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Information Lifecycle ???????????????


Information Lifecycle Management ILM is the practice of applying certain policies to the effective management of information throughout its useful life. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Information Lifecycle ???????????????

Information Lifecycle???????????????
  • Information today comes in wide variety of type,
    for example it could be
  • Email message
  • A photograph or
  • Online transaction processing system

  • Organization have to know the type of data and
    how it will be used
  • Understanding of what its evolution and final
    destiny is likely to be

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  • Active data
  • Active data are referenced on a regular basis
    during day-to-day business operations.

  • Data becomes active as soon as it is of interest
    to an organization. Data life cycle begins with a
    business need for acquiring data.
  • The ease of access for users to active data is an
    absolute necessity in order to run an efficient

  • Over time, this data loses its importance and is
    accessed less often, gradually losing its
    business value, and ending with its archival or

Inactive Data
  •  Data are put out to archived data once they are
    no longer active. i.e. there are no longer needed
    for critical business tasks or analysis. 
  • In past, most enterprises archived data  in
    Microfilms and tape back-ups.

Information Lifecycle Management
  • ILM is the practice of applying certain policies
    to the effective management of information
    throughout its useful life.

  • Records and Information Management (RIM)
    Professionals for over three decades manage
    information in paper or other physical forms
    (microfilm, negatives, photographs, audio or
    video recordings and other assets).

Data Life Cycle in Enterprises
  • With so much data being held, data, during its
    lifetime, the data will be moved to different
    physical location.
  • This is because depending on where it is in
    lifecycle it need to be located on the most
    appropriate storage device.

  • ILM is comprised of the policies, processes,
    practices, and tools used to align the business
    value of information with the most appropriate
    and cost effective IT infrastructure.

  • ILM includes every phase of a "record" from its
    beginning to its end.
  • During its existence, information can become a
    record by being identified as documenting a
    business transaction or as satisfying a business

  • Much recorded information may not serve a
    business need of any sort, but still serves to
    document a critical point in history or to
    document an event.
  • Examples of these are birth, death,
    medical/health and educational records.

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Phases of ILM
  • Planning
  • Creation and Receipt
  • Organization
  • Use Distribution
  • Maintenance, protection, preservation
  • Disposition
  • Evaluation

Creation and Receipt
  • Deals with records created by a member of an
    organization at varying levels or receipt of
    information from an external source.
  • It includes correspondence, forms, reports,
    drawings, computer input/output, or other

  • Libraries need a unique record of all of items
    that are added to the collection
  • For contracted resources and web resources, links
    might be provided and created for users
  • Classification and cataloguing generate records
    of documents or items together with subject
    access keys such as keyword, subject, descriptor

  • The process of managing the information once it
    has been created or received.
  • This includes both internal and external
    distribution, as information that leaves an
    organization becomes a record of a transaction
    with others.

  • Takes place after information is distributed
    internally, and can generate business decisions,
    document further actions, or serve other

  • This can include processes such as filing,
    retrieval and transfers.
  • Filing is actually the process of arranging
    information and creating a system to manage it
    for its useful existence within an organization.
  • Failure to establish a good method for filing
    information makes its retrieval and use nearly

  • Transferring information refers to the process of
    responding to requests, retrieval from files and
    providing access to users authorized by the
    organization to have access to the information.
  • While removed from the files, the information is
    tracked by the use of various processes to ensure
    it is returned and/or available to others who may
    need access to it

  • It is the practice of handling information that
    is less frequently accessed or has met its
    assigned retention periods.
  • Less frequently accessed records may be
    considered for relocation to an 'inactive records
    facility' until they have met their assigned
    retention period.

  • Retention periods are based on
  • the creation of an organization-specific
    retention schedule, and
  • legal requirements for management of information
    for the industry in which the organization

  • If the information has met all of these needs and
    is no longer considered to be valuable, it should
    be disposed of by means appropriate for the
  • This may include ensuring that others cannot
    obtain access to outdated or obsolete information
    as well as measures for protection privacy and

Technology for ILM
  • Information lifecycle Management (ILM) includes
    process, policies, software and hardware so that
    the appropriate technology can be used for each
    phase of the lifecycle of the data which makes it
    very easy to implement an ILM solution

  • Application
  • It allows various changes to be made to the data
    without any impact on the application that are
    using that data.
  • Low cost storage
  • It can take advantage of all the different types
    of storage devices and the maximum amount of data
    can be held for the lowest possible cost

  • ILM is concerned with all data that is held
    within an organization.
  • This mean not just structured data, such as
    orders in a daily transaction system or a history
    of sales in a data warehouse, but it is also
    concerned with unstructured data such as email,
    documents and images.

