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Germany

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Lack of democratic traditions, lack of legitimacy ... Poland) 1939 Britain and France declared war Summer 1940 - Germany or ruled over almost all of Europe. 1941 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Germany


1
Germany
2
CHARACTERISTICS
  • Affluent Economy (despite the disequilibria
    between the Eastern and the Western parts of the
    country)
  • Unstable territorial limits
  • Divided between 1945 and 1990.
  • Difficult but successful unification process.

3
HISTORY
  • First Reich Charlemagne (800 AD)
  • Religious divisions (Protestant Reformation 1517-
    Southern Germany remains Catholic, while the
    North shifts to Protestantism).
  • Different regional versions of spoken German
  • 1648 the Treaty of Westphalia divides Germany
    into 360 political entities.
  • 1800s Industrial development (iron and
    steel)Working Class.

4
Second Reich(1871, after the Franco-Prussian war)
  • Chancellor Otto von Bismark.
  • Weak liberal and democratic traditions
  • Oppositional groupsSPD (Social Democratic
    Party), 1875. Oldest social- democratic party in
    the world.
  • Non-German minorities and small ethnic parties
  • German Catholics (turned into the Christian
    Democratic Party later on)

5
Problems associated with the Late unification of
Germany.
  • Difficulties to developing a modern state
  • Nationalism and militarism
  • Authoritarian culture
  • Expansionism (Colonization in Africa) and
    engagement in wars, until WWI in 1914
  • Dramatic defeat - The Versailles Treaty blamed
    Germany for the war, took out its colonies, and
    imposed the country an impossible amount of
    reparations.

6
1919 The Weimar Republic
  • The Kaiser was removed
  • Weak parliamentary democracy.
  • Lack of democratic traditions, lack of legitimacy
    (imposed by the victorious allies), catastrophic
    economic situation (1920s hyperinflation)

7
1920s Growth of Nazism
  • 1924- The Nazis, a very small party.Increasing
    political instability
  • 1929 Depression
  • 1932. The Nazis win a third of the German vote,
    and President Hindenburg names Hitler as
    chancellor in 1933.

8
The Third Reich
  • The Nazi Party establishes a legislative majority
    and pass legislation for Hitler to rule by decree
    for 40 years? Third Reich.
  • Expansionism (Saar, Czech lands, Poland)
  • 1939 Britain and France declared war
  • Summer 1940 - Germany or ruled over almost all of
    Europe.
  • 1941 Final Solution Death Camps (six million
    Jews and a similar amount of inconvenient
    Christians (Gipsies, Poles, others) plus
    leftists and homosexuals were annihilated.
  • 1945- The Allies win the war

9
A Divided Germany
  • February 1945, Postdam the Allies divide Germany
    (and Berlin) into four military occupation zones.
  • Britain, France, and the U.S. combine their zones
    and create the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG)
    in May 1949.
  • Self-governed since 1949. Chancellor Adenauer
    (1949-1963) (CDU). German miracle
  • The Soviets create the German Democratic Republic
    (GDR) in October 1949.
  • Modern Germany resulted from foreign intervention.

10
Phases
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • 1949-1969 Adenauer other Christian Democratic
    leaders/ Economic miracle/Parliamentary
    System/Social Welfare
  • 1969-1982Social Democrats (Willy Brandt
  • 1982-1990 CDU/ the Green Party
  • German Democratic Republic
  • 1949-1961-Socialism (the Berlin Wall)
  • 1961-1970 (greater material benefits/GDR becomes
    a socialist State)
  • 1971-1985 (starts opening and relies increasingly
    on the West)
  • 1985-1989liberalization and attempts to
    reunification

11
Problems of Reunification
  • October 3, 1990 (Dissolution of the GDR)
  • Imbalance (all of the FRG institutions prevail)
  • Economic and social problems
  • Westeners felt they had to pay for the
    integration
  • Easteners did not feel their situation improved
    (many lost their property/jobs)
  • Xenophobia and resurrection of neo-nazism
    (problem solved in 1992/3)

12
German Strong Federalism
  • 16 Länder education, police, mass media.
  • Different versions of spoken German in the
    regions.
  • Federal legislative powers
  • State level organized Administration and Justice
    system.

13
Basic Law
  • Created in 1949 as a temporal document
  • Through time, it became the German Constitution
  • Amended several times
  • Three Principles
  • Germany is a Federal Republic
  • Germany is a State based on the rule of law
  • Germany guarantees the social welfare of its
    citizens (social welfare is seen as naturally
    provided by the State).

14
GERMAN POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS
  • Head of Government the Chancellor, elected by
    the Bundestag for four yearsPowerful.
  • Selects all cabinet members (approx 20, head
    committees in the Bundestag)
  • Head of State the President, chosen by a Special
    Convention (five years, two-term limit).
    Ceremonial.

15
Bicameral legislature
  • Bundestag 656 members (now 669) 4-year term.
    Largest parliament among democracies. Committee
    system.
  • Chosen through a mixed system (5 threshold) ½
    through SMD (328), ½ through PR. PR votes
    determine of seats Corrective mechanism..
  • Bundesrat (upper house) elected indirectly.
    Gvts. of the Länder (regions) send members to
    choose representatives.

16
The Judiciary
  • The German Judiciary is as important as the
    American Court system. In both the U.S. and
    Germany the Supreme Court reviews the
    constitutionality of laws.
  • Federal Constitutional Court
  • 2 Chambers (8 justices each, chosen for one
    12-year term).
  • -Roman Law (codified)

17
Multi-Party System.
  •    Two-Plus party system German governments
    almost always consist of one large party in
    coalition with one small party.

18
Parliamentary vs. Presidential
(Source Roskin)
  • PARLIAMENTARY
  • Coalition SELECTS AND OUSTS
  • GUIDES

Prime Minister
Parties Parliament
Cabinet
Voters
Ministries
PRESIDENTIAL
President
Parliament
elect
elect
Cabinet
Voters
Ministries
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