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Title: Implications of the National Early Literacy Panel for Early Braille Literacy PART ONE


1
Implications of the National Early Literacy
Panel for Early Braille LiteracyPART ONE
  • National Center for Family Literacy
  • American Printing House for the Blind
  • Visually Impaired Preschool Services

2
Preliminary Findings of theNational Early
Literacy Panel
Update the final report of the National Early
Literacy Panel was released January 8, 2009 and
can be accessed at http//www.famlit.org/site/c.gt
JWJdMQIsE/b.2133427/k.2623/National_Early_Literacy
_Panel.htm
  • Bonnie Lash Freeman
  • Director Training/Special Projects
  • National Center for Family Literacy

3
Purpose of the Family Partnership in Reading
Project Instructional strategies will be
identified based on the scientific research that
will enable staff in family literacy programs and
early childhood programs to
4
Purpose of the Family Partnership in Reading
Project
  • Help young children develop the foundational
    skills they need to become good readers
  • Equip parents to support their childrens
    literacy development
  • Improve reading instruction for parents in
  • family literacy programs

5
National Early Literacy Panel Members
  • Dr. Anne Cunningham, University of California at
    Berkeley
  • Dr. Kathy Escamilla, University of Colorado at
    Boulder
  • Dr. Janet Fischel, State University of New York
    at Stony Brook
  • Dr. Susan H. Landry, University of TexasHouston

6
National Early Literacy Panel Members
  • Dr. Christopher J. Lonigan, Florida State
    University
  • Dr. Victoria Molfese, University of Louisville
  • Dr. Chris Schatschneider, Florida State
    University
  • Dr. Timothy Shanahan (Chair), University of
    Illinois at Chicago
  • Dr. Dorothy Strickland, Rutgers University

7
Purpose of the NELP
  • To
  • Synthesize the research on early literacy
    development including parent and home program
    effects
  • Deliver a final report of their findings

8
Emergent Literacy
  • Emergent literacy involves the skills, knowledge,
    and attitudes that are developmental precursors
    to conventional forms of reading and writing
  • (Whitehurst Lonigan, 1998).

9
Emergent Literacy
  • Emergent literacy skills are the basic building
    blocks for learning to read and write.

10
How to define emergent literacy
  • Two conditions need to be satisfied for something
    to be considered an emergent literacy skill
  • Must come before conventional
  • literacy skills.
  • Must be related to (i.e., predictive of)
    conventional literacy skills.

11
What is a Research Synthesis?
  • A research synthesis, also referred to as a
    research integration, research review, literature
    review, and a meta-analysis is a method of
    inquiry used to derive generalizations from the
    collective findings of a body of existing
    studies.

12
Benefits of a Research Synthesis
  • The aggregation of research allows for an
    accounting and weighing of research evidence in
    support of a research question.

13
Limits to a Research Synthesis
  • Limited most by the availability and quality of
    research on a particular question.
  • Generalizations made from a research synthesis
    must stay within the bounds of the research.

14
  • Four Synthesis Questions

15
  • What are young childrens (ages birth through
    five years) skills and abilities that predict
    later reading, writing and spelling outcomes?
  • 2. What programs and interventions contribute to
    or inhibit gains in childrens skills and
    abilities and are linked to later outcomes in
    reading, writing and spelling?

16
  • 3. What environments and settings contribute to
    or inhibit gains in childrens skills and
    abilities and are linked to later outcomes in
    reading, writing and spelling?
  • 4. What child characteristics contribute to or
    inhibit gains in childrens skills and abilities
    and are linked to later outcomes in reading,
    writing and spelling?

17
What skills constitute the domain of conventional
literacy skills?
  • Receptively
  • Decoding (accuracy and fluency)
  • Reading Comprehension

18
What skills constitute the domain of conventional
literacy skills?
  • Although decoding is not all there is to skilled
    reading, it is a critical component.
  • You can decode what you cannot comprehend, but
  • you cannot comprehend what you cannot decode.

19
What skills constitute the domain of conventional
literacy skills?
  • Expressively
  • Spelling
  • Composition

20
Strong Predictors
  • Alphabet Knowledge
  • Concepts About Print
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Invented Spelling
  • Oral Language
  • Writing Name/Writing
  • RAN (Rapid Automatic Naming)

21
Unique predictors from the multivariate
studies
  • Alphabet Knowledge
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Rapid Automatic Naming
  • Writing/Writing Name
  • Phonological STM

22
Summary of the 1 Primary Analyses
23
(No Transcript)
24
Oral Language Subcategories Predicting Decoding
Comprehension
25
(No Transcript)
26
Oral Language Defined
  • In pairs, define the oral language terms.
  • Chart your definitions.
  • In small groups, discuss one strategy that you
    can use with children that matches the term you
    defined.
  • Add to your chart

27
Components of Oral Language
  • What aspect of oral language is being examined
    matters a lot.
  • Vocabulary is a weak predictor of later decoding
    and comprehension.
  • More complex aspects of oral language, like
    grammar and definitional vocabulary, are very
    strong predictors of decoding and comprehension.
  • Implications for early childhood programs.

