Applying New Technologies to Old Spectrum Management Problems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Applying New Technologies to Old Spectrum Management Problems PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 453448-ZWMyZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Applying New Technologies to Old Spectrum Management Problems

Description:

Applying New Technologies to Old Spectrum Management Problems Presentation by Dale N. Hatfield Adjunct Professor, University of Colorado at Boulder – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:22
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 18
Provided by: DaleNHa2
Learn more at: http://cfp.mit.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Applying New Technologies to Old Spectrum Management Problems


1
Applying New Technologies to Old Spectrum
Management Problems
  • Presentation by
  • Dale N. Hatfield
  • Adjunct Professor, University of Colorado at
    Boulder
  • at the
  • CFP Bi-Annual Meeting
  • San Jose, CA
  • January 22-23, 2008

2
Introduction
  • Purpose
  • Outline
  • Quick Review of Spectrum Management
    Terms/Processes
  • Constraints and Criticisms of the Traditional
    Approach to Spectrum Management
  • Proposals for Reforming the Traditional Approach
  • Advances in Wireless Technology
  • Tracing One Thread of a Reform Initiative
  • Why So Little Market Progress on This
    Alternative?
  • Concluding Thoughts

3
Quick Review
  • Major Steps in Spectrum Management
  • Allocation, Service Rules, Assignment and
    Enforcement Primary and Secondary Status
  • Agencies Responsible for Spectrum Management
  • Traditional Centralized Command and Control
    Approach to Management

4
Quick Review
  • Pressures on the Resource
  • More users, more uses, greater bandwidths
  • Traditional solutions to spectrum congestion
  • Reallocation
  • Move higher in frequency
  • Increased sharing
  • Improved technology
  • More spectrally efficient technologies
    (bits/second/Hertz)
  • More frequency reuse
  • Compression
  • Focus Here on Increased Sharing (Types)

5
Constraints and Criticisms of the Traditional
Approach
  • Criticisms of the Command And Control System of
    Spectrum Management
  • Excessive rigidity
  • Stifles technical and service innovation
  • Lacks incentives for efficient use of the
    resource
  • Creates barriers to sharing
  • Erects barriers to other beneficial agreements
    and transactions
  • Invites rent seeking behavior

6
Constraints and Criticisms of the Traditional
Approach
  • Rigidities in the Allocation, Allotment, and
    Assignment of Spectrum
  • Static spectrum management results in spectrum
    going unused in the frequency, time and/space
    dimensions administrative scarcity
  • More dynamic/decentralized approaches to managing
    the resource were often hampered by equipment
    limitations
  • Under-utilization due to administrative scarcity
    and equipment constraints has been verified by
    recent spectrum occupancy measurements

7
Constraints and Criticisms of the Traditional
Approach
  • Rigidities in the Allocation, Allotment, and
    Assignment of Spectrum
  • As stated by SPTF
  • In many bands, spectrum access is a more
    significant problem than physical scarcity of
    spectrum, in large part due to legacy
    command-and-control regulation that limits the
    ability of potential users to obtain such
    access.
  • Above suggests that substantial amounts of
    spectrum capacity could be freed up by more
    dynamic and opportunistic approaches to the
    management of the resource

8
Proposals for Reforming the Traditional Approach
  • Challenges
  • Reducing rigidities in current system
  • Taking advantages of advanced technologies
  • Vision of a more flexible future
  • Competing Approaches/Models
  • Property rights/market incentive model
  • Commons or unlicensed access or license
    exempt model
  • Command and control/engineering model

9
Advances in Wireless Technology
  • Technological Advances for Reducing Past
    Constraints
  • Software Defined Radios
  • Cognitive Radios
  • Policy Based Radios
  • Intelligence at the Edge and Its Implications

10
Tracing One Thread of a Reform Initiative
  • Two Inter-related Proposals Directed at Increased
    Sharing Thru Market Forces
  • Modifying/adopting rules to allow market
    transactions a Secondary Market in spectrum
    especially lease transactions
  • Modifying/adopting equipment authorization rules
    to facilitate the regulatory approval of
    SDRs/CRs/PBRs

