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3.Mini Grid- Off Grid Jun HAGIHARA Tokyo Electric Power Company

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3 Mini Grid- Off Grid Jun HAGIHARA Tokyo Electric Power Company e8 Member Solar PV Design Implementation O&M March 31- April 11, 2008 Marshall Islands – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 3.Mini Grid- Off Grid Jun HAGIHARA Tokyo Electric Power Company


1
3.Mini Grid- Off GridJun HAGIHARATokyo Electric
Power Company e8 Member
  • Solar PV Design Implementation OM
  • March 31- April 11, 2008
  • Marshall Islands

2
3. Mini Grid Off Grid
  • Contents

3-1. Content 3-2. DC and AC supply 3-3. Off
GridPV Mini Grid3-3-1. Features of PV
system3-3-2. PV output and demand3-3-3.
System configuration3-3-4. Examples3-3-5.
Design procedure 3-3-6. Planning
design3-3-7. Design of operation pattern3-3-8.
Calculation of PV array output3-3-9. Array
configuration 3-3-10. Necessary
components3-3-11. Battery capacity3-3-12.
Various battery3-3-13. Operation Maintenance
3-3-14. Battery
charging station (optional)
3
3. Mini Grid Off Grid
  • Contents

3-4. PV hybrid systems within mini-grid3-4-1.
System configuration 3-4-2.
Examples3-4-3. Other power source
Genset3-4-4. Other power source Micro hydro
3-4-5. Other power source Biomass
energy3-4-6. Other power source Wind
power3-4-7. Planning design3-4-8. Operation
maintenance
4
3-1. Content (1)
Date Title Sub-title Grid connection Supplied power Size Genset Other RNE Battery system Note
April 1 (Tue) SHS DC SHS Off DC lt 1kW No No Yes By Mr. Wade
April 1 (Tue) SHS AC SHS Off AC lt 1kW No No Yes By Mr. Wade
April 2 (Wed) Mini grid PV Mini grid Off AC 1 - 50kW No No Yes 50 to 600 Households Battery charge station
April 2 (Wed) Mini grid PV hybrid systems within mini-grid Off AC 10 500kW Optional (a few hours per day) Wind biomass micro-hydro etc. Optional New components
April 3 (Thu) Grid connected Large PV system Hybrid system Grid connected large PV system On AC gt 40kW No No Optional With reliable grid (24H supply)
April 3 (Thu) Grid connected Large PV system Hybrid system Grid connected hybrid system On AC gt 100kW Basically No. Optional (a few hours per day) Wind biomass micro-hydro etc. Optional With reliable grid (24H supply)
5
3-1. Content (2)
Date Title Sub-title Topics to be covered Note
April 4 (Fri) Auxiliary System - Inverter Wiring Inverter Theory circuit Function Selection, OM Exercise
Wiring By Mr. Wade
6
3-2. DC and AC supply
Supplied power Supplied power Characteristics Disadvantages
DC Connection of sources and loads via DC distribution line Main energy sources connected on DC bus Charger are needed for different energy sources For illumination and DC loads Short distance between components Expensive DC installation Poorly expandable Not easy to find standard products
AC Connection of sources and loads via AC distribution line Free selection of energy sources (standard grid components) Long distances between components Simple extendibility, future-proof Necessity of Inverters

7
3-3. Off Grid PV mini grid
Date Title Sub-title Grid connection Supplied power Size Genset Other RNE Battery system Note
April 1 (Tue) SHS DC SHS Off DC lt 1kW No No Yes By Mr. Wade
April 1 (Tue) SHS AC SHS Off AC lt 1kW No No Yes By Mr. Wade
April 2 (Wed) Mini grid PV Mini grid Off AC 1 - 50kW No No Yes 50 to 600 Households Battery charge station
April 2 (Wed) Mini grid PV hybrid systems within mini-grid Off AC 10 500kW Optional (a few hours per day) Wind biomass micro-hydro etc. Optional New components
April 3 (Thu) Grid connected Large PV system Hybrid system Grid connected large PV system On AC gt 40kW No No Optional With reliable grid (24H supply)
April 3 (Thu) Grid connected Large PV system Hybrid system Grid connected hybrid system On AC gt 100kW Basically No. Optional (a few hours per day) Wind biomass micro-hydro etc. Optional With reliable grid (24H supply)