28
Components of Phonological Awareness
  • Early forms of phonological awareness are strong
    predictors of later reading skills.
  • Measures of rhyme are not the best indicator of
    how well children are acquiring this key
    pre-reading skill.

29
Answering Question 2(Effects of
Interventions)Process Results
30
  • Category 1
  • Helping Children Make Sense of Print--Cracking
    the Alphabetic Code and Teaching Letters and
    Words
  • (PA, Letter Knowledge, Spelling, Phonics, Print
    Awareness, Visual Perceptual/Perceptual Motor)

31
  • Category 2
  • Reading to and Sharing Books with Young Children
  • Category 3
  • Parent and Home Programs for Improving Young
    Childrens Literacy

32
  • Category 4
  • Preschool and Kindergarten Programs
  • Category 5
  • Language Enhancement Studies

33
Example Storybooks and Print Awareness
  • Laura M. Justice and Helen K. Ezell
  • 30 Head Start children, native English speakers
  • Pretest-posttest control-group research design
  • 8 week book-reading intervention small group
    reading sessions
  • Experimental print focus
  • Control picture focus

34
Cont.
  • Example print focus prompts
  • Print Conventions Where is the front of this
    book? Show me the way I need to read.
  • Concept of word Where is the first word on this
    page?
  • Alphabet knowledge Does anyone see any letters
    in their name on this page?

35
Cont.
  • Results indicated that for three of the subtests
  • Print Recognition
  • Words in Print
  • Alphabet Knowledge
  • and in terms of the Phonological Awareness
    composite

36
Cont.
  • the children who participated in print focused
    reading sessions demonstrated significantly
    greater gains from pretest to post test compared
    to the children in the picture focused reading
    groups.

37
Summary Overall Intervention Findings
  • Evidence for significant effects of some (but not
    all) early childhood interventions in the
    promotion of literacy and literacy-related skills.

38
SummaryOverall Intervention Findings
  • Efforts to teach code-related skills are highly
    successful.
  • Phonological Awareness Skills
  • Alphabet Knowledge
  • Concepts About Print
  • Shared-book reading helps promote oral language
    skills.

39
SummaryOverall Intervention Findings
  • Evidence of a sizable impact of parent and home
    programs for the promotion of oral language
    skills.
  • Relatively weak evidence for the effectiveness of
    undifferentiated preschool programs on reading
    achievement.
  • Oral language interventions work.

40
Implications for Early Childhood Education
41
  • Provides evidence for building childrens
    language and literacy skills in the preschool
    period.
  • Identifies early skills that give children the
    strongest foundation for learning to read.

42
  • Provides guidelines for professional development
    (e.g., read-aloud practices, PA activities).
  • Supports the importance of assessment of early
    literacy skills.

43
  • Informs decisions about developing or selecting
    the most appropriate curricula (e.g., content,
    intensity, sequence).
  • Helps to guide the development of goals and
    selection of content for parent programs.
  • Provides strong direction about future research.

44
Implications of the National Early Literacy
Panel for Early Braille LiteracyPART TWO
  • Suzette Wright APH Emergent Literacy Project
    Leader
  • Pauletta Feldman VIPS Special Projects Coordinator

45
  • Preliminary findings of the National Early
    Literacy Panel (NELP ) point to early skills that
    predict favorable literacy outcomes for young,
    typically sighted print readers.

46
NELP confirms the critical importance of the
years before school and the contributions of
  • parents and the home environment
  • teachers of preschoolers and preschool programs

47
NELP
  • Correlative information regarding early
    predictive skills and later
  • decoding
  • comprehension
  • spelling

48
NELP
  • Guide for future research
  • address observed gaps in existing research
  • secondary and more detailed analyses of NELP data

49
What does NELP indicate about
  • skills needed by a preschooler who will read
    braille?
  • the settings and circumstances in which those
    skills may be learned and developed?

