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Water Fluoridation Harmful to Health, Ineffective

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DENTAL FLUOROSIS Caused by F- damage to tooth-forming cells. Original claim that 1 ppm F- would only produce mild mottling in 10% of people. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Water Fluoridation Harmful to Health, Ineffective


1
Water FluoridationHarmful to Health, Ineffective
Unethical
  • Dr Mark Diesendorf
  • Sustainability Centre Pty Ltd
  • and Institute of Environmental Studies, UNSW
  • Web www.sustainabilitycentre.com.au

2
WHAT IS FLUORIDATION?
  • Most water supplies contain 0.1 to 0.2 ppm of
    fluoride (F- ) naturally.
  • Fluoridation increases the natural F-
    concentration to 1 ppm (i.e. 5 to 10 times
    natural level). It is not a small adjustment.
  • Purpose is to try to reduce tooth decay.
  • Some well water and bore water supplies contain 1
    ppm or more naturally.
  • Fluoridation is mass medication.

3
FLUORIDATION IS MASS MEDICATION
  • Fluoridation is administered to treat people, not
    to make water safer to drink. So it is a
    medication.
  • Medical dictionaries and practice establish that
    preventive medicines are medicines.
  • F- in mg/day doses is not an essential nutrient.
  • Natural substances may be medicines e.g.
    penicillin, digitalis, salicylates,
    radioisotopes, etc.
  • Mass medication violates two principles of
    medical ethics.

4
VIOLATIONS OF MEDICAL ETHICS
  • Principle of informed consent to medication
  • Principle of controlled dose.

5
DAILY F- DOSE IS NOT CONTROLLED
  • Even when F- concentration is controlled (e.g. at
    1 ppm), daily dose (mg/day) cannot be.
  • Large variations in tap-water intake. In
    fluoridated areas, high F- intake groups are
  • - formula-fed infants get 100x dose of
    breast-fed infants
  • - young children who drink mostly soft drinks
  • - labourers and athletes
  • - people with diabetes insipidus, kidney
    disease, etc.
  • - heavy tea drinkers get double dose.

6
WHICH COUNTRIES ARE MORE THAN 50 FLUORIDATED?
  • Only USA
  • Australia
  • New Zealand
  • Ireland
  • Singapore
  • Columbia
  • Malaysia
  • Israel

7
INDUSTRIAL WASTE AS MEDICATIONPure fluoride is
dangerous enough, but
  • Most water supplies are fluoridated with waste
    from phosphate fertiliser industry.
  • Contains traces of arsenic, lead other toxics.
  • Never subjected to chronic safety tests in
    animals.

Manufacture of phosphate fertiliser
8
DOES FLUORIDATION REDUCE TOOTH DECAY?
Only one point of agreement between pro- and
anti- cases
  • Big reductions in tooth decay occurred in most
    industrialised countries in 1960s and 70s.
  • But they occurred in both unfluoridated and
    fluoridated countries.
  • What was the cause? Reductions occurred before F-
    toothpaste was widely used.

9
TOOTH DECAY IN SYDNEY, 1961-1972, (fluoridated
1968)
1968
Source Lawson et al. (1978)
10
THE MYSTERY OF DECLINING TOOTH DECAY
Diesendorf M 1986, Nature 322 125-129
  • Abstract
  • Large temporal reductions in tooth decay, which
    cannot be attributed to fluoridation, have been
    observed in both unfluoridated and fluoridated
    areas of at least 8 developed countries over the
    past 30 years. It is now time for a scientific
    re-examination of the alleged enormous benefits
    of fluoridation.

11
DOES F- REDUCE TOOTH DECAY?
  • There are no randomised controlled trials to
    determine the benefits of fluoridated water.
  • Reductions claimed for fluoridated water of up
    to 50 (ADA) are flawed by inadequate design
    (see critiques by Drs Philip Sutton, John
    Colquhoun, and Mark Diesendorf).
  • Some large studies find negligible or even no
    benefits (e.g.Armfield Spencer 2004)

12
Jason M. Armfield and A. John Spencer 2004,
Consumption of nonpublic water implications for
childrens caries experience, Community
Dentistry Oral Epidemiology, 32 283
  • The effect of consumption on nonpublic water on
    permanent caries experience was not significant.

Now the pro-fluoridation authors claim that their
result is being taken out of context!
13
WHO ORAL HEALTH IN 12 YEAR-OLDS (DMFT)
DMFT
Not fluoridated
gt50 fluoridated
25-50 fluoridated?
14
AVERAGE TOOTH DECAY IN 10-YEAR-OLDS BY CAPITAL
CITY, 1977 1987
School Dental Service data (Diesendorf, 1990).
All cities except Brisbane fluoridated for at
least 10 years by 1987.
15
HOW DOES FLUORIDE ACT ON THE TEETH?
  • Early notion that ingested F- was incorporated in
    tooth structure and strengthened it. WRONG!
  • Nowadays mechanism predominantly topical
    (surface) even pro-fluoridation US Centers for
    Disease Control admit this.
  • So, people are being misled that they have to
    ingest fluoridated water.

16
DENTAL FLUOROSIS
  • Caused by F- damage to tooth-forming cells.
  • Original claim that 1 ppm F- would only produce
    mild mottling in 10 of people.
  • Actually 50 of people mottled not only mild.

