the
    servant-institution does a number of things
  • It modifies its hierarchy into teams based on a
    principle of primus inter pares (first among
    equals), honors questions and criticism,
    systematically attends to its legitimacy,
    acknowledges and tends to the corrupting
    influence of power, makes explicit its
    aspirations to serve and monitors both the
    accomplishments and the attitudes of the served,
    balances the stability of good administration
    with the creativity of leadership, builds trust
    by performance, and rejects both blind trust and
    trust based on charisma. (Shugart, 1997, p.240)

81
Servant Leadership
  • the school community as a servant-institution
  • live the philosophy
  • servant leadership

1) as a leadership style that may reduce school
violence
2) transformational leadership
3) arguments for and against the philosophy of
servant leadership
82
Part IIIServant LeadershipConnecting Servant
Leadership with Violence Prevention
83
Connecting Servant Leadership with Violence
Prevention
  • Schneider (1991)
  • pattern of violence
  • He states that the family is the place where
    most people experience violence for the first
    time (p.196).

84
Connecting Servant Leadership with Violence
Prevention
  • Children mold their values around what they
    learn.
  • To them, violence is acceptable.
  • The school community must reshape their values.

85
Connecting Servant Leadership with Violence
Prevention
  • a nurturing community
  • The relationships established in a life long
    process.
  • These relationships describe the community in
    terms of friendship, family, and support group
    (Jahner, 1993).

86
Connecting Servant Leadership with Violence
Prevention
  • Nurturing relationships establish a sense of
    safety and trust (p.32).
  • The shared values safety and trust violence
    prevention
  • serving a source of empowerment

87
Connecting Servant Leadership with Violence
Prevention
  • Power and Control
  • Young people who have been abused have lost their
    sense of control and have become victims
    (Cairns-Descoteaux, 2002).
  • Victims lack control
  • depression and helplessness (p.6)
  • abuse to gain control
  • self control ends violent trends
  • Empowerment

88
Connecting Servant Leadership with Violence
Prevention
  • Servant-leaders work to empower others (Douglas,
    2003).
  • They put the power in the hands of others.
  • decisions
  • success

89
Connecting Servant Leadership with Violence
Prevention
  • Students who act out violently want to be heard.
  • community of listeners
  • connections and relationships to prevent school
    violence
  • Garbarino (1999), Boulter (2004), Cichuki
    (2005), and Sergiovanni (2006)

90
Part IIIServant LeadershipThe Servant-Leader
as a Transformational Leader
91
The Servant-Leader as a Transformational Leader
  • The servant-leader is also a transformational
    leader.
  • The transformational leader is a leader who
  • looks for potential motives in followers, seeks
    to satisfy higher needs, and engages the full
    person of the follower. The result of
    transforming leadership is a relationship of
    mutual stimulation and elevation that converts
    followers into leaders and may convert leaders
    into moral agents. (Owens, 2004, p.269)

92
The Servant-Leader as a Transformational Leader
  • The servant-leader develops the people around him
    or her in the very same way by lifting them up
    to grow taller than they would otherwise be
    (Greenleaf, 1991, p. 14).
  • By serving the followers needs, the follower is
    empowered to surpass his or her limitations.

93
The Servant-Leader as a Transformational Leader
  • Violence in schools can be reduced through the
    guidance of the servant-leader as the
    transformational leader.
  • By reaching out and building relationships,
    communities can bond together, and violence in
    can be reduced.

94
Part IIIServant LeadershipArguments For and
Against Servant Leadership
95
Arguments For and Against Servant Leadership
  • Is servant leadership a good leadership style?
  • Sergiovanni (2000)

- comparing the servant-leader with the
traditional leader
- Traditionally, leaders were tough and in
control
96
Arguments For and Against Servant Leadership
  • Sergiovanni (2000)

- The media has always portrayed leaders as
being strong, mysterious, aloof, wise, and
all-powerful (p.275).
- These leaders, like the Lone Ranger, never
become intimate with the people they save.
- The servant-leader is nurturing and gains his
strength from relationships.
97
Arguments For and Against Servant Leadership
  • The servant-leader is weak in the eyes of the
    top-down conservative leader.
  • Societys image of a leader one person with
    power, who saves, and makes all decisions
  • These people see the servant-leader as weak.