50
Can NELP findings guide us as we work to ensure a
foundation for literacy for children who will
read braille?
51
NELP predictors
  • Alphabet knowledge
  • Concepts about print
  • Phonological awareness
  • Invented spelling
  • Oral language
  • Writing name/writing
  • Rapid automatic naming (RAN)
  • letters, digits, also things and colors

52
Unique predictors
  • Alphabet knowledge
  • Phonological awareness
  • Writing name/writing
  • Rapid automatic naming (RAN)
  • letters, digits, things and colors

53
Oral Language
  • Literacy is about connecting written words to
    spoken language that has meaning for the reader.

54
Oral language--closely correlated subskills
  • receptive language
  • expressive language
  • grammar
  • definitional vocabulary

55
Oral languagewhat to do?
  • Ensure development of oral language skills is a
    part of work with children and their families
  • Begin early complex language abilities are
    related to the childs ability as a 6-month-old
    to distinguish basic units of spoken sounds
    (Kuhl, 2002)

56
Oral languagewhat to do?
  • Build early communication skills through
    turn-taking
  • Extend early language
  • Ensure exposure to a wide range of concepts and
    related language

57
Oral languagewhat to do?
  • Read-aloudtalking about the story, unfamiliar
    words, and meaning asking questions

Dialogic reading http//www.readingrockets.org/ar
ticles/400
58
Oral languagewhat to do?
  • Be watchful for and share strategies to handle
    common problems areas
  • misuse of pronouns
  • echolalia
  • use of questions

59
Oral languagewhat to do?
  • Talk with the child
  • extended discourse
  • - things that interest the child
  • - using nouns and descriptive words
  • - connecting words to experiences
  • modeling proper grammar

60
Oral languageimportance of home setting and
caregiver characteristics
  • Hart Risley (1995) longitudinal study
  • 42 families
  • 9 mos. to 3 years
  • amount/type of language spoken
  • caregiver style

61
Oral languageHart Risley study
  • Linked to higher scores on language and
    intelligence tests at 4th grade
  • frequently interacting with the young child
  • inviting childs involvement
  • following the childs lead
  • using encouragement and a positive tone
  • extended conversations

62
Oral language--vocabulary
  • Students who enter kindergarten knowing more
    vocabulary learn new vocabulary at twice the rate
    of students who begin with a lower vocabulary
    (Neuman, 2005).

63
Vocabularywhat to do?
  • Pairing language with related experiences
  • Engaging in extended discourse, introducing new
    words
  • Reading aloudexposure to rare words, broader
    vocabulary

64
Phonological awareness (PA)
  • PA appears to support decoding skills by helping
    a child notice letter-sound relationships and
    comprehension by helping the beginning reader
    recognize words as he blends sounds (McGee
    Richgels, 2000 Gillon Young, 2002).

65
Phonemic awareness is important to success in
decoding and learning to decode leads to
further improvement in phonemic
awareness(Gillon, 2004)
66
PA-closely correlated subskills
  • phonemes
  • subphonemes
  • not rhymealthough rhyme may be important as a
    building block for more refined phonemic
    awareness skills . . .

67
PAimportance for child with vi
  • Study of students who used braille as their
    primary reading medium showed a strong
    relationship between the students' level of
    phonemic awareness and braille reading skills
    (Gillon Young, 2002)

68
PAwhat to do?
  • Talking with a child, from birth

69
PAwhat to do?
  • Play with words, rhymes, alliteration
  • Daily conversation
  • Read-aloud from books with word play/rhyme
  • Songs and chants clapping/marching in time

70
PAwhat to do?
  • Play games that draw attention to beginning
    sounds
  • Use objects to substitute for pictures
  • Gather household objects with same beginning
    sound

71
Alphabetic knowledge
  • Unique predictor/strong relationshipaverage r
    for decoding was .5 indicating it accounts for
    25 of the variation in decoding performance

72
Alphabetic knowledge-subskills
A B C
  • Letter recognition
  • Knowledge of letter-names
  • Knowledge of letter-sound associations
  • Letter-writing ability

73
Alphabetic knowledge-subskills
  • Although letter-name knowledge is correlated to
    later reading achievement, evidence suggests
    letter-sound knowledge accounts for more variance
    in reading achievement and delays (McBride-Chang,
    1999 Duncan Seymour, 2000).

