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Welcome To Radiation Safety Training

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... Medical Uses Consumers Products Industrial Uses Nuclear Power Medical Sources Diagnostic X-ray General Radiography Dental Radiography Fluoroscopy CT Etc ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Welcome To Radiation Safety Training


1
Welcome To Radiation Safety Training
Center for Health Sciences
2
OSU Radiation Safety Program
The OSU-CHS radiation safety program will be
conducted in such a manner so that exposure to
faculty, staff, students, the public, and the
environment will be maintained as low as
reasonably achievable and that no radiation
exposure will be received without societal
benefit. This will be accomplished without
impeding legitimate research, or realistic
teaching objectives in accord with State and
Federal regulations.
3
Chernobyl
Atomic Bomb
4
Radiation Environment
5
Natural Sources
  • Cosmic
  • Terrestrial
  • Internal
  • Inhaled

6
Cosmic Radiation
  • High energy particles and photons from the sun
    and other sources outside the earth's atmosphere
  • Atmosphere provides shielding from cosmic
    radiation
  • An increase in altitude results in an increase in
    exposure (measured in millirem)
  • 26 mrem/yr _at_ sea level
  • 50 mrem/yr in Denver
  • .5 mrem/hr _at_ 39,000 feet

7
Terrestrial Radiation
  • Radiation from radioactive materials occurring
    naturally in the earths crust
  • Lowest on the Atlantic coast (16 mrem/yr)
  • Highest on eastern slopes of the Rockies (63
    mrem/yr)
  • About 30 mrem/yr in the remainder of the U.S.

8
Inhaled Radiation
  • Primarily Radon (Rn-222) and its daughters
  • Rn-222 is released from the soil as Radium-226
    decays
  • Radium is part of Uranium-238 decay chain
  • Levels vary widely from area to area
  • Average dose is 200 mrem/yr
  • May be enhanced by poor ventilation or the use of
    Uranium containing building materials

9
Internal Radiation
  • Radiation from radioactive materials incorporated
    in the human body
  • Primarily Carbon-14 (C-14) and
    Potassium-40 (K-40)
  • Total dose of 39 mrem/yr (due mostly to K-40)

10
Man-Made Sources
  • Medical Uses
  • Consumers Products
  • Industrial Uses
  • Nuclear Power

11
Medical Sources
  • Diagnostic X-ray
  • General Radiography
  • Dental Radiography
  • Fluoroscopy
  • CT
  • Etc.
  • 39 mrem/yr U.S. average
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • Imaging using I-131, Tc-99m, Tl-201
  • Therapy using I-131
  • 14 mrem/yr U.S. average

12
Medical Sources (cont.)
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Use of external beams and sealed sources for
    treatment of cancers
  • 2.3 mrem/yr U.S. average

13
Industrial Sources
  • Industrial Radiography
  • Use of X-rays or sealed gamma-ray sources for
    imaging structures and components
  • Level Gauges
  • Use of sealed sources to check the level of
    materials in a tank or vat.
  • Well Logging
  • Use of sealed sources to measure soil porosity,
    soil density, or underground structure
    composition
  • Static Elimination
  • Use of radiation to remove static electricity

14
Nuclear Power
  • Doses are calculated for maximally exposed member
    of the general public
  • Uranium Mines 26-61 mrem/yr
  • Processing 1-8 mrem/yr
  • Nuclear Power Plants lt 1 mrem/yr
  • Waste Storage lt 1 mrem/yr
  • Transportation 20 mrem/yr

15
Consumer Products
  • Smoke Detectors (Am-241)
  • Tobacco Products (Pb-210 Po-210)
  • Building Materials
  • (Sheetrock gypsum board)
  • Airport Baggage Inspection (x-rays)
  • Welding Rods (Thorium)
  • Luminous Paints for watch and instrument dials
  • (H-3, Ra-226, Pm-147)

16
Consumer Products (cont.)
  • Television and VDT (Low energy x-rays)
  • Radium Hot Springs (Ra-226, Rn-222)
  • Fiesta-ware (Uranium oxide coating)

17
Contributions to the Public Dose
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