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Timber Wall Frame Construction


Overview Timber wall framing has developed from traditional origins but also incorporates the benefits of contemporary engineering principles Methods have also ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Timber Wall Frame Construction

Timber Wall FrameConstruction
  • Whats in this presentation
  • Overview
  • Explanation of framing members
  • Framing materials
  • Frame fabrication
  • Frame erection process

  • Timber wall framing has developed from
    traditional origins but also incorporates the
    benefits of contemporary engineering principles
  • Methods have also developed to suit factory as
    well as the traditional site based production of
    wall frames.

Click above to see a video introducing wall
Wall Framing Members
The figure below depicts the members in wall
frame construction. Each must be designed in
accordance with AS1684
Top plates take roof loads and transfer them to
studs - top plates also hold the top of the frame
Common studs
Common studs act like columns taking loads from
the top plate and transferring the loads to the
bottom plate - studs are typically 450 or 600mm
Lintels carry the load over window and door
openings, and distribute the loads to jamb studs
on either side. The larger the span and load,
the larger the lintel
Jamb studs take the load from lintels an transfer
it to the bottom plate
Noggings are placed in the mid region of the wall
height to strengthen studs by stopping them from
bowing under load i.e. a form of lateral restraint
Bottom plates take loads from the studs and
transfer the loads to the floor structures -
bottom plates also hold the bottoms of the frame
Bracing provides rigidity and stability to the
wall frames thus resisting lateral loads (e.g.
Framing Materials
  • Members sizes, bracing and tie down requirements
    are determined using AS1684
  • Types of materials used in wall framing are also
    governed by timber availability, price and
    practical issues
  • The most popular framing timber is plantation
    grown pine
  • Pine has a smooth planed surface, consistent
    thickness and is mechanically stress graded
  • The most popular size for studs and plates are 70
    or 90mm wide x 35 or 45mm deep (depending on the
    orientation of the timber)
  • Lengths can be ordered in 0.3m intervals up to
    4.8m and often to 6.0m. These sizes dont limit
    stud length but may limit plate length thus
    creating the need for multiple frame panels for
    long walls

Frame Fabrication
  • Walls are divided up into appropriately sized
    frame panels to suit simple fabrication and easy
  • Fabrication involves either
  • Cutting and fabricating stock lengths of timber
    on site (done by carpenters who do the
    calculating, design detailing, timber selection
    and labouring on site)
  • Factory fabrication where wall frames are made
    under manufacturing conditions

  • Factory fabrication is said to offer better
    process control, more efficient use of materials
    and less dependence on skilled site workers
  • Cutting on-site offers greater flexibility
    especially where plans are poor or where
    inconsistencies, mistakes and customised
    situations occur

Frame Erection Process
  • Irrespective of the method of fabrication,
    erection usually involves carpentry teams of 2-4
  • Nail guns are used extensively for fast assembly
    and connection of frames
  • Electric saws and drills are commonly used, and
    even chain saws where rough cutting is
  • Equipment may be run off portable generators if
    mains power isnt available
  • Scaffolding may be required subject to
    occupational health and safety legislation
  • The process is described step by step (as follows)

Marking Out
  • Before wall frames are erected, string lines
    coated in chalk dust are pulled taught then
    flicked to leave line markings on the floor
    where walls go
  • During the process rooms are checked for size
    and square

Standing Wall Frames
Wall frames are stood and temporarily braced
until enough framework exists to create a self
supporting structure
  • Nailing is commonly done using pneumatic nail
  • Some guns are connected to air compressors but
    newer models are cordless (therefore easier to
  • Tie down connectors may also be used where
    necessary. These are typically made from metal
    straps and require hand nailing or may be factory

Making Corners and Intersections
  • Frames need to be firmly connected
  • Timber blocks are used to connect frame panels
  • A spirit level and straight edge are used to
    adjust for plumb
  • Specific corner details are shown below

Nailing Off Bracing
Diagonal metal strap bracing
Plywood sheet bracing
  • Bracing is often nailed into a fixed position
    late in the process
  • This is to accommodate variations in floor level
    and to make adjustments arising from the plumbing
    and squaring of walls
  • Once complete, unnecessary temporary bracing can
    be removed

Straightening and Fixing Bottom Plates
  • Wall frames need to be straightened before fixing
    in their final position. This is done using a
    stringline or marks on the floor.
  • The fixings used to hold the bottom plate in
    place must also meet tie down requirements
  • The extent and type of fixing is determined by
    the design wind loads on the building and AS1684
  • Mechanical anchors (shown) are common but many
    proprietary options also exist

Fitting Windows
  • Windows are delivered late in the frame erection
    process to avoid damage and theft
  • Windows fit into wall frame openings with a
    tolerance gap on all sides
  • The top gap is left open to allow for Lintel
  • Along the bottom gap, packers are used to provide
    sill support

Cutting the Bottom Plate for Door Opening
One of the last jobs is cutting out sections of
the bottom plate for door openings. Off-cuts are
used in other parts of the framing
The Finished Wall Frame (ready for roof framing)
Click on the arrow below to end, or on an option
below to continue
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