11
Tracing One Thread of a Reform Initiative
  • Allows Marketplace Forces to Reduce Scarcity Thru
    Increased Sharing
  • Licensed holder (lessor) of unused/lightly-used
    spectrum has legal ability and financial
    incentive to lease under-utilized spectrum
  • Entity seeking spectrum access (lessee) has
    ability to gain access to under-utilized spectrum
    by leasing needed spectrum
  • Sophisticated equipment (SDR/CR) supports such
    voluntary, market-based transactions by
    reducing/minimizing possibility of interference
    between the lessees and lessors systems

12
Tracing One Thread of a Reform Initiative
  • Notes on This Thread or Alternative
  • Sharing is voluntary and potentially cooperative
    in response to marketplace forces
  • Three aspects of the alternative
  • Legal ability (e.g. through the secondary market)
    to gain more dynamic/opportunistic access to
    under-utilized spectrum
  • Availability of approved equipment to gain more
    dynamic/opportunistic access to such spectrum
  • Actual ability to gain access to under-utilized
    spectrum using such equipment without causing
    excessive interference to existing licensee(s)

13
Tracing One Thread of a Reform Initiative
  • Status of the Initiative
  • In a series of decisions the FCC has made the
    necessary changes to its rules to permit the
    creation of a secondary market
  • It is now perfectly legal to lease under-utilized
    spectrum in many bands
  • A limited market now exists (e.g., see
    http//www.cantor.com/brokerage_services/spectrum_
    and_tower/).
  • Likewise, the FCC has modified its rules and
    processes to allow the approval of equipment that
    has the characteristics of Software Defined
    Radios/Cognitive Radios/Policy Based Radios

14
Tracing One Thread of a Reform Initiative
  • Status on the Initiative (Contd)
  • Understandably, there have been some challenging
    issues associated with involuntary or
    non-cooperative sharing (e.g., TV White Space)
    but those are largely different issues
  • For voluntary/cooperative sharing there are no
    longer regulatory barriers to such transactions
    but few secondary market lease transactions have
    actually occurred Why is that the case?

15
Why So Little Progress?
  • Possible Explanations
  • Remaining Transaction Costs
  • Convergence Fear of Creating New Competitor
    (Versus Traditional Silos)
  • Insufficient Number of Sellers/Lessors
  • Exacerbated by incentives for hoarding and the
    elimination of the spectrum cap
  • Exclusion of Government Spectrum
  • Fear of Permanent Reallocation
  • Economies of Scale/Scope and First Mover
    Advantages Make It Difficult for Any New Entrant
  • Immature Technology

16
Final Thoughts
  • Software Defined Radios/Cognitive Radios/Policy
    Based Radios have tremendous potential to solve
    the problems associated with the traditional
    command and control, centralized approach to
    spectrum management
  • Despite the lack of legal/regulatory barriers to
    the creation of a vibrant secondary market in
    spectrum to facilitate the introduction of
    SDR/CR/PBR technology and reduce the amount of
    under-utilized spectrum, the current wireless
    industry structure does not appear to create
    strong enough economic incentives for the
    voluntary introduction of such advanced systems
  • Given this lack of economic incentives,
    policy-makers may want to consider a no harm, no
    foul rule or perhaps a compulsory license
    policy to allow new entry in situations where the
    incumbents have failed to use their assigned
    spectrum efficiently

17
Contact Information
Dale N. Hatfield Adjunct Professor Interdisciplin
ary Telecommunications Program University of
Colorado at Boulder Engineering Center -
ECOT-317 Campus Box 530 Boulder, CO
80309-0530 Main Tel 1-303-492-8916 Direct Dial
1-303-492-6648 Fax 1-303-492-1112 Cell Phone
1-303-589-4546 Email dale.hatfield_at_ieee.org or
dale.hatfield_at_colorado.edu
About PowerShow.com