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Introduction to Quality

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Introduction to Quality Imran Hussain Project Development Costs Around 63% of software projects exceed their cost estimates. The top four reasons for this are ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Quality


1
Introduction to Quality
  • Imran Hussain

2
Project Development Costs
  • Around 63 of software projects exceed their cost
    estimates. The top four reasons for this are
  • Frequent requests for changes from users
  • Overlooked tasks
  • Users' lack of understanding of their own
    requirements
  • Insufficient user-analyst communication and
    understanding
  • (Communications of the ACM)

3
Finding Information
  • Users can only find information 42 of the time
  • (Jared Spool)

4
Finding Items
  • 62 of web shoppers give up looking for the item
    they want to buy online
  • (Zona Research)

5
Lost Sales
  • 50 of the potential sales from a site are lost
    because people cannot find the item they are
    looking for
  • (Forrester Research)

6
Software Maintenance Costs
  • 80 of software lifecycle costs occur after the
    product is released, in the maintenance phase -
    of that work, 80 is due to unmet or unforeseen
    user requirements only 20 is due to bugs or
    reliability problems.
  • (IEEE Software)

7
What is Quality?
8
Quality is conformance to specifications (British
Defense Industries Quality Assurance Panel)
9
Quality is conformance to requirements (Philip
Crosby)
10
Quality is fitness for purpose or use (Juran)
11
Quality is a predictable degree of uniformity and
dependability, at low cost and suited to the
market (Edward Deming)
12
Quality is synonymous with customer needs and
expectations (R J Mortiboys)
13
Quality is meeting the (stated) requirements of
the customer- now and in the future (Mike
Robinson)
14
Quality is the total composite product and
service characteristics of marketing,
engineering, manufacturing and maintenance
through which the product and service in use will
meet the expectations by the customer (Armand
Feigenbaum)
15
Totality of characteristics of an entity that
bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied
needs (ISO 8402 1994)
16
What is a Product?
17
Product
  • A generic term that refers to
  • Goods
  • Services
  • Failure to meet quality requirements in either
    dimension can have serious negative consequences

18
Another definition
  • The extent to which a software product exhibits
    these characteristics
  • Functionality
  • Reliability
  • Usability
  • Efficiency
  • Maintainability
  • Portability

19
Managing Quality
20
Project quality management must address both the
management of the project and the product of the
project PMBOK
21
implied needs must be turned into requirements
PMBOK
22
What is a Grade?
23
A category or rank given to entities having the
same functional use but different technical
characteristics
24
Difference between Quality and Grade
  • Software Scenario 1
  • High quality (no bugs, readable manual)
  • Low grade (limited number of features)
  • Software Scenario 2
  • Low quality (many bugs, poorly organized user
    documentation)
  • High grade (numerous features)

25
Quality Management Issues
  • Customer satisfaction
  • Conformance to requirements
  • Fitness for use
  • Prevention over inspection
  • Management responsibility

26
Quality Management Issues
  • The application of a quality management system in
    managing a process to achieve maximum customer
    satisfaction at the lowest overall cost to the
    organization while continuing to improve the
    process

27
Quality Management
  • Includes the processes required to ensure that
    the project will satisfy the needs for which it
    was undertaken
  • Includes all activities of the overall management
    function that determine the quality policy,
    objectives, and responsibilities

28
Quality Management Processes
  • Quality Planning
  • Quality Assurance
  • Quality Control

29
Quality Planning
  • Quality planning involves identifying which
    quality standards are relevant to the project and
    determining how to satisfy them

30
Quality Assurance
  • Quality Assurance is all the planned and
    systematic activities implemented within the
    quality system to provide confidence that the
    project will satisfy the relevant quality
    standards.

31
Quality Control
  • Quality Control involves monitoring specific
    project results to determine if they comply with
    relevant quality standards, and identifying ways
    to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory results

32
Prevention and Inspection
  • Prevention
  • Keeping errors out of the process
  • Inspection
  • Keeping errors put of the hands of the customer.

33
Some Misnomers and Misconceptions
  • QA
  • Testing
  • SQA
  • QC

34
References
  • PMBOK
  • An Introduction to Software Quality
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