  • Software of ILM provides the capability to store
    unstructured data such as images and documents.
  • It includes role based security to ensure content
    is only accessed by authorized personnel and
    policies which describe what happens to the
    content during its lifetime

  • It can manage and move the data as it evolve
    during its lifetime, without having to worry
    about managing multiple types of data stores

Implementing ILM
  • Building an Information Management Lifecycle
    solution can be achieved by the following steps
  • Step 1 define the data classes
  • Step 2 create storage tiers for the data classes
  • Step 3 Create data access and migration policies
  • Step 4 define and enforce compliance policies

Step 1 define the data classes
  • The first step is to look at all the data in your
    organization, what type of data is it, where is
    stored? and determine
  • Which data is important, where is it and what
    needs to be retained
  • How this data flows within the organization

  • What happens to this data over time and is it
    still needed
  • The degree of data availability and protection
    that is needed
  • Data retention for legal and business requirements

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Step 2 Create storage tiers for data classes
  • Since IT can take advantage of all the different
    storage options that are available, the next step
    is to establish the following storage tiers
  • High performance
  • Low cost
  • Online archive
  • Offline archive (optional)

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High performance
  • The high performance storage tier is where all
    the important and frequently accessed data would
    be stored, such as the partition holding our Q1
  • This would utilize the smaller, faster disks on
    high performance storage devices.

Low cost
  • The low cost storage tier is where the less
    frequently accessed data is stored, such as the
    partitions holding the orders for Q2, Q3 and Q4.
  • This tier would be built using large capacity
    disks, such as those found in modular storage
    arrays or the low costs ATA disks, which offer
    the maximum storage inexpensively.

Online archive
  • The online archive storage tier is where all the
    data that is never or hardly accessed would be
  • It is likely to be extremely large and to store
    the maximum quantity of data on the online
    archive storage tier, various techniques can be
    used to compress the data.
  • This tier could be located in the database or it
    could be in another database, which serves as a
    central archive database for all information
    within the enterprise.

  • Stored on low cost storage devices like the ATA
    drives, the data would still be online and
    available, for a cost that is only slightly
    higher than storing this information on tape,
    without all the disadvantages that come with
    archiving data to tape.
  • If the online archive storage tier is identified
    as read-only, then it would be impossible to
    change the data and database backups would not be
    required after it is backed up the first time.

Offline archive (optional)
  • The offline archive storage tier is optional,
    because it is only used when there is a
    requirement to remove data from the database and
    store it in some other format such as on a tape

Step 3 Create data access and migration policies
  • Specify who can access the data and the
    operations they may perform and how to move the
    data during its lifetime
  • Managing access to data
  • Migrate data between class
  • Regulatory compliance

Managing access to data
  • Regulatory requirement are beginning to place
    exacting demands on how data can be accessed.
    Effective methods for controlling what authorized
    users of the database

Migrate data between classes
  • During the lifecycle of the data it will be
    necessary to move it at various times and this
    occurs for variety of reason, such as
  • For performance, only a limited number of orders
    are held on the high performance disks

  • Data is no longer frequently accessed and is
    using valuable high performance storage and needs
    to be moved to a low-cost storage device
  • Legal requirements demand that the information is
    always available for a given period of time, and
    it needs to be held safely at the lowest possible

  • Sometimes individual data items must be moved
    rather than a group of data.
  • Example, suppose data was classified according to
    a level of privacy, and a report, which was once
    secret, is now to be made available to the public.

  • If the classification changed from secret to
    public, and the data was partition on its privacy
    classification, the row would automatically move
    to the partition containing public data

  • Whenever data is moved from its original source,
    then it is very important to ensure that the
    process selected to any regulatory requirement,
  • such as the data cannot be altered, it secure
    from unauthorized access, easily readable and
    stored in an approved location

Regulatory compliance
  • The new regulatory requirement are playing a key
    role in the long term retention data because they
    are imposing strict rules on how data is held.
  • Now organizations have to protect against
    unauthorized changes and possibly show details of
    very change ever made to a record

Step 4Define and enforce compliance policies
  • The fourth step is the creation of compliance
    policies, which when data is decentralized and
    fragmented, have to be defined and enforced in
    every data location, which could easily result in
    a compliance policy. When defining compliance
    policies there are five areas to consider

  • Retention
  • Immutability
  • Privacy
  • Auditing
  • Expiration

Retention policy
  • How the data is to be retained, for how long it
    must be kept and what happens at life end such
  • Record must be stored in its original form, no
    modification are allowed, it must be kept for 7
    years and then may be deleted.

Immutability ?????????
  • Concerning with proving to an external party that
    data is complete and has not been modified.
  • Cryptographic signatures can be created and held
    either inside or outside of the database, to show
    that data has not been altered or tampered in any

  • Access to data can be strictly controlled using
    security policies defined, which define exactly
    which information a user may see

  • Which specifies the criteria for when audit
    record should be generated, such as, someone
    tried to change a salary or attempted to alter a
    processed order.

  • Ultimately, data may expire for business or
    regulatory reasons and its need to be removed
    from the database. Since that can involve
    removing vast quantities, such as all the orders
    for 1999, the database can remove data very
    quickly and efficiently by simply dropping the
    partition, which contains the information
    identified for removed

  • Information lifecycle management for business
    data, An oracle white paper, June 2007