A B C
74
Alphabetic knowledge-subskills
  • Research with typically sighted children shows
    letters and letter sounds should be taught at the
    same time to make the greatest contribution to
    reading (Whitehurst Lonigan, 2001)

A B C
75
Alphabet knowledgewhat to do?
  • Involve children
  • in actively exploring
  • letters and sounds
  • together
  • braillewriter
  • letters and words
  • brailled on cards
  • braille labels around house

76
Alphabet knowledgewhat to do?
  • Find daily opportunities to involve the child in
    writing in braille, linking letters and letter
    sounds
  • shopping lists
  • notes/messages to family members
  • calendar
  • experience stories

77
Alphabet knowledgewhat to do?
  • Use household objects to create alphabet boxes
    and braille letter cards play sorting and
    matching games that draw attention to beginning
    sounds and the corresponding braille letter

78
Alphabet knowledgewhat to do?
  • Share appropriate alphabet books that
  • provide exposure to braille letters (such as
    Alphabet Scramble, from APH)
  • introduce beginning letter sounds with letters
    (such as Dr. Suesss ABCs)
  • (books that depend too heavily upon pictures are
    less effective)

79
Alphabet knowledgewhat to do?
  • As you read-aloud occasionally point out familiar
    or key letters/sounds (print- or
    braille-referencing comments)

80
Considerations/questions
  • In pairs, share some of your thoughts and
    questions about--
  • the role of alphabet knowledge,
    particularly letter/sound knowledge
  • for preschoolers who will be braille readers.

81
Considerations/questions
  • Uncontracted braille may make more clear and
    explicit the relationship of how phonemes map
    on to letters (Ross, 2002).
  • Braille contractions that represent phonemes (ch,
    sh, th) may be more easily decoded than their
    print counterparts
  • Decoding words that include contractions of some
    common letter groups (ar ed en er in ing it
    ) may also be simpler

82
Considerations/questions
  • in print, there are also many occasions where
    there is not a single clear way a sound (phoneme)
    maps onto a print letter
  • 26 print letters but more than 40 phonemes
  • those 40 phonemes are represented by some 250
    different letters and combinations of letters

83
Effectiveness of interventions
  • The wide range of confidence intervals (with the
    exception of the tighter range for phonological
    awareness) indicates that within a single
    category of intervention some interventions were
    much more effective than others (Dunst, Trivette,
    Hamby, 2007)

84
Effectiveness of interventions
  • Some of the most interesting analyses lie ahead
    as data is disentangled, to discover which
    characteristics of interventions were associated
    with greatest effectiveness . . .
  • Example Reading aloudinteractive reading, print
    referencing techniques

85
TVI Reading teacher Early childhood
educator Braille transcriber Tech
guy Scholar Advisor/Coach Cheerleader
86
References
  • Baker, L., Scher, D. (2002). Beginning readers'
    motivation for reading in relation to parental
    beliefs and home reading experiences. Reading
    Psychology, 23, 239-269.
  • Ball, E., Blachman, B. (1991). Does phoneme
    awareness training make a difference in early
    word recognition and developmental spelling?
    Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 49-66.
  • Duncan, L. G. Seymour, P.H.K. (2000).
    Socio-economic differences in foundation level
    literacy. British Journal of Psychology, 91,
    145-166.
  • Dunst, C.J.. Trivette, C.M. Hamby, D.W. (2007).
    Predictors of interventions associated with later
    literacy accomplishments. Center for Early
    Learning and Achievement CELLreviews, 1, 3.

87
  • Gillon, G.T. (2004). Phonological awareness From
    research to practice. New York The Guilford
    Press.
  • Gillon, G. T., Young, A. A. (2002). The
    phonological-awareness skills of children who are
    blind. Journal of Visual Impairment Blindness,
    96, 38-49.
  • Hart, B., Risley, T. (1995). Meaningful
    differences in the everyday experiences of young
    American children. Baltimore, MD Brookes.
  • Justice, L.M. Ezell, H.K. (2004). Print
    referencing An emergent literacy enhancement
    strategy and its clinical applications.
    Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in
    Schools, 35, 185-193.
  • Kuhl, P. (2002, June). Born to learn Language,
    reading, and the brain of the child. Paper
    presented at the Early Learning Summit for the
    Northwest Region, Boise, ID.

88
  • McBride-Chang, C. (1999). The ABCs of the ABCs
    The development of letter-name and letter-sound
    knowledge. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45, 285-308.
  • McGee, L. M., Richgels, D. (2000). Literacys
    beginnings Supporting young readers and writers
    (3rd ed.). Boston Allyn Bacon.
  • Neuman, S. (2005, May). Developmentally
    appropriate early literacy instruction
    Evidence-based solutions. Presentation at
    Institute 8 of the 50th Annual Convention of the
    International Reading Association, San Antonio,
    TX.
  • Whitehurst, G. J., Lonigan, C. J. (2001).
    Emergent literacy Development from prereaders to
    readers. In S. B. Neuman D. K. Dickinson
    (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp.
    11-42). New York Guilford Press.