Mild dental fluorosis
17
DENTAL FLUOROSISModerate and Severe
Categories
lt-- Photo Hardy Limeback DDS
Pitting
Photo John Colquhoun BDS, PhD --gt
18
SKELETAL FLUOROSIS IN NATURALLY FLUORIDATED
REGIONS e.g. INDIA, CHINA
  • Occurs at F- concentrations as low as 0.7 ppm.
  • F- accumulates in bone, adding mass but
    destroying structure.
  • X-rays show structural damage to bones, and
    calcification of joints and ligaments.
  • Mild skeletal fluorosis has similar symptoms to
    arthritis.
  • Prevalence of arthritis increasing in USA and
    Australia.
  • Could some arthritis actually be early stage of
    fluorosis?
  • .

19
HIP FRACTURES IN THE AGED
  • Disabling may be fatal.
  • Cumulative lifetime F- dose exceeds dose where
    osteoporosis patients developed hip fractures.
  • Majority of epidemiological studies find more hip
    fractures in fluoridated areas.
  • In China, fracture rate doubled _at_ 1.5 ppm and
    tripled _at_ 4.3 ppm.

20
INTOLERANCE or HYPERSENSITIVITY
  • Large body of clinical reports, e.g. by Waldbott,
    Grimbergen, Petraborg, and Feltman Kosel.
  • Several blind double-blind studies.
  • Symptoms include excessive fatigue thirst,
    stomach ache, muscular weakness.
  • Never followed up by proponents.

Dr George Waldbott
21
BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
  • F- is highly active biologically, not inert.
  • In lab., F- inhibits enzymes induces genetic
    changes increases uptake of aluminium by
    brain.
  • In lab., AlFx complexes disrupt G-proteins. This
    could change homeostasis, metabolism, growth
    differentiation of living organisms. (NEW)
  • F- concentrates in pineal gland causing earlier
    onset of puberty in animals. (NEW)

22
SUMMARY RISKS OF FLUORIDATION
Well established in humans Dental fluorosis Skeletal fluorosis
Probable in humans Hypersensitivity/intolerance reactions Hip other bone fractures Arthritis early stage of skeletal fluorosis Interference with thyroid function
Possible, based on lab. animal expts, but so far not proven in humans Genetic damage in lab experiments Brain damage in animals Many diseases involving biological signalling Chronic poisoning from traces of toxics
23
CAN SIMILAR BENEFITS BE OBTAINED WITH LESS RISK
BY OTHER METHODS?
  • It is possible to have low caries without F
    intake
  • e.g. Australian Aborigines on original diet
    Hopewood orphanage Australia in 1950s most of EU
    today.
  • Public health officials can influence childrens
    diet, e.g. by public education and
    controls on foods sold in school shops
    canteens.
  • Daily, supervised F toothbrushing and/or rinsing
    (at say 2 ppm) programs in elementary schools are
    low-risk (for children older than 5 years) and
    assist low-income groups.

24
FORCES PUSHING FLUORIDATION
  • F-, a major pollutant from aluminium smelting,
    gains healthy image.
  • Dentists gain status in public health.
  • Sugary food industry gains from notion that
    fluoridation protects teeth, whatever junk food
    ingested.
  • Phosphate fertiliser industry sells waste
    silicofluoride to water authorities.

Fluoridation is not a conspiracy, just
conjunction of vested interests!
25
POLITICAL EQUITY ASPECTS
  • The principal risk factors for dental caries are
    poverty and poor diet, not the absence of
    fluoridation.
  • Governments use fluoridation to justify cuts to
    dental health programs for school children
    aged.
  • They cynically peddle myth that fluoridation
    helps the poor.
  • But the poor have highest prevalence of dental
    caries, with or without fluoridation (even in
    Sydney).
  • The poor ingest a chronic poison that they cannot
    afford to avoid.
  • The poor are more susceptible to fluoride-induced
    diseases.
  • Governments use fluoridation to distract
    attention away from real causes of tooth decay
    that are politically too hard.

26
CONCLUSION
  • Fluoridation is mass medication with uncontrolled
    dose. Unethical.
  • Negligible benefit from ingesting F- .
  • At best fluoridated water, acting at tooth
    surfaces, reduces tooth decay in a fraction of 1
    of tooth surfaces.
  • Ingestion of F- damages teeth via dental
    fluorosis and damages bones via skeletal
    fluorosis and hip fractures.
  • Worrying biological effects and lab animal
    experiments.
  • Chronic toxicity from impurities in
    silicofluoride wastes from phosphate fertiliser
    industry.
  • Given this evidence, Local and State Govts would
    be socially irresponsible and open to litigation
    for supporting fluoridation.

27
FURTHER READING
  • Web site of of Fluoride Action Network, convened
    by Dr Paul Connett, Professor of Chemistry, St
    Lawrence University, USA www.fluoridealert.org
  • Mark Diesendorf, 2003, A kick in the teeth for
    scientific debate, Australasian Science volume
    24, no. 8, pp 35-37, September.(A referenced
    version may be downloaded from www.sustainbilityce
    ntre.com.au/FluoridePublics.html)
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