98
Arguments For and Against Servant Leadership
  • When tough decisions need to be made, the
    servant-leader will make them just as good as any
    other leader (p. 275).
  • Distinguishing factors

- Moral responsibility - Collaboration
99
Arguments For and Against Servant Leadership
  • Different Approaches in Preventing School Violence
  • The traditional leader

- topdown management style that would combine
? McGregors Theory X
? Likerts Management System 1 (Owens, 2004,
p.117).
100
Arguments For and Against Servant Leadership
  • The traditional leader

- zero tolerance policy
(suspended or expelled for violating school
rules such as fighting or carrying weapons)
- No Flexibility
- Teachers are not able to use their own
judgement.
- Zero Tolerance for violent acts
- prevent violence through deterrence
101
Arguments For and Against Servant Leadership
  • Servant-leader

- proactive approach
- reaching students needs
- stopping violence before it occurs
  • Understanding the cause of school violence would
    help in the prevention of school violence.

102
Arguments For and Against Servant Leadership
  • Is servant leadership a realistic concept?
  • Brumback (1999) does not think that servant
    leadership would work.
  • Appealing, but too idealistic
  • Brumback notes that Greenleafs ideas are
    interesting and different (but that) their
    practicality is questionable (p. 810).

103
Arguments For and Against Servant Leadership
  • Covey (1998) and Senge (1995) disagree with
    Brumback.
  • practical and essential in reaching and
    motivating people

104
Arguments For and Against Servant Leadership
  • Servant leadership offers many ways for young
    people to be reached by the school community.

105
Arguments For and Against Servant Leadership
  • Servant leadership embraces these
    characteristics

listening,
having foresight,
healing, and
understanding,
being aware,
accepting,
having perception,
serving.
empathizing,
being persuasive,
(Greenleaf, 1991)
  • Characteristics lead to reducing violence.

106
Conclusion
107
Conclusion
  • Safety
  • Many reasons for school violence.
  • No one factor is to blame.
  • We all have a responsibility to help prevent it.
  • Communities must work together to create positive
    learning environments that are filled with
    important relationships.

108
Conclusion
  • The rising trend of violence in schools must be
    stopped.
  • Understanding the causes of school violence leads
    to prevention.
  • The role of psychological and moral
    issues...regaining the balance!!

109
Conclusion
  • Leadership is important in guiding our children.
  • By serving our childrens needs, the hope is that
    the wounds can be healed before they become a
    source that will hurt others.

110
Conclusion
  • Violence prevention must begin today.

111
References
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    violence Causes and recommendations for a plan
    of action. College Student Journal, 38(2),
    199-202.
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  • Brum, G. (1999). The power of servant-leadership.
    Personnel Psychology. 52(3), 807-810.
  • Brunner, J. Lewis, D. (2005). A safe schools
    top 10 needs. Education Digest, 71(1), 21-4.
  • Cairns-Descoteaux, B. (2002). The journey to
    resilience for victims and survivors of family
    violence. NACSW Convention 2002 in Rochester,
    NY. Botsford, CT North American Association of
    Christians in Social Work.

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References
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    ethical and moral development. Montessori Life,
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  • Covey, S. (1998). Servant leadership from the
    inside out. Forward in L. Spears, Insights on
    leadership Service, stewardship, spirit, and
    servant-leadership. New York City, New York John
    Wiley and Sons.
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    emerging supervisory model. Supervision, 64(2),
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References
  • Greenleaf, R. K. (1991). The servant as leader.
    Indianapolis, IN The Robert Greenleaf Center.
  • Jahner, B. (1993). Building strong inclusive
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    threads 93 Equitable solution...because
    disability is a natural part of human
    experience. National Conference on Rural
    Disability Issues. Missoula, MT, 29-36.
  • Leblanc, M., McDuff, P., Charlebois, P., Gagnon,
    C., Larrive, S., Tremblay, R. E. (1999).
    Social and psychological consequences, at 10
    years old, of an earlier onset of self-reported
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    disruption Rhetoric, reality and reasonable
    balance. Focus on Exceptional Children, 33, 1-20.

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References
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    education. Boston, Massachusetts Pearson.
  • Pritchard, I. (2001). The American standards for
    citizenship Do they include morality?
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  • Quick, P. M., et. al. (2004). Moral leadership in
    the 21st century Everyone is watching -
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References
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