89
The Pursuit of LiteracyOne Moms Story
90
What I Feared
  • Learning to read would be difficult for my son
  • I wouldnt have access to appropriate materials
  • I wouldnt be able to learn braille to help him

91
What I Did
  • Borrowed print/braille books from VIPS
  • Worked with a blind adult to understand the
    basics of braille

92
What I Learned
  • My attitude was critical to my sons literacy.
  • Concept development was a critical issue.

93
  • Talking to my son opened up the world to him.
  • I could learn the basics of braille (and
    beyond!).

94
Books always made great presents!
95
  • I could learn the basics of writing braille.
  • We could have braille in our home through print
    braille books and braille labeling.

96
A brailled birthday card
97
(No Transcript)
98
  • My son could learn to love books and reading
    every bit as much as a sighted child.
  • The public library could be a special place for
    my blind child, too.

99
My son loved having a private library of his own
braille books.
100
How VIPS Promotes Early Literacy for Families of
Young Visually Impaired Children
101
  • 1) VIPS has a lending library of
    print/braille books for VIPS families.
  • 2) VIPS has offered braille classes over the
    years for VIPS families.

102
  • 3) VIPS produced the Power At Your
    Fingertips An Intro to Braille video and
    handbook for use by parents, regular ed
    teachers, and others to gain an overview of the
    braille alphabet, braille usage,
    contractions, and writing tools.

103
  • VIPS participates in the Read Books program
    through National Braille Press, signing up VIPS
    families to receive free book bags.
  • 5) VIPS has undertaken two recent projects to
    support early literacy.

104
The VIPS Getting In Touch with Reading Program
105
The goals of this program are to
  • Promote early literacy
  • Foster appreciation for braille
  • Encourage use of the library.

106
Offers free bags of books and materials to VIPS
families.
107
The bags include
  • On the Way to Literacy Handbook for parents
    and teachers
  • Two On the Way to Literacy Storybooks
  • Two print/braille board books (Good Night
    Moon and One,Two, Three, by Sandra Boynton)

108
  • VIPS Power at Your Fingertips video and
    handbook, including slate and stylus
  • Folder full of information about the public
    library, National Library Service for Blind
    Physically Handicapped and resources on where to
    obtain more print/Braille books

109
Over 90 of parents have reported that using the
materials in the book bag has helped them
  • Enjoy books more with their child
  • Appreciate the importance of reading to their
    child
  • Read aloud more often to their child
  • Create literacy-rich environments at home for
    everyday activities

110
  • Know sources for print/braille books
  • Feel more comfortable with braille
  • Appreciate the importance of parents learning
    about braille
  • Feel empowered to help their children with
    learning to read and with schoolwork when the
    time comes
  • However, there was no positive impact on library
    usage.

111
The program also has offered workshops on braille
and early literacy
112
  • The Intro to Braille workshop for VIPS parents
  • 100 of participants rated the class, teachers,
    and materials as Excellent.
  • Parent comments included these statements Im
    not afraid of Braille now, Thanks for making a
    daunting task less so, and I loved this class!

113
  • The Touch of Early Literacy Workshop
  • Attended by special educators, regular ed
    preschool teachers, child care staff, parents,
    and some APH staff
  • A day-long workshop held at APH
  • Bonnie presented results of NELP
  • Suzette talked about the implications of NELP
    results for early literacy for VI
  • Participants also toured APH and made 4 tactile
    books

114
  • 100 of participants rated the workshop and
    materials as Excellent and said the workshop
    gave them a better understanding of
  • Research on early literacy
  • Emergent literacy/how to nurture it
  • Concepts that children need for conventional
    literacy skills
  • How concept development for a blind child differs
    from a sighted child
  • How VI children use tactile pictures.

115
  • VIPS_at_Home Parent University

116
The goals of the program
  • Provide parents of young visually impaired
    children with needed information
  • Provide parents with parent-to-parent support
  • Reach the 70-80 of parents who do not attend
    regularly scheduled VIPS events

117
Two of the four courses that have been developed
so far are particularly relevant here
  • Emergent Literacy
  • Power at Your Fingertips Into to Braille,
    based on the VIPS video of the same name

118
Emergent Literacy
119
Props for the course
120
Power At Your Fingertips
121
Props for the course
122
  • Each VIPS_at_Home Parent University course takes
    about two hours to complete.
  • Courses are taught in the students (parents)
    home at times of their own choosing.
  • Courses are taught by trained veteran parents who
    can also serve as buddies on an ongoing basis to
    offer information and support.

123
Students receive a VIPS_at_Home Parent University
Binder and a handbook for each course they take.
124
  • Course pre- and post-tests show that students are
    obtaining the information and skills for which
    courses were developed.
  • Parents who have taken the courses rate them very
    highly, saying that the courses, materials, and
    teachers are all excellent and that they would
    recommend them to others.
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