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Building Green in the 21st Century

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3M has developed window film insulation they claim blocks out 99% of UV rays and 97% of IR light ... and light-weight. We are already seeing concrete and steel ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Building Green in the 21st Century


1
Building Green in the 21st Century
  • Engineering with Nanotechnology

2
Why Green? Why Now?
  • What are some challenges?
  • Global Warming?
  • Air and Water Pollution
  • Landfills
  • Nonrenewable Resources

Image from stock.xchng (http//www.sxc.hu/)
3
Global Warming
  • Greenhouse gases (especially CO2)
  • Natural cycle or human caused?
  • Can we wait?

Image from stock.xchng (http//www.sxc.hu/)
4
Pollution Challenges!
  • Ozone
  • Acid rain
  • Drinking water
  • Chesapeake Bay

Image from stock.xchng (http//www.sxc.hu/)
5
Landfills!
  • Take space
  • Produce methane gas (global warming)
  • Add to water pollution

Image from stock.xchng (http//www.sxc.hu/)
6
Nonrenewable Resources
  • Oil and Natural Gas Imports
  • Mining for coal and mineral deposits
  • Making electricity

Image from stock.xchng (http//www.sxc.hu/)
7
Buildings Waste and Pollute!
  • 43 of CO2
  • 40 of Landfills
  • 40 of Electricity

Image from stock.xchng (http//www.sxc.hu/)
8
What Can We Do?
  • Live in caves or tents?
  • Ignore the challenges?
  • Practice the three Rs?
  • Innovate and Invent new solutions?

Image from www.stockxpert.com
9
Can Nanotechnology Help?
bright idea
potential disaster
OR
  • Different Approach to Science and Engineering
  • Building blocks invisible to human eye
  • Not new to Nature

10
What is Nanotechnology?
  • 1 item (usually 2 to 3) is 1 100 nm in size.
  • Substances behave
  • differently at the nanoscale!
  • Control or manipulate
  • at the nano scale.

11
How Small is Small!?
100 nm
Comparing one hundred nanometers to the size of a
soccerball is like comparing a soccerball to the
size of the earth!
http//micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopt
icsu/powersof10/
12
Lets Compare!
  • How small is a human hair (diameter)
  • Compare this to a nanotube (4nm diameter)

13
Surface Area/Volume
  • Ratio increases as size decreases
  • Solubility and Reactivity Increase
  • Video Clip

Photos from stock.xchng (http//www.sxc.hu/)
14
Everything is Sticky
  • Internal Forces Dominate Over Gravity

Image from stock.xchng (http//www.sxc.hu/)
15
Appearances May Deceive
  • Optical properties vary at the nanoscale.

Image source http//mrsec.wisc.edu/Edetc/SlideSh
ow/slides/nanoparticles/Au_nanoshells.html
16
Mother Nature
Mother Nature has used nanotechnology for
millions of year.
17
Living LEDs
Butterflies figured out how to emit light 30
million years ago.
Fluorescent patches on the wings of some
butterflies work much like light emitting diodes
(LEDs).
http//news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4443854.
stm
18
Wings are Colorful and Hydrophobic!
Look, Mom, Im dry!
Water droplet
  • The butterflys wing in the picture isnt
    getting wet.
  • The butterfly can thank its nanoscales.

19

As the Saying Goes
Like Water Off of a Ducks Back
http//nanotechweb.org/articles/news/1/11/5/1/061
1102
20
Building Green with Nanotechnology
  • How?
  • When?
  • Where?

21
Heating and Cooling
  • Use HUGE amount of energy
  • Insulators trap air

22
Nanotech Insulators
  • Trap air better
  • High Surface Area to Volume Ratio
  • Examples
  • Spray or paint on
  • Aerogel
  • Window Film

Printed with permission http//www.nansulate.com/
23
Lighting
  • Uses almost one-third of energy
  • 95 wasted as heat
  • Fluorescent bulbs contain mercury
  • Light-emitting Diodes (LEDs) safer and more
    efficient

24
LED FUNDAMENTALS
  • Semiconductor material
  • Electrons flow one direction (diode)
  • Photons released
  • Color depends on material/band gap

25
Atomic Level
26
LEDs Today
27
ACTIVITY
VS
28
Safety
  • Avoid placing incandescent bulbs against
    flammable surfaces.

29
Procedures
  • Turn off room lights.
  • Measure temperature (oC) and illuminations
    (lumens). Lights off.
  • Measure temperature (oC) and illuminations
    (lumens). Lights on.
  • Record raw data (first part of data sheet)

30
INCANDESCENT VS LED ILLUMINATION
31
INCANDESCENT VS LED TEMPERATURE RANGE
32
RELATIVE EFFICIENCY (lumens/temp range)
33
LED Efficiency (lumens/watt)
LEDs are highly efficient compared to other light
sources.
34
Organic LEDs
  • Small applications today
  • Potential to mimic natural light
  • Flat or curved
  • Potential to be more efficient and less expensive

Photos from stock.xchng (http//www.sxc.hu/)
35
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36
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37
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38
Steel and Concrete (and Wood?)
http//www.indigo.com/models/gphmodel/minit-carbon
-nanotubes.html"gt zig zag, chiral and armchair
carbon nanotubeslt/agt courtesy of Indigo
Instruments.
39
Other Applications
  • Glass
  • Plastics
  • Drywall
  • Wiring
  • Roofing Tiles
  • Sensors

40
Review
  • Why Green? Why Now?
  • What is nanotechnology and how can it help?
  • How do LEDs work?
  • Environmental and human health concerns

41
Thank You
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