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National parks and reserves as tourist destinations

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Title: National parks and reserves as tourist destinations


1
National parks and reserves as tourist
destinations
  • Conditions for a national park?
  • Why establish a national park?
  • Problems involving tourism in national parks and
    reserves (Krüger National Park)

2
Conditions for a national park
  • Land of some preservation value must be available
  • Political will for a national park must exist
  • The land must be protected by law
  • The land must conform to the IUCN standards for
    national parks regarding size, public access etc.

3
Majority of Americans saw the land as an object
to be conquered and made productive. The first
reservations for the preservation of scenery
therefore tended to be established in areas that
were judged to be wasteland that had not economic
value in terms of agriculture, grazing, lumbering
or mining. (Hall Page, 1999)
4
Why establish a national park?
  • Establishment of national parks is seen as one
    way of opening up the natural attractions of the
    Third World to tourists in a sustainable manner.
    This is also attractive to tourists, many of whom
    are interested in new and exotic locations and
    are increasingly searching for otherness of
    unspoilt natural environments (Boo, 1991187-8)

5
Why establish a national park?
  • Protect endangered animal and plant species
  • Protect unique landscape
  • Protect indigenous people
  • Protect the land for science and research
  • Protect the land for the public to enjoy
  • Protect the land for future generations
  • Make money from land that had no economic
    importance before

6
Why establish a national park?
  • In Australia the first national parks the
    Royal National Park in NSW, 1879 were created
    for reasons of aesthetics, tourism and recreation
    with science gaining little recognition. (Hall,
    1992a)

7
Why establish a national park?
  • The term national park is a place label. In
    South Africa, some ½ million jobs were lost in
    mines between 1990 and 2000. Tourism is seen as
    an alternative job-creator. A locality can market
    itself to potential investors and and tourists
    through place marketing. A national park does
    just that.

8
Who gets the benefit?
  • Landscape
  • Animals
  • Eco-systems
  • Indigenous people
  • The general public
  • Tourists
  • Future generations
  • Local people
  • Local companies
  • Regional authority
  • National authority
  • Foreign nationals
  • Foreign companies

9
Who gets the benefit?
  • The government authority must demonstrate to
    specific benefit for the local people, by the way
    of commercial opportunities and employment
    (Rowinski, 199143).
  • Thus, economic factors may overshadow ecological
    considerations to the detriment of the park
    environment (Sherman Dixon, 199190-1).

10
Who gets the benefit?
  • Tension between tourism and conservation has
    been made worse because the tourism industry and
    park managers do not understand each other. The
    world of tourism sees parks as a tourist
    attraction, while park managers are concerned
    with biota and animal behaviour, not in terms of
    tourists needs (Cochrane, 1996238).

11
Who are the stakeholders?
  • The stakeholders of national parks and
    reserves are all those who are involved such as
    the landscape, animals, eco-systems, indigenous
    people, the general public, local people, local
    companies, regional authorities, national
    authorities, foreign nationals, foreign
    companies, future generations and tourists

12
The effect of tourism
  • It is rather obvious that tourism, especially
    mass-tourism is detrimental to the environment in
    many ways such as destruction of resources,
    pollution and loss of cultural identity. For
    example, in Kenyas Maasai Mara NP and the
    Ngorongoro Conservation Area in Tanzania, the
    heavy demand for firewood for use in lodges and
    camps for cooking and heating has severely
    depleted the small riverine forests (Kamuro,
    1996).

13
The effect of tourism
  • Traditional Maasai territory in Kenya and
    Tanzania includes famous national parks such as
    Amboseli, Maasai Mara, Serengeti and Ngorogoro,
    which are heavily visited by tourists on wildlife
    safaris. Employment for the Maasai living around
    these parks was limited to posing for photographs
    and selling craft souvenirs (Bachmann, 1988)

14
The effect of tourism
  • Profits from safari tourism go mainly to
    foreign-owned travel enterprises, while local
    Maasai communities bordering the Mara Reserve
    continue to lead poverty stricken lives
    (Carrere, 1995).

15
The effect of tourism
  • In Europe, the Balearic Islands have responded
    to tourist pressures by imposing an eco-tax of 1
    Euro per visitor per day, to help rectify the
    serious environmental damage caused by the
    tourist boom of the last three decades, and to
    protect fragile areas that are left (Binns
    Nel, 2002).

16
The effect of tourism
  • Belizenow has a highly competitive tourism
    industry, more interested in marketing a product
    than ensuring that it is environmentally sound,
    or that people are benefiting from it. (Tourism
    Concern, 2002).

17
The effect of tourism
  • Belizethe overall number of local residents
    affected is probably quite low, due to the
    limited number of parks that accept significant
    visitor numbers and the tendency of groups to
    visit on a day-only basis.
  • (Weaver, 1998)

18
The effect of tourism
  • In South Africa, tourism has increased greatly
    since the ANC came into power in 1994.
  • There has been massive expansion in game parks
    (reserves and farms) in SA (Binns Nel, 2002).
  • The coal mining town Utrecht in SA plans to
    create a unique nature-based experience by
    incorporating the town into the game reserve and
    the game farm that surrounds it by pulling the
    fences down

19
The effect of tourism
  • Namaqualand NP in the dry south-western part
    of South Africa has many unique biological
    features e.g. half of its plant species are found
    nowhere else on earth and as such has a global
    significance. Springtime floral display attracts
    thousands of tourists. The problem is (Binns
    Nel, 2002).

20
Krüger National Park
  • Fact sheet
  • 1898 first proclaimed, declared by law in 1926
  • 1927 one of the worlds first eco-tourism
    destinations
  • 1951 scientific work started
  • 1959 fencing work done
  • 1961 new species introduced (ongoing)
  • 1964 first wildlife census
  • Makuleka tribe forcefully displaced in the late
    60s

21
Krüger National Park
  • Size 19.485 (1/8th of the size of Iceland)
  • 1989 there were 700.000 visitors
  • 1995 there were 835.000 visitors
  • 14 rest camps with 4000 beds, and 6 secluded bush
    camps.
  • Typical stay is 3-4 nights
  • Average income per visitor, per day is around 60
    USD
  • 3500 workers

22
Krüger National Park
  • 885 km of tarred roads
  • 1739 km of gravel roads
  • 2000 different forms of plant life
  • 490 species of birds (ca. 9000 in the world)
  • 146 species of mammals
  • 114 species of reptiles
  • 49 types of fish
  • 16 different types of eco-systems

23
Krüger National Park visitor management
  • Buildings blend in with the environment
  • Road signs blend in with the environment
  • Wood for braii is imported from outside
  • Adequate space between accommodation, but is
    still within walking distance of the service area
  • Information center, literature etc. available
  • Security system at gates to check permits and
    capacity control is maintained

24
Krüger National Park visitor management
  • No more than 0.75 vehicles per 1 km of road
  • 1979 guided wilderness trails
  • 1994 night drives
  • Educational bush drives during the day
  • Visitors pay for over 70 of operation costs

25
Krüger National Park current issues
  • 1992 ANC suggested land appropriation that set
    off a large scale lobbying process by the
    National Parks Board
  • Until 1990s, 95 of visitors to the park were
    affluent white South Africans. All managers and
    rangers were white. All this changed in 1994
  • Suggested oil pipeline and road across the park
    from Mocambique
  • River pollution from people outside the park

26
Krüger National Park current issues
  • Water shortage boreholes
  • 1996 demand to further develop revenue-earning
    activities in opposition to conservationists
  • Affirmative action
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