8
3-3-1. Features of PV system
Advantage Disadvantage
1.Clean generation system 1. Generation depends on sunshine duration.
2.No moving and high temp/pressure parts, possible automatic/unattended operation and easy maintenance 2. Need wide footprint for large output because of low energy density
3. Non-depletion energy 3. Still high cost under the present situation
4. Possible mass production because of modular structure 4. DC output (can be advantage in some case)
5. Free and easy design from small to large scale in accordance as needed, and small limitation on installing
Source ANRE, NEDO
9
3-3-2. PV output and demand
Source METI
10
3-3-3. System configuration(1)
PV panel (_at_ 50 kWp)
For a community that is not too scattered.
Usually 50 to 600 households.
Inverter
Isolated, AC supply, no genset
PCS
Delivers the power to the households and common
equipments through a grid
Battery
11
3-3-3. System configuration(2)
Peripheral equipments
  • Junction box
  • Inverter
  • Insulation transformer
  • Protection system
  • Battery system
  • Battery
  • Charger
  • Others
  • Measuring instrument
  • Distribution board
  • Power receiving panel
  • kWh meter
  • PV array
  • PV mounting structure
  • Load

12
3-3-4. Examples(1)
Source GTZ-ZSW
  • Installed in 2003 at Suohourima, Qinghai, China
    by GTZ
  • 70 km 43 miles from the next electricity line
  • Between 300 and 400 households
  • Old Diesel generator set is no longer in
    operation.
  • Electricity is delivered according to energy
    availability (not for 24/24 hours)

13
3-3-4. Examples(2)
PV-generator 40 kW, 26 parallel strings with 18 modules, 85 W per module, manufacturer Qinghai Gaofai, cells from Astropower, US
Charge controller 13 channels, µC-controlled, sub arrays are switched off at the end of charge voltage of the battery, manufacturer Hefei Sunlight Power
Battery Sealed (AGM) lead acid battery, cells 2 V/1300 Ah, 3 parallel strings with 110 cells, 858 kWh, manufacturer Enersys Huada Solar
Inverters PWM with transformer and µC-control, 220 VDC/220 VAC, 1 inverter with 16 kW, 1 inverter with 24 kW, manufacturer Hefei Sunlight Power
AC Distribution 2 isolated and not grounded single phase grids supply different parts of the township. The single households have electronic energy Meters
Households All electrified households have electric light (fluorescent lamps (9W) or incandescent lamps (40W)), 90 of the households have colour TV satellite receiver DVD player, and chest freezer to store meat, more and more households have electric heating blankets and pillows, some have washing machines (for external hot water supply)
Source GTZ-ZSW
14
3-3-4. Examples(3)
Source GTZ-ZSW
15
3-3-5. Design procedure
  • Significance
  • Concept
  • Feasibility study
  • Generation
  • Distribution
  • Demand forecast and dispatching
  • Environmental assessment
  • Economical evaluation
  • Design
  • System configuration
  • Design
  • Regulation
  • Specification of components
  • How to select
  • Installation
  • OM

16
3-3-6. Planning design
System, equip. spec., supplier, capacity, supply
characteristics, reliability, cost and so on.
Survey of various REN
Concept design of the system
Demand characteristics, energy cost, electricity
tariff
REN main unit, inverter, grid connection,
battery, env. measure
Investigation of target site
Determination of equipment spec.
Estimate supplied power and energy
Estimate project cost
Generation cost, distribution cost, cash flow
Determine operation pattern Estimate maintenance
cost
Estimate total running cost
Analyze cost/benefit
Effect on environmental protection
Effect on energy conservation
Implementation
17
3-3-6. Check list on planning (1)
  • Concept and purpose
  • For what?
  • Purposed should be shared among concerned
    parties.
  • Where?
  • In existing facility or not? Exact location.
  • What load?
  • Characteristics and size of load. Enough space
    for installed equipment?
  • Which system?
  • Isolated or grid-connected? With battery or not?
  • When and how much?
  • Construction schedule and cost. Can it be
    available?

18
3-3-6. Check list on planning (2)
  • Project team
  • Establish team and assign project manager
  • How to select the designer?
  • What is bidding strategy of construction work?
  • How can we maintain and manage the system?

19
3-3-6. Check list on planning (3)
  • Site survey
  • Ambient environment
  • Any obstacles to receive sunlight?
  • Shadow of building, tree, mountain, stack,
    utility pole, steel tower, sign board and so on.
  • Effect of fallen leaves and sand dust, snow cover
    (depth and frequency)
  • Salt and/or lightning damage, wind condition
    collect all the possible obstacles
  • Installed site
  • Shape, width, direction, drainage, condition of
    foundation, volume of construction work, carry-in
    route, Waterproof of the building, effect on
    landscape
  • Electrical facility
  • Existing diagram and plot plan, space
    availability, wiring route and space carry-in
    route

20
3-3-6. Check list on planning (4)
  • Preliminary consultation
  • Local authority Construction work, fire
    department, necessity of permission
  • Available subsidy
  • Information collection from expert/consultants
  • Concept check
  • Is it firm concept? Site, load, system size and
    configuration
  • Is schedule fixed?
  • Is budget made based on expected generation
    output and its cost?

21
3-3-6. Check list on design (5)
  • Reconfirmation of design condition
  • Firm policy? For what? Where? How big? How is
    the system? When? How much?
  • Constraints Ambient environment, Site
    condition, existing electrical equipment,
    regulation, necessary procedure
  • Design
  • Direction and angle of PV panel maximize output
    under the given condition
  • Array configuration and its installation
  • Foundation, mounting frame, waterproof, intensity
    calculation
  • Material, antirust and anti-corrosion of mounting
    frame material
  • Compliance with regulation
  • In accordance with the project purpose
  • Established schedule, expected result and project
    cost.
  • Application
  • Subsidy
  • Application for local authority
  • Design check
  • Fixed detail design, budget, construction
    schedule?
  • Finish all the necessary application?
  • Completed adequate bidding?

22
3-3-7. Design of operation pattern
  • Estimate daily load curve
  • Daytime PV for load and battery charge
  • Nighttime Battery discharge for load
  • Investigate charge/discharge time
  • Calculate required PV and battery capacity

23
3-3-8. Calculation of PV array output
  • First, estimated the total size of load EL
  • Array output PAS
  • EL D R
  • (HA / GS) K
  • EL Average load size (consumed energy kWh /
    duration)
  • D Loads dependency rate on solar energy
  • HA Amount of solar radiation during a given
    interval kWh/sqft day
  • GS Intensity of solar radiation at normal
    condition kW/sqft
  • R Design margin ratio
  • K of integrated design factor(0.65 0.8, loss
    and equipment variation)

24
3-3-9. Array configuration(1)
  • String Series of PV modules.
  • Number of series
  • (Rated DC voltage of inverter) 1.1
  • Optimal operating voltage of PV module Vpm
  • Array Large panel consists of parallel strings.
  • Number of parallel
  • Expected output of PV system
  • (Max output of PV module Pmax) (Number of
    series)
  • In actual design, it is necessary to determine
    array configuration in accordance with size of
    mounting frame and installation space.
  • Avoid the configuration in which a part of string
    is shadowed.
  • Re-consider the series/parallel configuration
    again.

25
3-3-9. Array configuration(2)
1 string consists of 8 modules in series
Shadow
Parallel connection in junction box
Source NEDO
26
3-3-10. Necessary components(1)
  • Bypass device (diode) for each module

PV module
PV module
To junction box or load
Bypass Device (diode)
PV module
27
3-3-10. Necessary components(2)
  • Junction box
  • MCCB for PV array
  • Back-flow prevention device for each string
  • Main CB
  • Lightning protection/Arrester
  • Terminal block
  • Box
  • Distribution board
  • Wh meter
  • Battery

28
3-3-11. Battery capacity
  • Lifetime of battery heavily depends on Depth Of
    Discharge (DOD), number of discharge and ambient
    temperature.
  • In application with PV, set the average DOD
    because of fluctuating charging/discharging
    energy by weather.
  • Key point
  • Estimate accurate load size
  • Optimize PV capacity, battery capacity and
    operational parameter of PCS
  • Procedure
  • Decide DC input power necessary for load
  • Understand inverter input power
  • Acquire amount of solar radiation at the site
  • Set number of days without sunshine based on
    solar radiation condition and importance of load
  • Set DOD from expected lifetime of battery
  • Even in month with min solar radiation, determine
    capacity and angle of PV array to make charging
    energy cover discharge for load.
  • Calculate battery capacity
  • Daily power consumption number of
    days without sunshine
  • Maintenance factor DOD Final
    voltage in discharge

29
3-3-12. Various battery(1)
Battery Type Expected lifetime years Expected cycle Capacity Ah Water refilling
Seal type MSE 7 9 1000 (DOD50) 50 - 3000 Maintenance free
Seal type Long life 12 15 --- 150 - 3000 Maintenance free
Seal type Std 3 5 500 (DOD50) 0.7 - 144 Maintenance free
Seal type Long life 5 6 700 (DOD50) 50 - 130 Maintenance free
Clad type Std --- 1800 (DOD75) 50 - 3000 Necessary
Other 4 - 5 300 (DOD50) 21 160 (5 hours) Necessary
Source NEDO
30
3-3-12. Various battery(2)
Source NEDO
31
3-3-13. Operation maintenance
  • Load forecasting is most important.
  • Aim to full utilize PV power.
  • Reserve battery energy for emergency case.
  • Adjust charge/discharge energy in accordance with
    varying load.

32
3-3-14. Battery charging station
(optional)(1)
BCS at suburb of Phnom Penh, Cambodia
33
3-3-14. Battery charging station
(optional)(2)
Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand 1992-1997
Budget 316 million yen
The Sunlight made Nighttime Pleasant!
A fully charged battery provides lighting for a
week
Battery-Charging Station
Source NEDO
11
34
3-3-14. Battery charging station
(optional)(3)
Battery-Charging Station
Source NEDO
Using a charged battery at home
12
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